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Anne succeeds to the throne-She resolves to fulfil the engagements of her pre-
HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
WILLIAM AND MARY,
§ I. State of the nation immediately after the Revolution-§ II. Account of the new ministry-§ III. The convention converted into a parlia ment-§ IV. Mutiny in the army-§ V. The coronation, and abolition of hearth-money-§ VI. The commons vote a sum of money to indemnify the Dutch-§ VII. William's efforts in favour of the dissenters— § VIII. Act for a toleration-§ IX. Violent disputes about the bill for a comprehension-§ X. The commons address the king to summon a convocation of the clergy—§ XI. Settlement of the revenue—§ XII. The king takes umbrage at the proceedings of the whig party-§ XIII. Heats and animosities about the bill of indemnity recommended by the king-§ XIV. Birth of the duke of Gloucester-§ XV. Affairs of the continent—§ XVI. War declared against France—§ XVII. Proceedings in the convention of Scotland, of which the duke of Hamilton is chosen president-§ XVIII. Letters to the convention from king William and king James-§ XIX. They recognise the authority of king William-§ XX. They vote the crown vacant, and pass an act of settlement in favour of William and Mary-§ XXI. They appoint commissioners to make a tender of the crown to William, who receives it on the conditions they propose-§ XXII. Enumeration of their grievances. The convention is declared a parliament, and the duke of Hamilton king's commissioner-§ XXIII. Prelacy abolished in that kingdom. The Scots dissatisfied with the king's conduct-§ XXIV. Violent disputes in the Scotch parliament-§ XXV. Which is adjourned. A remonstrance presented to the king-§ XXVI. The castle of Edinburgh besieged and taken-§ XXVII. The troops of king William defeated at Killycrankie-§ XXVIII. King James cordially received by the French king-§ XXIX. Tyrconnel temporizes with king William-§ XXX. James arrives in Ireland-§ XXXI. Issues five proclamations at Dublin-§ XXXII. Siege of Londonderry§ XXXIII. The inhabitants defend themselves with surprising courage and perseverance—§ XXXIV. Cruelty of Rosene, the French general-§ XXXV. The place is relieved by Kirke-§ XXXVI. The Inniskilliners defeat and take general Maccarty-§ XXXVII. Meeting of the Irish parliament-§ XXXVIII. They repeal the act
of settlement-§ XXXIX. Pass an act of attainder against absentees -§ XL. James coins base money. The Protestants of Ireland cruelly oppressed—§ XLI. Their churches are seized by the Catholics, and they are forbid to assemble on pain of death—§ XLII. Admiral Herbert worsted by the French fleet, in an engagement near Bantry-bay— § XLIII. Divers sentences and attainders reversed in parliament— § XLIV. Inquiry into the cause of miscarriages in Ireland—§ XLV. Bills passed in this session of parliament.
§ I. THE constitution of England had now assumed a new aspect. The maxim of hereditary, indefeasible right, was at length renounced by a free parliament. The power of the crown was acknowledged to flow from no other fountain than that of a contract with the people. Allegiance and protection were declared reciprocal ties depending upon each other. The representatives of the nation made a regular claim of rights in behalf of their constituents; and William III. ascended the throne in consequence of an express capitulation with the people. Yet, on this occasion, the zeal of the parliament towards their deliverer seems to have overshot their attachment to their own liberty and privileges or at least they neglected the fairest opportunity that ever occurred, to retrench those prerogatives of the crown to which they imputed all the late and former calamities of the kingdom. Their new monarch retained the old regal power over parliaments in its full extent. He was left at liberty to convoke, adjourn, prorogue, and dissolve them at his pleasure. He was enabled to influence elections, and oppress corporations. He possessed the right of choosing his own council; of nominating all the great officers of the state, and of the household, of the army, the navy, and the church. He reserved the absolute command of the militia: so that he remained master of all the instruments and engines of corruption and violence, without any other restraint than his own moderation, and prudent regard to the claim of rights, and principle of resistance on which the revolution was founded. In a word, the settlement was
finished with some precipitation, before the plan had been properly digested and matured; and this will be the case in every establishment formed upon a sudden emergency in the face of opposition. It was observed, that the king, who was made by the people, had it in his power to rule without them; to govern jure divino, though he was created jure humano: and that, though the change proceeded from a republican spirit, the settlement was built upon tory maxims; for the execution of his government continued still independent of his commission, while his own person remained sacred and inviolable. The prince of Orange had been invited to England by a coalition of parties, united by a common sense of danger: but this tie was no sooner broken than they flew asunder, and each resumed its original bias. Their mutual jealousy and rancour revived, and was heated by dispute into intemperate zeal and enthusiasm. Those who at first acted from principles of patriotism were insensibly warmed into partisans; and king William soon found himself at the head of a faction.
he had been bred a Calvinist, and always expressed an abhorrence of spiritual persecution, the Presbyterians, and other Protestant dissenters, considered him as their peculiar protector, and entered into his interests with the most zealous fervour and assiduity. For the same
reasons, the friends of the church became jealous of his proceedings, and employed all their influence, first in opposing his elevation to the throne, and afterward in thwarting his measures. Their party was espoused by all the friends of the lineal succession; by the Roman Catholics; by those who were personally attached to the late king; and by such as were disgusted by the conduct and personal deportment of William since his arrival in England. They observed, that, contrary to his declaration, he had plainly aspired to the crown, and treated his father-in-law with insolence and rigour : that his army contained a number of foreign Papists, almost