History of England;

From the earliest TIMES,


Restoration of King CHARLES II.


NALS of both HOUSES, the public LIBRARIES, original MA-
NUSCRIPTS, fcarce SPEECHES, and TRACTS; all compared
with the feveral Contemporary WRITERS, and connected,
throughout, with the Hiftory of the Times.




From the Acceffion of King Henry IV. to the Death of King Henry VII.


Printed for J. and R. TONSON, and A. MILLAR, in the Strand; and

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T may well be faid that Henry IV. be- The Acceffioh of gan his Reign at the Inftant King Rich- King Henry IV, ard was committed Prifoner to the

Tower; for we do not find that he ever
did one Act of State afterwards 2.


new-elected King did not claim the Crown by that Right only, as judging it too precarious; but trumped up a much worse Title to it, by drawing his Pedigree from Edmund, furnamed Crouchback, as eldeft Son of King Henry III. when it was then, and is now, notorious, that the faid Edmund was only fecond Son to Henry III. On the Day of his Coronation, however, he took more Strings to his Bow; and by Proclamation, then made, he claimed the Crown of England, Firft, By Conqueft; Secondly, Becaufe King Richard had refigned that Dignity, and defigned him for



a The laft that we find, in the Public Acts, is dated at Westminster, September 20, the Day before he was fent to the Tower,

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King Henry IV. for his Succeffor; and, laftly, Because he was of the Blood Royal, and next Heir Male unto King Richard. We fhall not difpute any further the Validity of any of these Titles: The ftrongest Arm then carried it; but there was another Perfon then in Being, who, after the Death of King Richard without Iffue, had been publickly proclaimed Heir Apparent to the Crown. This was Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, Son to Roger Mortimer, flain in Ireland, who was defcended from Lionel Duke of Clarence, elder Brother to John Duke of Lancaster, King Henry's Father, by his Mother Phillipa, only Daughter and Heir to the faid Lionel.

And therefore, fays another Hiftorian, the faid Ed• mund thought himself nearer Heir Male to the Succeffion of the Crown, as indeed he was, than he that, by Colour of Right claiming it, carried it by Dint of Sword.' But this Earl well confidered that the Torrent of the Times was far too impetuous for him to withstand, and therefore wifely withdrew himself from all public Affairs to his Caftle and Barony of Wigmore, in Herefordshire, where he lived a private Life for feveral Years: For, as a modern Hiftorian well obferves, he had no other Way to fecure his Repofe, and even his Life, against the Sufpicions of a Prince whofe Interest it was to destroy him. And it was but too probable that the new King would embrace the firft Occafion to free himself from the Uneafinefs which fuch a Rival could created.

[ 3 ]

But, let the Steps to the Throne have been ever fo flippery and dangerous, Henry found himself safely placed in it, and fortified there by the Sanction of the two Houses of Parliament. Some Hiftorians have hinted, that the Lower Houfe was hardly brought to consent to the Depofition of the late King; but at length was overawed by the Great-ones, to a Compliance with it But this does not appear upon Record by the Proceedings of the next Parliament, which Henry had called, and


b Hares Malus, indeed, quoth Edmund Mortimer to his fecret Friends, and fo is the Pirate to the Merchant, when he robbeth him of all he hath. Sir John Hayward, p. 99.

c Hall's Chronicle, Fol. X.

d Rapin's Hiftory of England, Fol. Edit. p. 484.

e Sir John Hayward.Biondi's Hift. of the Civil Wars. p. 41.

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was to meet at Westminster on the 6th of October fol- King Henry IV* lowing.

We have fufficiently taken Notice what collufive Doings had been acted in calling these two Parliaments, the latter of which was to meet fix Days after the former was diffolved; but were indeed the fame individual Perfons, both in Lords and Commons, as the former f.

The before modern Writer makes a juft Reflection on this piece of Chicanery, which we fhall give in his own Words as follows:

To proceed according to Custom, the Reprefenta" tives must have been chosen anew. But Henry did < not think fit to run the Rifque of a less favourable Parliament than that which had fo heartily espoused his 'Cause. He was contented therefore with impowering the fame Representatives to make, with the House of Lords, a new Parliament under his Authority. I 'fhall not venture to decide, whether this Proceeding " was somewhat irregular, or authorized by any former 'Precedent: But, be that as it will, the fame Parlia( ment met again on the 9th of October, as if called " by the new King.'


We shall now proceed to quote from more certain Authorities, which are the Records themfelves; advertifing the Reader, that fince now Dr. Brady and Mr. Tyrrel are both filent, to avoid a Repetition of needless Notes, the Subftance of Parliamentary Proceedings, in this and fome fucceeding Reigns, are wholly taken from the Parliament Rolls, and what is called Sir Robert Cotton's Abridgement of them; and, where any Matter is advanced otherwife, the Authors fhall then be noted.

But it cannot be amifs, in the Beginning of this Parliament, to give the Names of the Peers fummoned to it by the fecond Writ, in Henry's Name: And as these, with the Peers called to the firft, ftand, in the Abridgement, on two oppofite Pages, there is no Difference except in the Names of the Kings; and, in the former, Sir Thomas Erpingham is put as Warden of the Cinque Ports, which in the other he is not. The firft Writ is thus directed, Rex [Richardus] &c. dilecto Confanguineo fuo Henrico Duci Lancaftriæ Salutem, &c. apud WestA 2 monafterium

f See Vol. I. p. 502,


Ropin, Vol 1, p. 484. He should have faid the 6th.

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