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Account of the Lancashire plot-The commons inquire into the abuses which had

crept into the army-They expel and prosecute some of their own members for cor-

ruption in the affair of the East India company-Examination of Cooke, Acton,

and others-The commons impeach the duke of Leeds-The parliament is pro-

rogued-Session of the Scottish parliament-They inquire into the massacre of

Glencoe-They pass an act for erecting a trading company to Africa and the

Indies-Proceedings in the parliament of Ireland-Disposition of the armies in

Flanders-King William undertakes the siege of Namur-Famous retreat of

prince Vaudemont-Brussels is bombarded by Villeroy-Progress of the siege

of Namur-Villeroy attempts to relieve it-The besiegers make a desperate

assault-The place capitulates-Boufflers is arrested by order of king William-

Campaign on the Rhine, and in Hungary-The duke of Savoy takes Casal-

Transactions in Catalonia-The English fleet bombards St. Maloes and other

places on the coast of France-Wilmot's expedition to the West Indies--A new

parliament-They pass the bill for regulating trials in cases of high-treason-

Resolutions with respect to a new coinage-The commons address the king to

recall a grant he had made to the earl of Portland-Another against the new

Scottish company-Intrigues of the Jacobites-Conspiracy against the life of

William-Design of an invasion defeated-The two houses engage in an asso-

ciation for the defence of his majesty-Establishment of a land-bank-Trial of

the conspirators-The allies burn the magazine at Givet-Lewis XIV. makes

advances towards a peace with Holland--He detaches the duke of Savoy

from the confederacy-Naval transactions-Proceedings in the parliaments of

Scotland and Ireland-Zeal of the English commons in their affection to the

king-Resolutions touching the coin, and the support of the public credit-

Enormous impositions-Sir John Fenwick is apprehended-A bill of attainder

being brought into the house against him, produces violent debates-His defence

-The bill passes-Sir John Fenwick is beheaded-The earl of Monmouth sent

to the Tower-Inquiry into miscarriages by sea-Negotiations at Ryswick--The

French take Barcelona-Fruitless expedition of admiral Neville to the West

Indies-The elector of Saxony is chosen king of Poland-Peter, the czar of Mus-

covy, travels in disguise with his own ambassadors-Proceedings in the congress

at Ryswick--The ambassadors of England, Spain, and Holland, sign the treaty-

A general pacification

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a bill of resumption-And a severe bill against Papists-The old East India

company re-established-Dangerous ferment in Scotland-Lord Somers dismiss-

ed from his employments-Second treaty of partition-Death of the duke of

Gloucester-The king sends a fleet to the Baltic, to the assistance of the Swedes-

The second treaty of partition generally disagreeable to the European powers-

The French interest prevails at the court of Spain-King William finds means to

allay the heats in Scotland-The king of Spain dies, after having bequeathed his

dominions, by wil, to the duke of Anjou-The French king's apology for accept-

ing the will-The states-general own Philip as king of Spain-A new ministry

and a new parliament-The commons unpropitious to the court-The lords are

more condescending-An intercepted letter from the earl of Milfort to his bro-

ther-Succession of the crown settled upon the princess Sophia, electress dowager

of Hanover, and the Protestant heirs of her body-The dutchess of Savoy pro-

tests against this act-Ineffectual negotiation with France-Severe addresses from

both houses in relation to the partition-treaty-William is obliged to acknowledge

