11. 26, 7. a great.....mother, much of the nature and qualities of his mother.

1. 31. to the end, with the object.

P. 24, 1. 7. if he would pass for, if he might be taken for.

1. 18. pedigrees, tables of descent, lineage; the derivation of the word is much disputed.

11. 29, 30. more in number ... sea, a quotation from Psalms, cxxxix. 18.

1. 32. invidious, hateful, as causing pain to living persons.

P. 25, 1. 2. buffooneries, antics; Span. bufón, a jester.

11. 3, 4. all one to him, all the same to him, a matter of indifference to him.

1. 7. unlucky, unfortunate in his choice of subjects.

1. 26. lampooner, one who indulges in personal satire; from "F. lampon originally a drinking song; so called from the exclamation lampons /= let us drink, frequently introduced into such songs (Skeat, Ety. Dict.).

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1. 27. annoy, used in a stronger sense than nowadays, = plague, worry.


KINGS. No. 50.

P. 26, 1. 4. rabble, noisy mob; connected with the O. Dutch rabbelen, to chatter.

1. 24. Church of St. Paul, St. Paul's Cathedral; the present building is by Sir Christopher Wren, the first stone being laid in 1675 and the work being completed in thirty-five years. But five other edifices had at different periods been erected on the same site, all of which were destroyed by fire, three of the fires being caused by lightning.

P. 27, 1. 5. apt to think, disposed to think. 1. 15. their liking, in the way they desired.

1. 30. in black, the black silk gown in which till of late years the sermon was preached; the adoption of this gown was intended by the Reformers as a protest against the white surplice worn in Catholic churches, a form of vestment which has now pretty generally come back into use.

11. 30, 1. mounted... rest, sc. in the pulpit.

P. 28, 1. 1. had enough, knew enough; a common phrase as late as Lamb's time.

11. 4, 5. We could... them, we managed with difficulty to make

out from one of them.


1. 7. Whigs, answering as a political party to the Liberals of to-day. The word is said by Burnet to be a contraction of "whiggamor, applied to certain Scotchmen who came from the west in the summer to buy corn at Leith... A march to Edinburgh made by the Marquis of Argyle and 6000 men was called 'the whiggamor's inroad,' and afterwards those who opposed the court came in contempt to be called whigs" ... (Skeat, Ety, Dict.). The derivation of the word is uncertain.

11. 9, 10. apt to knock... kings, they being advocates of a commonwealth.

1. 12. a Tory, answering to the Conservatives of the present day, and, like whig, first applied in an obnoxious sense. Tories was a name properly belonging to the Irish bogtrotters, who during our Civil War robbed and plundered, professing to be in arms for the royal cause; and from them, about 1680, to those who sought to maintain the extreme prerogatives of the Crown' (Trench, Select Glossary, quoted by Skeat).

1. 13. treat us... foreigners, the Tories for a long time having a great aversion to foreign countries and their inhabitants.

11. 24, 5. making up... ourselves, putting things together and thus arriving at a meaning.

1. 26. handicraft, "manual occupation, by way of trade...A corruption of handcraft; the insertion of i being due to an imitation of the form of handiwork, in which the i is a real part of the word" (Skeat, Ety. Dict.).

1. 27. raw-boned, big boned, burly.

1. 28. little covered rooms, sedan chairs, from Sedan, a town in France, much in use in England from the latter end of the sixteenth century until the earlier years of the present one.

11. 30, 1. strangle... neck, an allusion to the fashionable ruffs, or collars of the time. with many ligatures, an allusion to the wearing of stays.

1. 35. buy up, we should now say 'buy' alone, unless up is intended to express the eagerness with which they bought. a monstrous... hair, the wigs of Addison's day were very full and fell low down between the shoulders.

P. 29, 1. 6. pitching a bar, a common rural exercise of strength in which the competition was as to who should pitch a heavy iron bar to the greatest distance; similar exercises still in use are putting the weight, and the Scotch tossing the kaber, a young tree torn from the ground.

1. 19. little black spots, the patches worn on the face by ladies of fashion; see the Essay on Party Patches.

1. 21. figures, shapes, forms.

1. 22. wear off very soon, the Indian king taking them for eruptions of the skin uses language which indicates gradual disappearance; the patches being really stuck on were of course easily washed off.


P. 30, 1. 5. stocks, posts, stumps; literally things stuck or fixed.

1. 16. ideas, in the Platonic Philosophy, the idea were general or ideal forms, archetypes, models, of which all created things were the imperfect antitypes or representations, and were conceived as the eternal forms of Being as opposed to their material forms, subjects of thought, but not of sight.

1. 17. chimerical, imaginary, unreal; see note on p. 23, 1. 7. 1. 18. substantial forms, according to Aristotle, real substance, or true Being (ovoía) is not the abstract universal, but rather the concrete individual thing.

1. 19. Albertus Magnus, by some accounted as the first of the schoolmen, or followers in modern times of the Aristotelian philosophy.

P. 31, 1. 5. in substance, virtually, to all intents and


1. 11. perplexed, intricate, entangled; literally, thoroughly woven or plaited together, from Lat. per, thoroughly, and plexus, entangled; now generally used in the figurative sense of

'troubled in mind.'

