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of some queries I asked in 4th S. ix. 148, of which two were kindly answered. May I ask again, Who was Robinson the cracksman, and in the royal cortège" at the accession of Louis Philippe ?

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SITWELL STOTEVILLE (7th S. iii. 27, 154, 314, 397, 505).-It would be wasting time to discuss the question, if it can be called a question, whether "the base of modern German has any connexion with that of ancient Gothic." When MR. PYM "ANOTHER GUESS (7th S. iii. 451).-Gold-science in which he undertakes to instruct one of YEATMAN has acquired the rudiments of the smith uses this expression either in the Vicar' its greatest masters, he will discover that PROF. or the Essays,' but I have not the reference. SKEAT is, as usual, altogether in the right. This Another classical authority is Mr. Trollope, who writes: "Now Adela Gauntlet is no more than himself, has, in his hurry, misquoted my note and "rash young man," as he very properly describes my donna prima. My donna primissima will be has failed to understand PROF. SKEAT'S masterly another guess sort of lady altogether" ("The Bertrams,' chap. iv.).

Hastings.

EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.

This expression is duly given in Dr. Murray's 'New English Dictionary,' and is explained as a corrupt form of "another gates." F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.

See 'N. & Q.,' 6th S. xii. 298, second column.
R. H. BUSK.

WORDSWORTH: "VAGRANT REED" (7th S. iii. 449). Surely this means the wanderer's walkingstick, a valuable support and "solace"; but he must also sit down now and then, or he will not get over his ground. C. B. M.

"Vagrant reed," or cane, means a walking-stick,

which is of little use to those who are tired. JOHN HALLIDAY.

NOCTURNAL NOISES (7th S. ii. 367; iii. 132).— The following noises are heard at night in the region of C. S. Antonio, Buenos Aires :

Tero real (Himantopus brasiliensis).—These fly in packs at night, and utter a cry somewhat like that of a pack of small hounds. There is a similar bird in Europe, whose cry is supposed to have given rise to the traditions of infernal packs hunting their ghostly quarry in the still small hours.

Viuda loca (Aramus scolopaceus), of the ibis tribe. Its melancholy wail ascends all night from the dismal swamps.

Prairie owl (Pholeoptyna cunicularia).—Has a special cry at night, bearing a striking resemblance to the faintly heard hail of some shepherd.

little article.

ISAAC TAYLOR.

MR. YEATMAN appears to have forgotten that at the first reference I asked him to produce evidence Feudal History of the County of Derby,' that of a statement, conspicuously made by him in 'The Sitwell and Stoteville are forms of the same name. This he declined to do, on the ground that he would thereby "spoil one of the best chapters" in a forthcoming book. Subsequently, however, and especially at the last reference, he has freely and fully expressed his opinion as to the derivation of the word Stoteville, which is not at all the point in question, and he thanks DR. CHARNOCK and CANON TAYLOR for answering his " query as to the derivation of this name." The query was not MR. YEATMAN'S, but mine; and that query might have been answered with less trouble and in less space than it has taken to discuss matters which are irrelevant to the point at issue.

A county history should be a book in which one would expect to meet with some degree of accuracy; and if, for example, the author of such a book were to make the statement that Shakespeare and Breakespeare are variants of the same name, he would naturally be called upon to produce evidence in support of such an opinion.

MR. YEATMAN is in the position of a party in an action to whom a written interrogatory has been exhibited, which he is bound to answer on pain of having his case struck out. If he fails to answer, the judgment of your readers must be that the statement was a guess, unsupported by any evidence, documentary or philological. I hope, therefore, that he will, for his own satisfaction, if not for the satisfaction of those who desire to know the truth of things, briefly indicate the grounds on which the statement is made. S. O. ADDY.

Biscacha (Lagostomus trichodactylus).—A prairie dog, indigenous; has a bark. Vide, for further particulars on above, Ibis, 4th S., Nos. 12, 13, and 14, and Proceedings of the Nat. Hist. Society" of Glasgow, January 9, 1877.