the king of Spain-The two houses seem to enter into the king's measures-

commons resolve to wreak their vengeance on the old ministry-The earls of

Portland and Oxford, the lords Somers and Halifax, are impeached-Disputes

between the two houses-The house of commons acquits the impeached lords—

Petition of Kent-Favourable end of the session-Progress of prince Eugene in

Italy-Sketch of the situation of affairs in Europe-Treaty of alliance between

the emperor and the maritime powers-Death of king James-The French king

owns the pretended prince of Wales as king of England-Addresses to king

William on that subject-New parliament-The king's last speech to both houses

received with great applause-Great harmony between the king and parliament-

The two houses pass the bill of abjuration-The lower house justifies the pro-

ceedings of the commons in the preceding parliament--Affairs of Ireland-The

king recommends a union of the two kingdoms-He falls from his horse-His

death-and character

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Anne succeeds to the throne-She resolves to fulfil the engagements of her pre-
decessor with his allies-A French memorial presented to the states-general-
The queen's inclination to the tories--War declared against France-The parlia-
ment prorogued-Warm opposition to the ministry in the Scottish parliament—
They recognise her majesty's authority-The queen appoints commissioners to
treat of a union between England and Scotland-State of affairs on the continent
-Keiserswaert and Landau taken by the allies-Progress of the earl of Marlbo-
rough in Flanders-He narrowly escapes being taken by a French partisan-The
imperialists are worsted at Fridlinguen-Battle of Luzzara, in Italy-The king of
Sweden defeats Augustus at Lissau, in Poland-Fruitless expedition to Cadiz by
the duke of Ormond and sir George Rooke-They take and destroy the Spanish
galleons at Vigo-Admiral Benbow's engagement with Ducasse in the West In-
dies-The queen assembles a new parliament-Disputes between the two houses
-The lords inquire into the conduct of sir George Rooke-The parliament make
a settlement on prince George of Denmark-The earl of Marlborough created a
duke--All commerce and correspondence prohibited between Holland and the
two crowns of France and Spain-A bill for preventing occasional conformity-
It miscarries-Violent animosity between the two houses, produced by the in-
quiry into the public accounts-Disputes between the two houses of convocation
-Account of the parties in Scotland-Dangerous heats in the parliament of that

kingdom-The commissioner is abandoned by the cavaliers-He is in danger of

his life, and suddenly prorogues the parliament-Proceedings of the Irish parlia-

ment-They pass a severe act against Papists-The elector of Bavaria defeats

the imperialists at Scardingen, and takes possession of Ratisbon-The allies re-

duce Bonne-Battle of Eckeren-The prince of Hesse is defeated by the French

at Spirebach-Treaty between the emperor and the duke of Savoy-The king of

Portugal accedes to the grand alliance-Sir Cloudesley Shovel sails with a fleet to

the Mediterranean-Admiral Graydon's bootless expedition to the West Indies-

Charles king of Spain arrives in England.

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THE

HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

CHAP. I.

WILLIAM AND MARY,

§ I. State of the nation immediately after the Revolution-§ II. Account of the new ministry-§ III. The convention converted into a parlia ment-§ IV. Mutiny in the army-§ V. The coronation, and abolition of hearth-money-§ VI. The commons vote a sum of money to indemnify the Dutch-§ VII. William's efforts in favour of the dissenters— § VIII. Act for a toleration-§ IX. Violent disputes about the bill for a comprehension-§ X. The commons address the king to summon a convocation of the clergy—§ XI. Settlement of the revenue—§ XII. The king takes umbrage at the proceedings of the whig party-§ XIII. Heats and animosities about the bill of indemnity recommended by the king-§ XIV. Birth of the duke of Gloucester-§ XV. Affairs of the continent—§ XVI. War declared against France—§ XVII. Proceedings in the convention of Scotland, of which the duke of Hamilton is chosen president-§ XVIII. Letters to the convention from king William and king James-§ XIX. They recognise the authority of king William-§ XX. They vote the crown vacant, and pass an act of settlement in favour of William and Mary-§ XXI. They appoint commissioners to make a tender of the crown to William, who receives it on the conditions they propose-§ XXII. Enumeration of their grievances. The convention is declared a parliament, and the duke of Hamilton king's commissioner-§ XXIII. Prelacy abolished in that kingdom. The Scots dissatisfied with the king's conduct-§ XXIV. Violent disputes in the Scotch parliament-§ XXV. Which is adjourned. A remonstrance presented to the king-§ XXVI. The castle of Edinburgh besieged and taken-§ XXVII. The troops of king William defeated at Killycrankie-§ XXVIII. King James cordially received by the French king-§ XXIX. Tyrconnel temporizes with king William-§ XXX. James arrives in Ireland-§ XXXI. Issues five proclamations at Dublin-§ XXXII. Siege of Londonderry§ XXXIII. The inhabitants defend themselves with surprising courage and perseverance—§ XXXIV. Cruelty of Rosene, the French general-§ XXXV. The place is relieved by Kirke-§ XXXVI. The Inniskilliners defeat and take general Maccarty-§ XXXVII. Meeting of the Irish parliament-§ XXXVIII. They repeal the act

