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therefore the king of France would reserve Strasbourg, and unite it, with its dependencies, to his crown for ever that in other respects he would adhere to the project, and restore Barcelona to the crown of Spain; but that these terms must be accepted in twenty days, otherwise he should think himself at liberty to recede. The ministers of the electors, and princes of the empire, joined in a written remonstrance to the Spanish plenipotentiaries, representing the inconveniences and dangers that would accrue to the Germanic body from France's being in possession of Luxembourg, and exhorting them in the strongest terms to reject all offers of an equivalent for that province. They likewise presented another to the states-general, requiring them to continue the war, according to their engagements, until France should have complied with the preliminaries. No regard, however, was paid to either of these addresses. Then the imperial ambassadors demanded the good offices of the mediator, on certain articles: but all that he could obtain of France was, that the term for adjusting the peace between her and the emperor should be prolonged till the 1st day of November, and in the meantime an armistice be punctually observed. Yet even these concessions were made, on condition that the treaty with England, Spain, and Holland, should be signed on that day, even though the emperor and empire should not concur.

§ LIV. Accordingly, on the 20th day of September, the articles were subscribed by the Dutch, English, Spanish, and French ambassadors, while the imperial ministers protested against the transaction, observing, this was the second time that a separate peace had been concluded with France; and that the states of the em pire, who had been imposed upon through their own credulity, would not for the future be so easily persuaded to engage in confederacies. In certain preparatory articles settled between England and France, king William

promised to pay a yearly pension to queen Mary d'Esté of 50,000l. or such sum as should be established for that purpose by act of parliament. The treaty itself consisted of seventeen articles. The French king engaged, that he would not disturb or disquiet the king of Great Britain in the possession of his realms or government, nor assist his enemies, nor favour conspiracies against his person. This obligation was reciprocal. A free commerce was restored. Commissaries were appointed to meet at London, and settle the pretensions of each crown to Hudson's-bay, taken by the French during the late peace, and retaken by the English in the course of the war; and to regulate the limits of the places to be restored, as well as the exchanges to be made. It was like wise stipulated, that, in case of a rupture, six months should be allowed to the subjects of each power for removing their effects: that the separate articles of the treaty of Nimeguen, relating to the principality of Orange, should be entirely executed; and that the ́ratifications should be exchanged in three weeks from the day of signing. The treaty between France and Holland imported a general armistice, a perpetual amity, a mutual restitution, a reciprocal renunciation of all pretensions upon each other, a confirmation of the peace with Savoy, a re-establishment of the treaty concluded between France and Brandenburgh in the year 1679, a comprehension of Sweden, and all those powers that should be named before the ratification, or in six months after the conclusion of the treaty. Besides, the Dutch ministers concluded a treaty of commerce with France, which was immediately put in execution. Spain had great reason to be satisfied with the pacification, by which she recovered Gironne, Roses, Barcelona, Luxembourg, Charleroy, Mons, Courtray, and all the towns, fortresses, and territories, taken by the French in the province of Luxembourg, Namur, Brabant, Flanders, and Hainault, except eighty-two towns and villages

claimed by the French: this dispute was left to the decision of commissaries; or, in case they should not agree, to the determination of the states-general. A remonstrance in favour of the French Protestant refugees in England, Holland, and Germany, was delivered by the earl of Pembroke to the mediators, in the name of the Protestant allies, on the day that preceded the conclusion of the treaty; but the French plenipotentiaries declared, in the name of their master, that, as he did not pretend to prescribe rules to king William about the English subjects, he expected the same liberty with respect to his own. No other effort was made in behalf of those conscientious exiles: the treaties were ratified, and the peace proclaimed at Paris and London.