Added to these I might mention the tree frog, the common silver fox, and the occasional restless

twittering of the tree sparrow. Lastly, the inane
baying of the native domestic dog, an animal
always thin, always bellicose, of no earthly use,
and whose name is legion.
H. GIBSON.
Edinburgh.

Sheffield. Conf. Zedler ('Univ. Lex.') under "Stuttgard," Stutgard," 66 Stutgardia"; Meyer ('Conversations Lex.') under "Stuttgart "; Murray's 'Handbook to Southern Germany; Chaucer's stot; Ducange and Wachter under "Stuot" and "Stut" respectively.

R. S. CHARNOCK.

MR. YEATMAN says "Stutgart was so called centuries before the Dukes of Wurtemberg," &c. Now the capital of Wurtemberg is always spelt

Stuttgart. Merian spells it thus in a famous quotation: "Im Fall dass man die Weintrauben ringsweiss umb Stuckgart nicht abläse, die Statt im Wein ersaufen würde." EDWARD R. VYVYAN.

BARONESS BELLASIS OF OSGODBY, LINCOLNSHIRE, 1674 (6th S. xi. 188; 7th S. iii. 418, 477).— CUTHBERT BEDE will find a portrait of Susan Armine, Lady Bellasis, at Hampton Court, where it is mistakenly called Lady Byron. The almost entire absence of beauty confirms this assumption, which is the opinion of both Virtue and Walpole, She obtained a promise of marriage from James II. when Duke of York, after the death of Anne Hyde; she is said to have been his mistress. He procured for her the title of Baroness Bellasis of Osgodby for life, she having been the heiress of the Armines of that place. He also persuaded her to become a Roman Catholic. She was the second wife of Sir Henry Bellasis, son of John, Lord Bellasis, and nephew of the Earl of Fauconberg, Cromwell's sonin-law. She died in 1713, having in middle life married one Fortrey, a "gentleman of fortune." WILLIAM DEANE.

Hintlesham Rectory, Ipswich. If your correspondents had taken the trouble to consult 'The Complete Peerage,' now being edited by G. E. C., and published in the Genealogist, they would have found the date of death and place of burial of the above lady.

ALFRED SCOTT GATTY, York Herald.

TO RALLY (7th S. iii. 126).—It may not be too late to give a quotation of this word older than Mr. Goschen's address, but used in the same

sense:

appeared of consulting any French etymologist about it; but I have asked several diligent readers (both French and English) of French newspapers, who all support my impression that for the last twenty years, at least, it has been constantly adopted in journalistic language, if not by the most serious writers.

the Athenaeum tries to poke fun at English people The writer of the anonymous communication to who dabble in French, and though he gives one instance which is funny enough, he will hardly find support in calling "wagonette" an unjustifiable His other application of a French termination. instances, "leatherette" and "leaderette," are stances of misuse of French words and phrases by unknown to me. No doubt there are many inEnglish writers, though hardly so many, nor such absurd ones, as are to be found in the attempted adoption of English words by French people N. & Q.,' 7th S. i. 451; ii. 430); but I cannot these; on the contrary, it must be reckoned one think nom de plume can be set down as one of of those happy hits which only a foreigner sometimes has the luck to light upon ('N. & Q.,' 6th S. vi. 297), and the writer quite misappreciates it in treating it as a misnomer for nom de guerre, as there is a pronounced nuance of difference between the two designations. R. H. BUSK.

ARABELLA CHURCHILL (7th S. iii. 508).—Is it not written in the book of the chronicles of 'N. & Q.' (5th S. iv. 488; v. 14) that the name of Arabella Churchill's youngest child was also Arabella, and that she died at Pontoise, Nov. 7, 1704, aged thirty? C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. The Cottage, Fulbourn, Cambridge,

"Lord John Russell proposed a series of resolutions ARMS OF SIR FRANCIS DRAKE PRIOR TO 1581 by which it was hoped the breaches which had arisen (7th S. iii. 495).-Is it likely that Sir Francis between Upper and Lower Canada would be healed. Drake was entitled to bear arms prior to 1581 ? These propositions were fiercely attacked, but Mr. Glad- In Prince's Worthies of Devon' it is stated that stone, amongst others, rallied to the support of the "his father was a minister," and in a note at the Government."-Life of the Right Hon. W. E. Glad-end of the article it is stated that "in a recent stone, by G. Barnett Smith (1879), vol. i. p. 85.