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of settlement-§ XXXIX. Pass an act of attainder against absentees -§ XL. James coins base money. The Protestants of Ireland cruelly oppressed—§ XLI. Their churches are seized by the Catholics, and they are forbid to assemble on pain of death—§ XLII. Admiral Herbert worsted by the French fleet, in an engagement near Bantry-bay— § XLIII. Divers sentences and attainders reversed in parliament— § XLIV. Inquiry into the cause of miscarriages in Ireland—§ XLV. Bills passed in this session of parliament.

§ I. THE constitution of England had now assumed a new aspect. The maxim of hereditary, indefeasible right, was at length renounced by a free parliament. The power of the crown was acknowledged to flow from no other fountain than that of a contract with the people. Allegiance and protection were declared reciprocal ties depending upon each other. The representatives of the nation made a regular claim of rights in behalf of their constituents; and William III. ascended the throne in consequence of an express capitulation with the people. Yet, on this occasion, the zeal of the parliament towards their deliverer seems to have overshot their attachment to their own liberty and privileges or at least they neglected the fairest opportunity that ever occurred, to retrench those prerogatives of the crown to which they imputed all the late and former calamities of the kingdom. Their new monarch retained the old regal power over parliaments in its full extent. He was left at liberty to convoke, adjourn, prorogue, and dissolve them at his pleasure. He was enabled to influence elections, and oppress corporations. He possessed the right of choosing his own council; of nominating all the great officers of the state, and of the household, of the army, the navy, and the church. He reserved the absolute command of the militia: so that he remained master of all the instruments and engines of corruption and violence, without any other restraint than his own moderation, and prudent regard to the claim of rights, and principle of resistance on which the revolution was founded. In a word, the settlement was

finished with some precipitation, before the plan had been properly digested and matured; and this will be the case in every establishment formed upon a sudden emergency in the face of opposition. It was observed, that the king, who was made by the people, had it in his power to rule without them; to govern jure divino, though he was created jure humano: and that, though the change proceeded from a republican spirit, the settlement was built upon tory maxims; for the execution of his government continued still independent of his commission, while his own person remained sacred and inviolable. The prince of Orange had been invited to England by a coalition of parties, united by a common sense of danger: but this tie was no sooner broken than they flew asunder, and each resumed its original bias. Their mutual jealousy and rancour revived, and was heated by dispute into intemperate zeal and enthusiasm. Those who at first acted from principles of patriotism were insensibly warmed into partisans; and king William soon found himself at the head of a faction.

As

he had been bred a Calvinist, and always expressed an abhorrence of spiritual persecution, the Presbyterians, and other Protestant dissenters, considered him as their peculiar protector, and entered into his interests with the most zealous fervour and assiduity. For the same

reasons, the friends of the church became jealous of his proceedings, and employed all their influence, first in opposing his elevation to the throne, and afterward in thwarting his measures. Their party was espoused by all the friends of the lineal succession; by the Roman Catholics; by those who were personally attached to the late king; and by such as were disgusted by the conduct and personal deportment of William since his arrival in England. They observed, that, contrary to his declaration, he had plainly aspired to the crown, and treated his father-in-law with insolence and rigour : that his army contained a number of foreign Papists, almost

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