§ LV. The emperor still held out, and perhaps was encouraged to persevere in his obstinacy by the success of his arms in Hungary, where his general, prince Eugene of Savoy, obtained a complete victory at Zenta over the forces of the grand seignior, who commanded his army in person. In this battle, which was fought on the 11th day of September, the grand vizier, the aga of the janissaries, seven-and-twenty bashaws, and about thirty thousand men, were killed or drowned in the river Theysse: six thousand were wounded or taken, together with all their artillery, tents, baggage, provision, and ammunition, the grand seignior himself escaping with difficulty: a victory the more glorious and acceptable, as the Turks had a great superiority in point of number, and as the imperialists did not lose a thousand men during the whole action. The emperor, perceiving that the event of this battle had no effect in retarding the treaty, thought proper to make use of the armistice, and continue the negotiation after the fore-mentioned treaties had been signed. This was likewise the case with the princes of the empire; though those of the Protestant persuasion complained that their interest was neglected. In one of the articles of the treaty it was

stipulated, that, in the places to be restored by France, the Roman Catholic religion should continue as it had been re-established. The ambassadors of the Protestant princes joined in a remonstrance, demanding that the Lutheran religion should be restored in those places where it had formerly prevailed; but this demand was rejected, as being equally disagreeable to France and the emperor. Then they refused to sign the treaty, which was now concluded between France, the emperor, and the Catholic princes of the empire. By this pacification, Triers, the palatinate, and Lorraine, were restored to their respective owners. The countries of Spanheim and Veldentz, together with the dutchy of Deux Ponts, were ceded to the king of Sweden. Francis Louis Palatine was confirmed in the electorate of Cologn; and cardinal Furstemberg restored to all his rights and benefices. The claims of the dutchess of Orleans upon the palatinate were referred to the arbitration of France and the emperor; and in the meantime, the elector palatine agreed to supply her highness with an annuity of one hundred thousand florins. The ministers of the Protestant princes published a formal declaration against the clause relating to religion, and afterward solemnly protested against the manner in which the negotiation had been conducted. Such was the issue of a long and bloody war, which had drained England of her wealth and people, almost entirely ruined her commerce, debauched her morals, by encouraging venality and corruption, and entailed upon her the curse of foreign connexions, as well as a national debt, which was gradually increased to an intolerable burden. After all the blood and treasure which had been expended, William's ambition and revenge remained unsatisfied. Nevertheless, he reaped the solid advantage of seeing himself firmly established on the English throne; and the confederacy, though not successful in every instance, accomplished their great aim of putting a stop to the encroachments

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of the French monarch. They mortified his vanity, they humbled his pride and arrogance, and compelled him to disgorge the acquisitions which, like a robber, he had made in violation of public faith, justice, and humanity. Had the allies been true to one another; had they acted from genuine zeal for the common interests of mankind; and prosecuted with vigour the plan which was originally concerted, Lewis would in a few campaigns have been reduced to the most abject state of disgrace, despondence, and submission; for he was destitute of true courage and magnanimity. King William, having finished this important transaction, returned to England about the middle of November, and was received in London amidst the acclamations of the people, who now again hailed him as their deliverer from a war, by the continuance of which they must have been infallibly beggared.

CHAP. VI.

§ I. State of parties-§ II. Characters of the ministers-§ III. The commons reduce the number of standing forces to ten thousand— § IV. They establish the civil list; and assign funds for paying the national debts-§ V. They take cognizance of fraudulent endorsements of exchequer bills—§ VI. A new East India company constituted by act of parliament—§ VII. Proceedings against a book written by William Molineux of Dublin—§ VIII. And against certain smugglers of alamodes and lustrings from France-§ IX. Society for the reformation of manners-§ X. The earl of Portland resigns his employments→→ § XI. The king disowns the Scottish trading company-§ XII. He embarks for Holland-§ XIII. First treaty of partition-§ XIV. Intrigues of France at the court of Madrid—§ XV. King William is thwarted by his new parliament—§ XVI. He is obliged to send away his Dutch guards—§ XVII. The commons address the king against the Papists-§ XVIII. The parliament prorogued-§ XIX. The Scottish company make a settlement on the isthmus of Darien;§ XX. Which, however, they are compelled to abandon-§ XXI. Remonstrances of the Spanish court against the treaty of partition— § XXII. The commons persist in their resolutions to mortify the king- XXIII. Inquiry into the expedition of captain Kidd— § XXIV. A motion made against Burnet, bishop of Sarum -§ XXV.

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