ROBERT F. Gardiner.

"NOM DE PLUME" (7th S. iii. 348).-As after a lapse of several weeks no reply has been sent to MR. BOUCHIER's interesting inquiry, I will make a reference to a statement which appeared in the Athenæum of April 19, 1884, p. 505, on the subject, in which it is positively stated that the expression is an entirely English invention. As this is only signed by an anonymous "French Journalist," it does not seem absolutely satisfactory. On the other hand, during a lapse of nearly three years it appears to have remained uncontradicted. Nevertheless it seems to me to be too good to be true that an English person should have hit on so serviceable an expression in a foreign language, and one that has certainly been found serviceable by the French. I have not had the opportunity since the query

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Baronetage the father of Sir Francis Drake is said, but without any authority being cited for it, to have been a sailor, by name Edmond Drake." In Prince's Life' of Sir Bernard Drake is the following account of the bestowal of arms on Sir Francis:

"About this time it was, that there fell out a contrast between Sir Bernard, and the immortal Sir Francis Drake; chiefly occasioned by Sir Francis, his assuming Sir Bernard's coat of arms, not being able to make out his descent from his family, a matter in those days, when the court of honor was in more honor, not so easily digested. The feud hereupon encreased to that degree, that Sir Bernard, being a person of a high spirit, gave Sir Francis a box on the ear; and that within the verge of the court. For which offence he incurr'd her Majesty's displeasure; and most probably, it prov'd the occasion coat of everlasting honor, to himself and posterity for of the Queen's bestowing upon Sir Francis Drake, a new ever; which hath relation to that glorious action of his, the circumnavigating the world: which is thus em

blazon'd by Guillim, Diamond a fess wavy between the two pole-stars Artick and Antartick pearl; as before. And what is more his crest is, A ship on a globe under ruff, held by a cable rope, with a hand out of the clouds; in the rigging whereof, is hung up by the heels, a Wivern gul. Sir Bernard's arms; but in no great honour, we may think, to that knight, though so design'd to Sir Francis. Unto all which, Sir Bernard boldly reply'd, That though her Majesty could give him a nobler, yet she could not give an antienter coat than his.'"

Prince then states how Sir Bernard met his death by taking the gaol fever at Exeter, and adds: "Sir Bernard it seems, had strength enough to recover home to his house at Ash, but not enough to overcome the disease; for he died thereof soon after, and was buried in his church of Musbury, an. 1585, in an isle of which, are several monuments, but, I think, no epitaphs; his effigy is there in statue."

This in an error which I have seen repeated in other accounts of Sir Bernard, the fact being that he died and was buried at Crediton (about seven miles from Exeter), but his monument is at Musbury, as stated by Prince.

HENRY DRAKE.

THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OF PHILOLOGY (7th S. ii. 445; iii. 161, 277, 315, 411).-Personally, I must thank CANON TAYLOR for his courteous and temperate reply, though I think his whole case weak.

1. Why resort to Germanisms like ursprache and urvolk? (a) Ur="original" is an inseparable particle, prefixed and taken directly from the Lat. orior; so Anglice "primitive speech," we might say "uptongue" but that it would increase Dr. Murray's labours. (b) As to urvolk, it is our "aborigines," and such people never can be identified till you define the country intended. The first process is an ethnological inquiry for the man," Adam," who first spoke; the second process is to analyze his speech, when found.

but always metamorphic. In this way Gaulish became Romance; but the Canon's illustration is most unhappy. That hereditary pennist refers French rouler to an imaginary "roul." This is the very pity of it, for the transition is clear and needs no intermediate root, thus: Lat. rota, late rotulare; Provençal rotlar, rolar; French roler, rouler. See Scheler. Why confuse matters with a needless hypothesis when the disappearance of the t explains it all? Then, as to the equation given, viz., "ro, ra, re, rhy, ari=ar!" one cannot help thinking of the Misses Scales, who are always practising "next door." This imaginary Aryan root ar is only the common Indic verb ar rî rinẩmi, which has given us the Latin orior; while the allied form ar ri arami gives us the Latin rota.

