1. 5. elbow chair, arm-chair, a chair with supports for the elbows.

1. 7. a sede vacante, a meeting of the Club without some one to take the chair, to preside.

1. 11. the great fire, of London, in 1666.

1. 13. had like, was likely, was in danger of.

1. 20. the famous... Clarendon. Addison seems to be referring to Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, xv. 26, where in the account of Blake's defeat of the Spanish Plate Fleet, September 8th, 9th, 1656, it is stated that the Vice-Admiral, in which was the vice-King of Mexico, was fired by themselves to prevent being taken; in which the poor gentleman himself, his wife and eldest daughter perished."

1. 23. the great year of jubilee, the great year of rejoicing. The word jubilee comes ultimately from the Hebrew yóbel, a blast of a trumpet, a shout of joy Addison is here apparently referring to the Roman Catholic jubilee in honour of the accession to the Papal throne of Clement XI. in November, 1700. Such jubilees were first ordained by the Bull of Boniface VIII., in 1300, to be celebrated every hundred years by plenary indulgences obtainable on confession of sins and visits to certain churches. Later Popes reduced the intervals between the celebrations until they were fixed by Paul II. at every twenty-five years.

1. 27. a general club, a general meeting of the members of the club: nemine contradicente, without a single dissentient voice. 11. 31, 2, the best lights, the fullest information.

1. 33. their books in general, the official records of the club's affairs.

11. 35, 6. red port, the ordinary port wine, though there is a variety called 'white port,' made from a white variety of the same grape.

1. 36. kilderkin, a liquid measure of eighteen gallons. "The name was obviously given because it is only a small measure as compared with barrels, vats, or tuns. The literal sense is 'little child'" (Skeat, Ety. Dict.). Here the intention is to show that the members seldom contented themselves with the " poor creature, small beer," as Prince Hal calls it, ii. H. IV. ii. 2. Î3.

P. 41, ll. 2, 3. Ben Jonson's Club, the Mermaid Tavern, on the south of Cheapside, between Bread Street and Friday Street, established by Ben Jonson in 1603, and numbering among its members Shakespeare, Beaumont, Fletcher, Selden, etc., etc.

1. 6. a vestal, the Vestal Virgins at Rome were maidens sacred to Vesta, the goddess of the hearth, and employed to keep the fire ever burning in the Temple, a sanctuary in the Forum, between the Capitoline and Palatine hills.


11. 8, 9. has seen... times, has continued burning while the furnaces of the glass-house have been lighted and extinguished a hundred times. Addison speaks as if at the time there was only one glass-house, i.e. glass manufactory, in London.

1. 11. Kit-Cat, in Shire Lane, off Fleet Street, a Club which first met in Westminster in the house of a pastry-cook called Christopher Cat or Catt (whence the name, 'Kit' being the short or nick-name for Christopher'). The Club consisted of thirtynine of the leading men of the Whig party, and Addison was elected a member of it soon after his return from the Continent. October, another club, the resort especially of Tory squires and country gentlemen, and so called from the October ale, their favourite drink.

Il. 15, 6. taken the glass... together, have spent a week at a time in the clubhouse regularly drinking their share of the wine, etc., as it went round, never shirking their turn.

1. 19. a run of ale, a tun of ale; more common in the diminutive, 'runlet,' a measure of wine containing eighteen gallons and a half.

1. 21. whisk, the older spelling of whist, a game at cards played by four persons, two against two as partners.

1. 22. recovered, saved.

11. 22, 3. in all... desperate, as far as one could judge there was no hope of saving it.

1. 24. catches, "originally a short composition for three or more voices, which sing the same melody, the second singer beginning the first line as the first goes on to the second line, and so with each successive singer... Subsequently specially applied to rounds in which the words are so arranged as to produce ludicrous effects, one singer catching at the words of another' (Murray, Eng. Dict.).

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1. 25. to moisten their clay, to refresh themselves with drink, for want of which they would be parched to dust; as though by constant drinking they might save their bodies from returning to the clay from which they were originally made, and thus become immortal. In moisten their clay there is probably also an allusion to the clay pipes they smoked.

11. 29, 30. confirm ... fire-maker, confirm in her office of firemaker the old woman mentioned above. contributions, the shares to be paid by members.

1. 32. outlived... over, lived to see the election and resignation, or death, of all the members twice over; survived all those who became members at the same time with himself and all those elected when these had passed away.


P. 42, 1. 5. an opera, of a drama in which the words are sung to the accompaniment of music instead of being spoken.

1. 6. Haymarket, see note p. 3, 1. 25.

1. 8. side boxes, boxes at an opera or theatre are compartments holding several persons and hired for a night or a series of nights by those who do not care to sit in the part of the building occupied by the general public; the side boxes are those on either side of the stage.

1. 10. patched differently, wore their patches in a different way. These patches, which came into fashion in Elizabeth's time, owed their origin either to the wish to conceal a blotch, pimple, blemish, on the face, or to an imitation of the mole which Venus was said to have had on her face. Fletcher, The Elder Brother, iii. 5. 194, speaks of "Some cut like stars, some in half-moons, some lozenges"; but they also took more extravagant shapes, being sometimes cut to resemble even a carriage and horses. Addison's satire is no exaggeration, for after the Peace of Utrecht party feeling ran so high that ladies appeared at the theatre wearing the badges of the political sect to which they adhered.

