the conclusion drawn from the two, e.g. All men are mortal (the major premiss), I am a man (minor premiss), therefore I am mortal (conclusion).

1. 13. by sap, by undermining the defensive works; a metaphor from the siege of a fortress, etc.

1. 16. laid out... answers, stated in the form of, etc.

1. 21. Basilinum, a pun upon the name Basil, as though the Argumentum Baculinum, i.e. argument by beating, argument of the rod, had originally been invented by one Basil.

1. 26. polemical, controversial, literally warlike. to discharge, as though they were firing upon an enemy.

1. 27. betake themselves, have recourse to, make use of.

1. 29. their gainsayers, their opponents, those who disputed their reasonings; the prefix gain- is the A.S. gegn, against.


1. 34. Scotists, followers of Duns Scotus, a Franciscan friar, who with Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican, founded the two great rival sects of scholastic philosophy which wrangled with each other for several centuries. This philosophy, which had its rise in the ninth century and flourished greatly in the early years of the thirteenth century (the age of Aquinas and Scotus), in its general principle an alliance between faith and reason—an endeavour to arrange the orthodox system of the church, such as authority had made it, according to the rules and methods of the Aristotelian dialectics, and sometimes upon premises supplied by metaphysical reasoning" (Hallam, Lit. Hist. i. 12, 13).


1. 35. Smiglesians, followers of Martin Smiglecius, a logician of repute in the earlier years of the seventeenth century. Highstreet, the main street of Oxford.

1. 36. garrisons, i.e. their college rooms; keeping up the metaphor in "defile" and "troop."

P. 88, 1. 3. letters, literature.

1. 7. Erasmus, the great German scholar and theologian, famous among other things for his controversy with Luther, who first visited England in 1497, and in 1510 was appointed Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge.

1. 9. laid him on, we should now say laid on him, or set upon him.

Il. 14, 5. A certain grand monarch, Louis the Fourteenth of France, who was known as "Le Grand Monarque."


11. 17, 8. he is now weapons, an allusion to the triumph of the allied English and Dutch forces under Marlborough and Eugene at whose hands the French sustained defeat at Blenheim, Ramillies, Malplaquet, etc.

11. 18, 9. has to do with, has to meet in combat.

11. 19, 20. the old gentleman, Favorinus, a philosopher and sophist in Hadrian's reign.

1. 21. one...
Emperors, Hadrian, emperor A.D. 117-138.
1. 23. visibly, evidently.

11. 24, 5. who is ... legions, who can command the services of, etc. A legion consisted of ten cohorts of foot soldiers and three hundred cavalry, making together between 4200 and 6000 men.

1. 27. by poll, by counting the number of persons in favour of, and opposed to, an argument; poll, head, then a register of heads or persons; also a place where votes are taken.

1. 29. according ... Hudibras, a satirical poem by Samuel Butler, of which the hero is Hudibras, a Puritan knight, who goes about, like Don Quixote, redressing wrongs and putting up with beatings; the reference is to Pt. ii. 1. 297.

1. 32, 3. the poor refugees, the French Protestants, who, after long sufferings in their own country, took refuge in England after the Revocation by Louis in 1685 of the Edict of Nantes, an edict by which Henry the Fourth had allowed them freedom of worship.

1. 34. an author, "The author quoted is And. Ammonius... The Spectator's memory failed him in applying the remark, which was made in the reign of Henry VIII. It was, however, much more applicable to that of Queen Mary" (Ferguson).

P. 89, 1. 2. a Sorites, a heap of syllogisms, the conclusion of one forming the premiss of the next; from Gk. σopeúw, to heap one thing on another. commonly... faggots, here the 'heaping up' is not figurative but actual.

1. 3. a kind of syllogism, a method of enforcing an argument, of proving a thing.

1. 5. disputed... doubts, convinced by argument.

1. 11. engines, ingenious contrivances, such as whips, racks, etc.

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1. 12. gallies, the vessels, as in Italy, which convicts were condemned to row.

1. 21. the mint, the place where money is coined; from Lat. moneta, a surname of Juno, in whose temple at Rome money was coined.

1. 27. Philip of Macedon, to whom we owe the expression 'a bridge of gold,' i.e. a way out of a difficulty secured by bribery.

11. 28, 30. He refuted... liberties, i.e. by a free use of bribery he obtained his purposes without using force.

11. 33, 4. suddenly, briefly. art of cavilling, method of arguing by raising empty objections to everything advanced as a reason.


P. 90, 1. 6. frights, we now say 'frightens.' Cries, used in advertising things for sale.

1. 10. Ramage de la Ville, the warbling of town birds. Cot. grave gives "Ramage: boughs, branches, branching; or any, thing that belongs thereto; hence, the warbling of birds recorded, or learnt, as they sit on boughs.'

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1. 13. leave... of it, leave it as it stands without any comment. 1. 16. out of all business, out of work; with no kind of occu pation.

1. 17. turn my head, give my attention to, engage in; the modern phrase is 'turn my hand to.'

1. 18. raising, sc. on behalf of Government.

1. 20. a crack, a crack-brained, or mad, person.

1. 21. a projector, a word of sinister import in those days, used of the impostors who were always 'projecting' impossible schemes by means of which they fleeced credulous persons; much the same as 'promoters' of companies in the present day. They were vigorously satirized by the dramatists, as in Ben Jonson's Alchemist and Brome's Court Beggar.

