Edward the Confessor and continued even to the time of Johnson, who in 1712 was taken to be touched' by Queen Anne. Cp. Macb. iv. 3. 140-156, where the process is described.

11. 8, 9. there was... reign, there was matter of much interest in the exciting occurrences of that reign.

1. 13. beaten silver, hammered silver, solid silver fashioned by the hammer into the shape of a head.

1. 14. Some Whig, see note, p. 28, 11. 9, 10.

1. 18. of shining, of showing to advantage the industry and intelligence with which he had studied his Chronicle.

1. 20. in him, in his Chronicle.

1. 31. Norfolk-buildings, in Soho Square; cp. p. 6, 1. 6, where he is said to have a house in that Square.


P. 105, 11. 6, 7. the new tragedy, The Distrest Mother, a version of Racine's Andromaque by Ambrose Philips (1671-1749), to the reading of which the Spectator had been taken by Will Honeycomb as related in No. 290.

1. 8. these twenty years, for twenty years or more; used indefinitely.

1. 9. the Committee, by Sir Robert Howard, brother-in-law of Dryden, printed in 1665.

1. 15. at the end of the dictionary, where in former days biographical notices of famous personages were given.

1. 17. the Mohocks, bands of ruffians who infested the streets at night, plundering men and insulting women. They took their name from a tribe of North-American Indians.

1. 19. lusty, vigorous, stalwart.

1. 20. Fleet Street, so called from the river Fleet which in former days ran through London openly, but now is covered over and discharges itself through the sewers.

1. 21. mended their pace, increased their speed. put on, made an effort by walking faster.

11. 27, 8. I might have... design, I might have given them as much trouble to catch me as a clever fox gives the huntsmen, if that was what they intended.

P. 106. 1. 3. threw them out, baffled them in their efforts to catch me; hounds when they lose the scent of the game are said to be "thrown out."

1. 4. doubled the corner, eluded them by getting round the corner, as a fox or hare turns and twists to escape the hounds. 1. 7. Captain Sentry, see p. 8, 1. 17, etc.: make one of us, be of our party, accompany us.

1. 15. battle of Steenkirk, fought in 1692 between the French and William the Third, Prince of Orange.

1. 17. good oaken plants, stout oak cudgels.

1. 21. convoyed, escorted, conducted in safety, as a man-of-war convoys a fleet of merchant vessels in time of war.

1. 31. tragic audience, audience that had come to witness a tragedy.

1. 32. Pyrrhus, or Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, one of the heroes in the Trojan war who was concealed in the wooden horse filled with armed men, introduced within the walls of Troy. At the taking of the city he killed Priam, and when the Trojan captives were distributed among the victors, Andromache, widow of Hector, was assigned to him.

1. 33. a better strut, a more dignified manner of walking; the word strut is generally used of a pompous gait.

P. 107, 1. 2. One while, at one moment. concerned, troubled, anxious.

1. 3. Hermione, daughter of Menelaus and Helen. She had been promised in marriage to Orestes before the Trojan war; but Menelaus after his return home married her to Pyrrhus. On Orestes claiming her and being refused, he stirred up the Delphians against Pyrrhus who was slain in the tumult. Hermione afterwards married Orestes.

1. 10. to have to do with, here in the sense of wooing her; with an allusion to his own wooing, see Essay No. 2.

11. 10, 1. Pyrrhus his, "His was sometimes used, by mistake, for 's, the sign of the possessive case, particularly after a proper name, and with especial frequency when the name ends in s (Abbott, § 217).


1. 12. do if you can, hinting that Pyrrhus would find it very difficult to give up the widow.

11. 18, 9. Should your people... understood? intimating his idea that in so lofty a production as a tragedy the actors were not expected always to use language that could be understood by ordinary people, but to indulge in flights of bombast above the intelligence of their audience.

1. 21. very luckily, because otherwise he would have gone on talking in a way that would have provoked the amusement and ridicule of those in his neighbourhood. begun, though frequent in former days as a past tense, has now given way to 'began.'

1. 25. fell a praising, took to praising, began and continued to praise; here a is a corruption of the preposition on.

1. 27. Astyanax, son of Hector and Andromache; his proper name was Scamandrius, but he was called Astyanax, or 'lord of the city,' by the Trojans on account of the services of his father. 1. 31. going off, leaving the stage.

11. 33, 4. a notable young baggage, a regular young hussy, on account of her treatment of Pyrrhus.

P. 108, 1. 3. Orestes, son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, and avenger of the murder of the former by the latter..

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1. 4. struck in with them, joined in their conversation.

1. 5. Pylades, nephew of Agamemnon, whose murder he helped Orestes to avenge. The friendship between Orestes and Pylades

has become proverbial from its warmth and sincerity.

1. 11. smoke the knight, make fun of the knight.

11. 12, 3. whispered... act, and so prevented him from continuing his conversation with the wags.

