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1. 26. a May-fly, an artificial fly made in imitation of a fly so called which trout take greedily in that month.
11. 26, 7. to a miracle, with extraordinary skill in imitating the real fly.
1. 27. angle-rods, fishing rods; originally the word 'angle' was used of the rod with its line, as e.g. A.Č. ii. 5. 10, "Give me mine angle; we'll to the river." Nowadays 'angling,' i.e. bottom fishing, fishing with a bait that is allowed to fall to the bottom, is contrasted with fly-fishing, in which the bait is thrown upon the surface of the water and drawn along to tempt the fish by imitating the course of the natural fly.
1. 28. officious, ready to do a kindness; at present the word is always used in a bad sense of over-eagerness to meddle in any
1. 29. upon ... family, in consequence of his belonging to a good family, being well born.
1. 31. a tulip root, in Addison's day, owing to the introduction of Dutch fashions by William the Third, Prince of Orange, and his followers, tulip growing was more cared for than at present. Here this carrying of a tulip root is merely an instance of the small civilities in which Will Wimble delighted.
1. 32. exchanges, arranges the exchange between, etc.
1. 36. a setting dog, a 'setter,' as we now call a spaniel trained to sit as soon as it marks down the game which the sportsmen are beating for; other spaniels are called 'pointers,' as being trained to 'point' by lifting up the paw when coming near the game, and others 'retrievers' from their retrieving, bringing back, the game when brought down by the gun. made, trained; a technical term still in use.
P. 58. 1. 1. of his own knitting, which he had knitted himself. 11. 3, 4. how they wear, whether they were wearing well or are nearly worn out; they, because his modesty does not like to mention the name of the article.
1. 5. humours, fanciful ways.
1. 7. make up to us, approach us.
1. 15. shuttle-cocks, pieces of cork stuck round the edge with small feathers and bandied backwards and forwards by a kind of raquet in the game of battle-dore and shuttle-cock, a game still played by children and sometimes by grown up people, more commonly in doors on a rainy day.
1. 19. sprung, disturbed and caused to fly out from its place of concealment in the grass or underwood.
11. 21, 2. the game that I look for, the game I try to hunt down, the objects of my search.
1. 30. in a most sumptuous manner, Addison probably refers to the fennel with which it is customary to deck a pike when served at table.
11. 31, 2. played with it, a fish is said to be 'played with,' or nowadays 'played,' when the line is loosened so as to allow it free play in the water, then tightened to bring it up towards the bank, the operation being repeated time after time until the fish is completely tired out and can be landed. foiled, baffled its attempts to get off the hook or break the line.
1. 33. all the first course, all the time we were eating the first course; the dinner is divided into several courses, ordinarily three or four, consisting of various kinds of food, but sometimes prolonged to as many as seven or more.
1. 34. furnished conversation, Will Wimble discoursing all the time upon his experiences in shooting wild fowl.
1. 36. the quail-pipe, a pipe or reed used in luring quail; it is thus described by Bate, quoted in Nares's Glossary, "A quaile pipe or call is a small whistle, and there is over the top of it some writhed wyer [i.e. twisted wire], which must be wrought over with leather; hold the whistle in your left hand, and the top of the leather betweene the fore finger and top of the thumbe of your right hand, and by pulling streight the said leather, and letting it slacke nimbly, it will sound like the cry of a quaile."
P. 59, ll. 8, 9. might have... esteem, might have raised him to a position in which he would have gained the esteem of his fellowmen.
1. 14. had rather see, would prefer to see.
11. 14, 5. like gentlemen, retaining the position of a gentleman. 1. 16. quality, birth and breeding. humour, caprice, fanciful notions. Cp. p. 58, 1. 5.
1. 17. happiness, good fortune, fortunate custom.
1. 19. any liberal... profession, such as divinity, law, physic. 1. 22. launched, a metaphor from sending a vessel into the water from the slips on which it rests while in the building dock. 1. 28. improper, unsuited in his qualifications.
1. 29. turned, formed, adapted.
RURAL MANNERS. No 119.
P. 60, 1. 8. By manners... . morals, Addison probably says this
because the Latin mores includes both manners and morals.
1. 12. articie, particular, matter; literally a little joint (of the body).
1. 13. obliging deferences, amiable civilities, courtesies.
1. 15. brought up, introduced.
11. 18, 9. mutual complaisance, interchange of endeavours to please. conversation, social intercourse.
1. 21. modish, fashionable, in accordance with the mode, or fashion, of the time; cp. below, p. 61, 1. 34.
11. 24, 5. to retrench its superfluities, to cut down its useless formalities.
1. 26. carriage, manner of bearing oneself, deportment.
1. 29. sit more loose, a figure from clothing; cp. Macb. i. 3, 144-6, "New honours come upon him, Like our strange garments. cleave not to their mould But with the aid of use.
11. 29, 30. an agreeable negligence, a pleasant informality, neglect of ceremony.
P. 61. 1. 3. fetched themselves up, brought themselves up to the level of.
1. 4. but... them, than the town has discarded those fashions. 11. 4, 5. the first stage of nature, the manners natural before civilization had made any way in the world.
1. 8. his excess of good-breeding, the superabundance of polite formalities which he uses.