4. Before parting with this subject, which I fear may prove tedious to many and too diffuse for the editorial limits of space, I would_call attention to the spread of language by lateral_extension. We know it has gone on in Alsace-Lorraine, where French supplanted German; and it is easily paralleled elsewhere-as, for instance, by the decay of Welsh in that province, and of Irish and Gaelic in the sister isle and Scottish Highlands; 80 that the ethnic is always in conflict with the philologic aspect of the question in our search for the great Aryan ursprache. A. HALL.

A PAIR OF KIDDERMINSTER SWANNS (7th S.
iii. 405).-Eliza Swann's charm to stop the bleed-
ing from a wound is given in Mr. W. Henderson's
'Folk-lore of the Northern Counties' (p. 169, ed.
1879), but in somewhat different words:-
To Stop Bleeding.

Our Saviour Christ was born in Bethlehem,
And was baptized in the river of Jordan;
The waters were mild of mood,

The Child was meek, gentle, and good,
He struck it with a rod and still it stood,
And so shall thy blood stand,

In the name, &c.

Say these words thrice, and the Lord's Prayer once. The charm is said to be used in the neighbourhood of Dartmoor. Cf. also Mr. W. G. Black's 'Folk-Medicine,' p. 76.

2. The term Aryan is delusive, because it presupposes the qualities predicated of an unknown result. The Canon suggests two localities for inquiry: (a) the aborigines of the Baltic; this is exclusively ethnological, and we know that if so-called Aryan they must have been Sclavonic, representing a western extension of the Sarmatii. (b) The Baikals of Siberia, on the contrary, were UralF. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. Altaics, i. e., the Scythians of Herodotus, the MOTTO OF WATERTON FAMILY (7th S. iii. 452). Turanians of Dr. Hyde Clarke, all migratory-A change of single letter will make good nomads. So, when we have thus found our sense of it," Better kinde frend than fremd kinde." aboriginal Aryan, and duly scratched him, we shall Fremd is" stranger " in Anglo-Saxon as in modern meet with an agglutinative or monosyllabic form German. J. CARRICK MOORE. of speech, not now recognized as Indo-European. What, then, becomes of our Aryan ursprache, which presupposes an incorporating, a synthetic or inflectional form of speech?

3. As to roots. I prefer a geological rather than a biological illustration, holding that languages underlie and overlie each other, cropping up here, disappearing there, in regular lines of stratification-nothing permanent or continuous,

Is not this "Better kind frende than fremd

kind "fremit kinunkind kindred?

HERMENTRUDE.

SCARLETT ANGLIN (7th S. ii. 428, 515; iii. 461). The extracts from Sir John Maclean's 'History of Trigg Minor,' given by MR. GOODRIDGE are not the earliest notices of the Scarlett family in England. They were settled earlier in Kent,

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In Randolph's' Archipelago,' 1687, there is an account of a storm in 1683 in which two ships from New England found themselves. One went ashore in Mount's Bay; the other, although in great distress, reached Plymouth Sound in safety (pp. 98-108).