11. 20, 1. as if he saw something, sc. a spectre.

1. 25. justling, we now say 'jostling.'


P. 109, 1. 9. upon occasion, when there is an opportunity of doing so.

11. 19, 20. brother or sister, not literally, but spiritually.

1. 25. humour, disposition.

11. 27, 8. a fellow of whim, a whimsical fellow, a fellow full of odd fancies and freaks. throw away, said because it might better. be bestowed upon their fellow-creatures.

1. 29. lap-dogs, dogs carried about in their laps.

1. 31. this hint, the suggestion thus given him.

P. 110, l. 1. parlour, sitting-room, literally a room for talking, from F. parler, to talk.

1. 18. Brachman, the older spelling for bráhman.

1. 19. Pythagoras, a celebrated Greek philosopher who flourished between B.C. 540 and 501, and travelled in Egypt and the East. 1. 21. the occult sciences, magic.

1. 22. demon, spirit.

1. 35. shuffled, thrust; cp. Haml. iii. 1. 67, "When we have shuffled off this mortal coil"; nowadays the word generally has the sense of haste or secrecy, though the latter sense is not inherent in it, shuffle' being merely a doublet of 'scuffle,' and the frequentative of 'shove.'

P. 111, 1. 9. upon my next remove, at the next stage of my metamorphosis.

1. 10. listed, enlisted, enrolled myself.

1. 32. aiming at me, trying to pounce down upon me.

11. 33, 4. whetting his bill, sharpening his beak in preparation for, etc.

P. 112, 1. 2. Lombard-street, the street of bankers in the city which derived its name from the Lombardy merchants who frequented it in early times.

1. 4, 5. cried shame of me, exclaimed against me as being a shameful extortioner.

1. 6. in a manner, to such an extent as was possible while still preserving life.

1. 23. received so warmly, met by so vigorous a defence.

1. 26. a town-rake, a dissipated man about town.

1. 29. jack-a-napes, foolish fellow. In this and similar compounds the a or an is a weakened form of the prepositions of, on, in, and must not be confounded with the indefinite article.

1. 30. would needs. See note, p. 63, 1. 19.

1. 34. masked, took part in masquerades.

1. 36. in a serenade, while serenading you; a serenade was music played under the windows of ladies, to enliven them; from Ital. serenare, 'to make cleere, faire, and lightsome, to looke cheerfullie and merrilie,' Florio" (Skeat, Ety. Dict.).

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P. 113, 1. 5. factory, the place of business, store-house, of the merchants trading in Ethiopia.

11. 7, 8. had me in a chain, the former bondage being that of love.

1. 10. given the world for, given everything in the world had I possessed it.

1. 14. Pugg, a term frequently applied to a monkey, originally meaning an imp or little demon.

1. 15. shock-dog, shaggy dog, dog with rough hair; in Macb. iii. 1. 94, spelt shough.


1. 27. The Humorous Lieutenant, a play by Fletcher, first printed in 1627.


1. 29. consort, concert, combined music: cat-calls, a squeaking instrument, or kind of whistle, used especially in play-houses to express impatience or disapprobation ... (2) the sound made by this instrument or an imitation with the voice; a shrill screaming whistle... (3) one who uses the instrument" (Murray, Eng. Dict.).

P. 114, 1. 2. music-meeting, concert hall.

1. 4. caterwauling, "formed, and the verb waw, to make a noise like a cat, with the addition of l to give the verb a frequentative force. The word waw is imitative" (Skeat, Ety. Dict.).

1. 13. lately come from Italy, an allusion to the introduction of the Italian opera.

1. 14. to be free with you, to speak my mind freely. I would ... fiddle, implying that to his ears an English fiddle was unpleasant enough.

1. 20. John Shallow, Esq., the name is taken from a foolish character in the Merry Wives of Windsor and ii. H. IV., who is fond of always calling himself 'esquire,' e.g. M. W. i. 1. 4, 111, "he shall not abuse Robert Shallow, esquire"; "Robert Shallow, esquire, saith he is wronged."

1. 30. the mathematical... music, the scientific theory of music which deals with the combination of tones, etc., etc.

1. 32. Jubal, the original inventor of music, son of Lamech; see Genesis, iv. 21, "And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.'

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P. 115, ll. 3, 4. but for our string music in general, referring to the cat-gut' with which musical instruments are stringed; though in reality cat-gut' is the dried and twisted intestines of sheep, and sometimes of the horse and ass.

1. 5. virtuoso, see note on p. 94, 1. 9.

1. 6. Thespis, the father of Greek tragedy, a contemporary of Pisistratus, about B.C. 535.


1.7. the ancient comedy, comedy among the Greeks was divided into the Old Comedy, from B.C. 458-404, the Middle Comedy, from 404 to 340, and the New Comedy from 340 to 269. Old Comedy properly begins with Cratinus; Aristophanes, the greatest of all the comic poets, belongs partly to the Old and

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