1. 11. on one hand, in the boxes on the one side.

1. 17. indifferently, without making any distinction.

11. 18, 9. and seemed... opera, a piece of Addison's playful satire upon so many of the audience who came to see and be seen, to admire and be admired, rather than for the legitimate purpose of listening to the music.

1. 19. Amazons, here so called from the party warfare they carried on; the Amazons were a mythical race of warlike females, said to have come from the Caucasus and to have settled in the country about the river Thermodon, in the neighbourhood of the modern Trebizond. The Greeks believed in their existence as a real historical race down to a late period, and the mention of them is frequent in classical literature.

ll. 22, 3. whose faces... themselves, the owners of which had not yet made up their minds as to which party they would


1. 24. took their party with, allied themselves, took sides, with. 1. 27. The censorious, people fond of finding fault.

1. 28. whose... at, whose hearts these ladies aim at winning by means of their personal attractions.

1. 29. dishonoured, sc. by the absence of their ornament.

P. 43, 1. 3. coquettes, vain flirts, women who are always

endeavouring to attract admiration without having any love to give in return. In his Essay on "Different Classes of Female Orators," Addison says of the coquette, "She has false quarrels and feigned obligations to all the men of her acquaintance; sighs when she is not sad, and laughs when she is not merry. The coquette is in particular a great mistress of that part of oratory which is called action, and indeed seems to speak for no other purpose but as it gives her an opportunity of stirring a limb, or varying a feature, of glancing her eyes, or playing with her fan." The word is French and is the feminine form of coquet, the diminutive of coq, meaning 'a little cock,' and hence means a vain, strutting, person, one moving about with the airs of a cock absurdly proud of itself.

11. 3, 4. who do not... good, whose object in thus ornamenting themselves is to win the hearts of men, not to support that cause which, in the opinion of its advocates, is the safeguard of national prosperity. Here again Addison is employing his grave irony.

1. 6. out of principle, from a belief that in so doing they are serving their country.

1. 10. draught of marriage articles, the marriage settlement in which are laid down the terms and conditions as to property, allowances, etc., guaranteed to the wife; we now spell the word in this sense draft.

1. 11. stipulated, insisted upon it as a condition of marrying. 11. 15, 6. on the Tory... forehead, on that side of the forehead which the Tory party adorn with patches; the mole in this case being often mistaken for a patch.

11. 17-9. given an handle

interest, given her enemies an excuse for asserting that her face has become a traitor to the Whig cause.

1. 22. coxcombs, conceited fops; the word originally meant the comb or crest of a cock, cocks-comb.

11. 22, 3. hanging... colours, as in the case of a vessel that seeks to deceive an enemy by hoisting the flag of the nation to which that enemy belongs or is on friendly terms with.

11. 25, 6. given them... once, turned upon them with a sudden and vehement declaration of her political principles which has utterly discomfited them; carrying on the metaphor from naval warfare.

1. 27. unhappy in a pimple, unfortunate in having a pimple whose unsightliness she seeks to conceal by a patch, which, being worn on the side affected by the Whig ladies, leads to the supposition that she belongs to that party.

1. 32. a concern... beauty, anxiety to make themselves as beautiful as possible.


1. 35. Cowley, the reference is to his Davideis, Bk. iii.

P. 44, 1. 7. puppet-show, exhibition of dancing dolls; the káth-putli nách of India.

1. 9. in order ... forces, in order to present a bold front to the enemy by gathering themselves together in a compact and numerous array.

1. 14. a distinction, a distinctive feature, a peculiar social phenomenon.

11. 29, 30. unnatural divisions, controversies on political and religious subjects in which the nation is divided against itself; unnatural, because a nation should be a brotherhood of love.

1. 34. Olympic games, athletic games and combats celebrated at Olympia in Elis once every five years.

P. 45, 1. 2. accomplishments, usually applied to proficiency in such arts as music, painting, dancing, etc.

1. 5. are of a domestic turn, are such as should be shown in the management of the home.

1. 6. province, sphere.

11. 11-3. When the Romans

exigence, as for instance in B.C. 210, during the Punic Wars, when a proposal to this effect made by the Consul, Marcus Lavinus, was enthusiastically accepted. 1. 18. peculiar, the special privilege.

1. 20. against, as a mark of enmity towards.

1. 21. against, as her contribution to the defence against.

1. 24. recollecting, gathering up from the store of my memory. 1. 26. the celebrated... Pericles, the gist of which is given in Thucydides, ii. 45, et seqq.

11. 27, 8. in a fight Lacedæmonians, Pericles's celebrated

funeral oration was in honour of all who had fallen in the Peloponnesian War up to that date, B.C. 430, not of those only who had fallen in one particular battle.

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P. 46, 1. 5. above thirty degrees, i.e. most enormously; as though he were speaking of the rise and fall of the temperature as shown by a thermometer.

11. 5-7. About ten ... men, "This refers to the commode (called by the French fontange), a kind of head-dress worn by the ladies at the beginning of the last century, which by means of wire bore up their hair and the fore part of the cap, consisting of many folds of fine lace, to a prodigious height. The transition from

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