W. C. B.

he gives us in the beginning of his work an epitome of the geography of the world, as men then understood it, which, though almost entirely a compilation from other books which have come down to us, gives an interesting picture of what men in the fourteenth century thought our world was like. In the second, Higden has had the good fortune to be translated into English by two different persons. John Trevisa, the Cornishman, who became chaplain to Thomas, Lord Berkeley, who died in 1416, and another unknown author. Both these English writers have made some additions to the text that was consists in the good prose style which they wrote. It before them, but the value of their labours mainly now was believed that eight volumes would be sufficient to contain the whole of the three texts of the 'Polychronicon,' but John Malverne's Latin continuation has been discovered. This hitherto unknown document, with the glossary and indices, compose the volume before us. Malverne's chronicle does not add any facts of first-class importance to the knowledge which we those who endeavour to write history accurately will already possess, but it is full of minute touches which know how to value. Some of his statements must have been made, we think, on insufficient information. Wat Tyler is called John, not Walter, and Ball, the fanatical preacher, figures as Balne. This latter may possibly be the correct form. Surnames were in a fluent condition in those days. Men who had the luxury of possessing one were careless as to spelling so long as the sound was nearly right; but the Christian name was a sacred thing, in which no error was likely to occur. In the war with Scotland, in 1384, we are told that the Duke of Lancaster saved the Abbey of Melrose and the city of Edinburgh from destruction. If this be true, it casts a favourable light on the character of one of whom modern historians have been but too ready to think evil. There are many horrible details as to the cruelties practised upon a Car

doubt were without foundation, against the duke. The

Does W. S. B. H. know that there was a lead-melite friar, who had brought charges, which we do not ing article in the Times of May 17, 1882, on the above? I cut it out at the time and pasted it in my book of newspaper extracts, and cannot, unfortunately, send or offer to copy it.

M.A.Oxon.

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varied tortures the wretch underwent are too horrible to think of. If the duke was really privy to what was being done, his worst enemies could not give him too bad

a character. We believe, however, that he was not aware of these horrors until it was too late to intervene. We are told that the duke was displeased when he heard of what had taken place, but not until the unhappy Carmelite" ab hac instabili luce migravit et in pace quievit." Nearly one-half of this volume is occupied by the glossary to the whole of the nine volumes and the indices. These latter we have not tested, but we have carefully examined the glossary. It seems to be as nearly perfect as such a work can be. Readers who have the advantage of possessing the book on their own shelves will do well to consult it whenever the modern dictionaries are at fault as to a medieval Eng

lish word. Unless we are much mistaken, there are

not a few words to be met with here which have not
hitherto found their way into any dictionary whatsoever.
We wonder how many of our readers are aware that
there were base and spurious coins called "rosaries."
The Latin of Higden's text is "rosarios," which Du
Fresne explains as "monetæ adulterinæ." We wish
some one would be more explicit, and tell us exactly
what these deceitful coins were like. Had they a rose
or a string of prayer beads on them?

The Family of Brocas of Beaurepaire and Roche Court.
With some Account of the English Rule in Aquitaine.
By Montague Burrows, Capt. R.N., M.A., F.S.A.
(Longmans & Co.)

THIS is one of the most interesting family histories ever
published, and it was indeed fortunate that the chest

a special purpose. There is, of course, no finality; and a book such as this is capable of almost indefinite extension. The standpoint from which the various articles are written is, as was to be supposed, that of the Church of England. Very judicious steering is, of course, necessary. Reference, however, to such lives as Pusey, Stanley, Colenso, Wesley, and to such even more dangerous headings as "Eternal Punishment," shows that the whole is written with tact and right feeling. Some questions sent to N. & Q.' might be avoided by a reference to these pages.

containing these deeds came into the hands of one so fitted to bring them before the public in the manner they deserve. The beginning of the preface is more like the opening of a novel than the introduction to a work of antiquarian value. We are told that a chest of English oak, made some time in the fifteenth century, was discovered, containing "some six hundred deeds and papers, commencing with the De Roches' property in 1271, taking up that of the De Brocas in 1320, proceeding continuously through the ages till the Gardiners succeeded to the Brocas estates, and ending abruptly enough in 1782." It is impossible to estimate too highly the value of a find of this kind, nor can we, in such a limited space, do London Life seen with German Eyes. By Wilhelm F, justice to the way in which the work of arranging and Ir is always edifying to read what foreigners say of us. Brand. (Field & Tuer.) Mr. Brand writes goodnaturedly, and displays some acuteness of vision. For English readers, however, his book is too charged with statistics. When, however, propos to dinner parties, we read that the special English soups are ox-tail, mulligatawny, and cayenne, and that the heavy sherry which accompanies them is of the information is not, to say the least, out of date. "chiefly manufactured in Liverpool," we marvel if some

putting in order these deeds has been done.