1. 34. brakes, thickets.

1. 35. quick-set hedge, a hedge set or planted alive, as opposed to one of dead briars, etc.; 'quick,' A.S. cwic, quick, lively.

P. 32, 1. 1. subtle, thin, fine; the literal sense of the word.

1. 7. give place to, be succeeded by.

11. 16, 7. upon full stretch, at full gallop. beagles, small hounds used in hunting the hare.

1. 25. entertained, delighted, gladdened.

1. 32. the figure of a quoit, something which in shape and size resembled a quoit, a ring of iron thrown at a mark in sport; coit, is the older spelling of the word.

1. 33. pitching... bar, see note on p. 29, 1. 6. breaking, training to obedience; a technical term in the training of horses. P. 33, 1. 10. shapes of fishes, i.e. not the realities. flouncing, bounding, plunging about.

1. 34. that body, sc. his own.

1. 36. dressed, adorned, decked.

P. 34, 11. 18-20. barbarous Europeans... metal, alluding to expeditions such as those of Raleigh to Guiana and of Cortez and Pizarro to Mexico and Peru.

1. 22. measure, limits allowed me.


P. 35, 1. 22. the Royal Exchange, in the City at the end of the Poultry, originally built by Sir Thomas Gresham, the great merchant-prince of the sixteenth century, and opened by Elizabeth in 1571; destroyed by the Great Fire of London in 1666 and again by fire in 1838. The present building was erected in 1844. 1. 26. emporium, market; Gk. éμrópios, commercial.

1. 27. high-change, the full assemblage of the principal merchants at the busiest time of the day.

1. 29. Factors, agents, brokers.

1. 31. correspondence, intercourse.

P. 36, 1. 6. ministers of commerce, who manage the affairs of commerce as ministers of State manage those of a nation.

1. 7. walks, manners of walking.

1. 17. connives at my presence, wink at my presence, pretends not to see me, the Spectator not having any official position there, being only an amateur among professional men.

1. 21. Coptic, the language of the ancient Egyptians, or Cophti. 1. 31. the public stock, the general store of wealth.

P. 37, 1. 3. every degree, i.e. of latitude.

1. 5. the sauce, that is thought appropriate as a seasoning, as helping to bring out the taste of the particular food.

1. 6. are corrected... Barbadoes, their acidity neutralized by sugar from the West India Islands.

1. 7. China plant, tea: Indian cane, the

sugar cane.

1. 8. The Philippic Islands, or as we now call them "Philippine Islands," named after Philip the Second of Spain, by which country they were first conquered; their chief produce is the sugar cane.

1. 10. The muff, a sort of bag into which ladies thrust their hands in cold weather, often made of fur lined with silk.

1. 12. the tippet, the cape of a cloak; ultimately from Gk. Táπηs, a carpet, woollen rug, from which also the word 'tapestry.'

1. 13. brocade petticoat, petticoat made of brocade, a variegated silk stuff; from """ Span. brocado, sb. brocade; also pp.

brocaded, embroidered with gold; which explains the use of brocade as an adjective"... (Skeat, Ety. Dict.).

1. 15. in its natural prospect, as seen in its natural state.

1. 18. originally, as indigenous.

1. 19. hips and haws, berries of the dog-rose and the hawthorn respectively. pig-nuts, an edible tuberous root, so called from the notion that pigs root it up and eat it; so the truffle, another root of similar character, is scented out by dogs trained for the purpose.

1. 20. delicacies, used ironically.

11. 21-3. can make... crab, in the endeavour to produce a plum gets no further than to produce a sloe, and in the way of an apple produces nothing better than a crab; the sloe is a small sour wild plum, the crab, a wild apple.

1. 27. trash, worthless stuff; the original sense is clippings of trees, or the bits of broken sticks found under trees in a wood and collected for fire-wood.

1. 34. our morning's draught, tea or coffee.

1. 36. drugs of America, such as quinine, etc.

P. 38, 1. 1. Indian canopies, curtains of muslin, chintz, etc. For canopies, see note p. 20, 1. 30.

1. 2. the spice-islands, the Moluccas.

1. 15. good offices, friendly acts.

1. 22. Change, a frequent abbreviation for The Exchange. 1. 29. vassals, subjects.


P. 39, 1. 25. party, person; a word no longer thus used by educated persons.

1. 26. are in course them, whose turn it is to fill their places. 1. 27. wants, is without, lacks.

1. 29. to take a whet, to sharpen his appetite by some stimulant or other, such as sherry and bitters; A.S. hwat, keen.

1. 30. a nooning, a draught at noon; what Shakespeare, i. H. IV. iii. 3. 84, calls a by-drinking,' i.e. a drinking between meals. So we speak of a 'night-cap,' something drunk at night to provoke sleep.

P. 40, ll. 1, 2. to his mind, suited to his inclinations.

1. 3. the steward never dies, a parody of the constitutional maxim that "the King never dies," i.e. that though the occupant of the throne dies, the succession is unbroken.

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