1. 26. cities... Westminster, London and Westminster being then separate cities.

1. 27. Comptroller-general, superintendent; an old spelling of controller,' from O.F. contre-rôle, a duplicate register, used to verify the official or first roll; not connected with 'compt' 'count.'

P. 91, ll. 4, 5. under disorder, under no control. A freeman, one who enjoys the freedom of the borough, is entitled to vote in the election of representatives.

1. 7. twanking, beating so as to cause them to resound; in order to make known that he is ready to mend them; a weakened form of 'twang.'

11. 7, 8. The watchman's thump, of his staff as he walks his rounds.

1. 9. sow-gelder's horn, with which he advertises himself.

11. 10, 1. the liberties, the limits within which certain immunities are enjoyed, or jurisdiction is exercised.

1. 19. ela, the highest note in the musical scale; a term frequently used in the old dramatists for anything extreme; e.g; Middleton, Blurt, Master Constable, iii. 3. 81, "it shall be your first and finest praise to sing the note of every new fashion at first sight, and, if you can, to stretch that note above ela."


1. 20. sets... edge, produces a grating feeling, like that of something sour or harsh to the teeth.

1. 21. pitch, sc. in the vocal scale.

1. 24. gamut, the musical scale; from y, the Gk. letter gamma, used to mark the last of the seven notes of the musical scale, and the Lat. ut, the old name for the first note. retailers, sellers by retail as opposed to wholesale; from O.F. retail, a shred, paring, from retailler, to shred, pare, clip.

1. 32. card-matches, pieces of card dipped in sulphur and used for lighting candles, fires, etc.

1. 33. 'Much ... wool,' great promises with scanty performance; literally a great noise made about wool for sale though the quantity was trifling.

1. 34. musicians, used ironically.

1. 36. splenetic, morose, sour-tempered; the spleen being regarded as the seat of ill-temper as well as of other passions. P. 92, 1. 4, bought off, bribed to go away.

1. 8. quick time, used in a musical sense.

1. 9. will not keep cold, loses all its value if kept till it is cold, if not circulated at once; a figure from meat which will not keep (i.e. remain wholesome) if not eaten when fresh.

11. 12, 3. Every motion... French, hostilities with the French not yet being at end.

1. 16. the spreading, the spreading the news of, etc.

1. 18. mail, post bringing news; literally a bag for carrying letters.

1. 20. in turnip season, at the season of the year when the turnip crop is for sale.

11. 21, 2. of cooling... hands, of losing their value if not sold at once, the turnip being a vegetable that will keep for months.

1. 23. affect, are fond of using.

1. 24. tuneable, tuneful; properly capable of producing a tune; cp. M. N. D. i. 1. 184, iv. 1. 129. cooper, basket-maker.

11. 28, 9. if they have... mend, a very common cry in former days with menders of all sorts.

1. 30. ditties, chants; literally anything dictated for writing, from Lat. dictatum, pp. of dictare, to dictate; more usually applied to songs of a plaintive character.

34. dill, the name of a garden herb.

1. 36. above, for a longer period.

P. 93, 1. 8. colly-molly-puff, "This little man was but just able to support the basket of pastry which he carried on his

head, and sung in a very peculiar tone the cant words which passed into his name, Colly-Molly-Puff” (Ferguson).

11. 9, 10. wash-balls, cakes of cosmetic for washing the face. 1. 11. Watt, short for Walter.'

1. 13. this whole ... generation, this whole breed, tribe, of criers of their goods for sale.

1. 14. incommodious, annoying.

1. 16. of crying... understood, of slurring their words together so that it is impossible to make out what are the wares they sell. 11. 17, 8. Whether ... singers, a sarcasm on the affectation of public singers who slurred over their words so that they could not be distinguished.

1. 33. to overcome, by the superior strength of their lungs.

P. 94, 1. 4. emolument, profit, advantage; now used of gain in money or that which brings in money; from Lat. emoliri, to work out, accomplish.

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1. 6. Crotchet, i.e. whimsical; properly a term in music; a whim. The sense of whim' seems derived from that of 'tune,' or air,' from the arrangement of crotchets composing the air... - F. crochet, 6 a small hooke... also, a quaver in music'; Cotgrave"... (Skeat, Ety. Dict.).


1. 8. hellebore, a plant used by the ancients as a specific for many illnesses, especially for madness.

1. 9. virtuosos, men of taste, men skilled in the fine arts.

1. 14. very fine glasses, microscopes.

1. 20. composed, occasioned by being mixed together.

1. 22. a beau, a fop, a dandy, one who prides himself on his personal attractions; F. beau, handsome.

1. 25. nicety, delicate skill.

1. 29-P. 95, 1. 1. wound up... texture, wound up like a ball of thread or twine, into the resemblance of a brain.

11. 2, 3. as Homer tells us, the 'ichor' or ethereal juice that flows in the veins of gods, spoken of by Homer, Iliad, v. 340.

1. 6. The pineal gland, a gland in the brain, so called from its resemblance to a pine cone; once popularly imagined to be the seat of the soul.

1. 9. faces, facets, such as those cut upon the surface of a precious stone, or those in the eye of the common fly, which cannot be seen without a magnifying glass.

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