Prof. Burrows has been unwearied in his endeavours to trace out the whole history of each member of the family of De Brocas, and Boswell himself never took more pains to record every fact in the life of his hero than have been taken to verify and make out the smallest details about the most obscure member of this great house. Castles, tombs, monumental brasses, churches, houses, plans, and seals are all engraved, so that we may, in so far as it be possible, see what manner of men the De Brocases were. There are no fewer than twentyfour seals engraved, some of them most curious specimens of early art. One, the seal of Elys de Ruede, 1334, is a wonderfully beautiful thing, and looks as if it might have been impressed on the wax but yesterday. It is almost needless to state that every authority that is quoted has the reference given, so that all may verify the facts for themselves. There is, however, one statement that we should much like to be able to gain more information about. Prof. Burrows is speaking of Sir Pexil Brocas (p. 222), who died in 1630, and he says of him: "He exhibited his love of a jest as much as his vanity in retaining a professional jester, said to be the last case of the sort in any English private family." What is the authority for this? We do not doubt the statement, but we should like to be able to prove it. The portrait of this jester is still preserved, and some one of a later generation has inscribed it with the words, "Hodge, Jester to Sir Pexil Brocas, of Beaurepaire." We wish very much that it had been engraved for this book. Prof. Burrows says: "It is the face of a rough, humorous fellow, something like an old-fashioned innkeeper." To turn from

Howard's Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica an elaMR. BURKE, Somerset Herald, is compiling for Dr. borate pedigree of the Darwin family. Many valuable which will enable the compiler to make this important documents have been lent by members of the family, genealogy most complete. It will be illustrated with woodcuts of signatures, including those of Sir Francis Darwin, Dr. Erasmus Darwin, Charles Darwin, Josiah Wedgwood, and many others. A few copies will be struck off on quarto paper for private circulation.

Notices to Correspondents.

We must call special attention to the following notices: ON all communications must be written the name and address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith,

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately.
To secure insertion of communications correspondents

the merely family history to the part of the book that must observe the following rule. Let each note, query,

gives an account of the English rule in Aquitaine. Here
we get a stirring picture of the events that make the
reign of Edward III. one of the most glorious on record.
It was a great and terrible loss for this country that the
Black Prince did not live to carry on the work so grandly
begun. Prof. Burrows says that his death and that of
Henry V. caused the most bitter feelings of disappoint-
ment and distress that England has ever felt. With the
exception of that of Cromwell, whose death brought
absolute chaos, no other deaths have ever had such evil
effects on the country, so far as we can judge. Those
persons who delight in working out the answers to
questions such as, What would have been the effect on
the kingdom had Edward VI. lived?-may, perhaps, be
able to tell us which of the two caused the greatest un-
happiness to the country. We are not able to give an
opinion on such a complex matter. We can only add
that we are sure that all of us who have any feeling of
reverence for the past will delight in this account of the
Brocas family.

The Dictionary of Religion. Edited by the Rev. William
Benham, B.D., F.S.A. (Cassell & Co.)

THIS work was begun by the late Rev. J. H. Blunt, and
completed by the present editor. It serves admirably

or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."

MANIGETZ.-The World Displayed' is a collection of voyages and travels selected from writers of all nations. It was published in 20 vols., Lond., 1759 et seq., with a preface by Dr. Samuel Johnson. A third edition, also in 20 vols., appeared in 1767, and a fourth in 1774.

LELAND NOEL ("Origin of the Name of Waverley "). -As to Scott's choice of this word, and its association with Waverley Abbey, near Farnham, see 3rd S. v. 176. J. M. DONOVAN.-The heir apparent in such a case would be the eldest son of the Prince of Wales.

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