1. 10. more to do, more fuss; to do in this phrase is used as a quasi substantive, as is ado, which is properly an infinitive verb =at do.
1. 17. could adjust the ceremonial, could settle in what order of precedence the guests were to be ranged at table.
11. 19, 20. pick... guests, choose out his guests from those among whom they were seated.
11. 24, 5. Though ... morning, sc. and must therefore be very hungry.
1. 26. served, helped to food.
1. 30. sure, evidently.
1. 34. mode, fashion. See p. 9, 1. 30.
P. 62, 1. 11. polished in France, a tour on the continent and more especially in France was in those days looked upon as indispensable for perfecting the manners of all young men of position.
1. 12. uncivilized, boorish, impolite.
1. 14. This infamous ... good-breeding, this behaviour now accounted a mark of good-breeding, but in reality disgraceful.
11. 18, 9. if the country... lurch, if the country gentlemen adopt it, they will soon find that it is given up by the town and
they will be left all alone in possession of this unenviable distinction. The phrase to 'leave in the lurch' was derived from its use in an old game called 'lurch.' "The game," says Skeat, "is mentioned in Cotgrave. - F. lourche, 'the game called Lurche, or, a Lurch in game; il demoura lourche, he was left in the lurch'.. He also gives 'Ourche, the game at tables called lurch.' This suggests that lourche stands for l'ourche, the initial 7 being merely the definite article. A lurch is a term especially used when one person gains every point before another makes one; hence a plausible derivation may be obtained by supposing that ourche meant the pool in which the stakes were put. The lover's stakes remained in the lurch, or he was left in the lurch, when he did not gain a single piece from the pool, which all went to others. If this be so, the sense of ourche is easily obtained; it meant the 'pool,' i.e. the vase or jar into which the stakes were cast... The etymology is then obvious, viz., from Lat. urceus, a pitcher, vase. But this is a guess."
1. 20. come too late, it having been abandoned by those whom they fancy they are imitating.
1. 25. turns upon, has to do with, is concerned with.
1. 30. height of their head-dresses, see Essay No. 98.
1. 31. upon... circuit, going the circuit with the judges. The country for the administration of justice is divided into certain circuits to be made periodically by the judges when holding
SIR ROGER AT THE ASSIZES. No. 122.
P. 63, 1. 7. those approbations, that self-approval; we scarcely use the word in the plural now.
1. 15. the returns of affection, evidences of affection paid in return.
1. 19. He would needs, he was determined, had made up his mind. The phrase implies the idea that the act was one which he made necessary to himself though there was really no obligation upon him; needs, the old genitive used adverbially.
1. 21. plain men, unpretending countrymen, as opposed to the fine gentlemen of the town: rid, a form of the past tense no longer in use.
1. 26. he is just... game act, this refers to the old game laws by which persons were not allowed to obtain a license unless duly qualified by birth or estate. The ordinary qualification was ownership of lands of the minimum yearly value of £100, and Sir Roger has just spoken of the person in question as being a yeoman of about a hundred pounds a year.'
P. 64, 1. 2. shoots flying, kills his birds while on the wing, not while sitting on the ground or on a tree, which would be a most unsportsman-like act.
1. 3. petty-jury, the jury which sits in court to give a verdict on the cases tried, as opposed to the grand jury which decides before trial whether a true bill has been found against the accused and whether they shall be sent for trial or not.
1. 5. taking the law... body, going to law with everybody on the slightest provocation. The name "Touchy" indicates his touchiness, his readiness to take offence at anything: one, a single person.
11. 6, 7. quarter-sessions, see note, p. 6, 1. 29.
1. 8. the widow, see p. 6, 1. 7.
1. 13. cast... cast, has won and lost so many law-suits.
11. 14, 5. the old... tree, going to the assizes to fight out his old suit in which a willow tree is the bone of contention.
11. 25, 6. upon ... trot, as he was riding at full trot; round, often used, as here, merely with an intensive force; so we say, ‘a round rebuke,' ‘a good round sum,' etc., the idea of thoroughness being due to the completeness of a circle.
1. 32. The court was sat, the court had assembled, the various officers having taken their seats. The difference between 'was' and 'had' in such sentences is that the former indicates a state, the latter the activity necessary to cause that state.
1. 35-P. 65, 1. 1. who, for his reputation... circuit, in order to maintain his reputation as a man of importance and credit with the Judge, made a point of whispering in his ear as if he had something of importance to communicate, though in reality his remark was merely about the weather.
11. 12, 3. was up, was on his legs and about to speak.
1. 13. was so little... purpose, had so little in it that was pertinent to the matter in hand.
1. 16. to give... eye, to make him appear to me as a man of importance.
1. 22. his courage, that, the courage of him who, etc.
1. 32. sign post, here the sign was Sir Roger's head.
P. 66, 1. 1. made him, we should now say 'paid him.'
1. 6. be at the charge of it, bear the expense of its being altered.
1. 8. aggravation, i.e. making the features larger and fiercer. • 1. 9. the Saracen's Head, this sign, a very common one, was a relic from the Crusades, and may still be seen, as in the Lamb and Saracen's Head in Westminster.