Addison in his Account of the
the Dedication to his Homer.
Tatler to him (April 1711).


Earl of Halifax, had been praised by Dedica
Greatest English Poets, and by Tickell in tion.
Steele dedicated the fourth volume of the
Halifax succeeded Bubb Dodington as

Full-blown Bufo, puffed by every quill;
Fed with soft dedication all day long.

(Epist. to Dr. Arbuthnot, 232-3.)

PAGE 3. Motto. Statius, Theb. ii. 128.

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-It was the custom of the playhouse at this time for the wits
and men-about-town to go to the Side-boxes, and for the ladies to
sit in the Front or Middle-boxes (Cf. Nos. 88, 311, 377). Steele
epitomizes an andience thus-"Three of the fair sex for the front
boxes, two gentlemen of wit and pleasure for the side-boxes, and
three substantial citizens for the pit " (Theatre, No. 3). Cf. Con-
greve's Double-Dealer, II. ii.; Tatler, Nos. 77 and 217; Rape of the
Lock, v. 14; and Gay's Toilette. At the first performance of Cato,
Addison entertained Bishop Berkeley and some friends in a side-
box with "two or three flasks of burgundy and champagne.'
Dr. Johnson's definition of a side-box as the "seat for the ladies
on the side of the theatre" shows that by his time that part of
the house was no longer reserved for only the bolder or less
reputable of their sex. He and his party occupied the "front row
in a side-box" at Covent Garden on the first night of She Stoops
to Conquer (Forster's Goldsmith, IV. xv., quoted by Mr. Dobson).
-Patches. See vol. i. p. 187. The setting' of the head-
dress was also symbolic of political leanings. Cf. The Free-
holder: "She has contrived to shew her principles by the setting
of her commode."

PAGE 4. Addison quotes from Cowley's Davideis, iii. 403-4, but
changes the sex of the tiger for his present purpose.
the quotation from Statius from Cowley's notes.

No. 81.

He borrows

PAGE 6. Oration of Pericles. Thucydides, II. xlv.

Motto. Juvenal, Sat. iii. 33.

No. 82.

-Ludgate was, till the order for its removal in July 1760, a prison for debtors who were freemen of the city, lawyers, or clergy

Motto. Virgil Æn. i. 468.


PAGE 7. Denham's Cooper's Hill, 11. 31-2. 'Tho' several ways.'

PAGE 10.

PAGE 12. An old man. Hogarth has satirized this image in his "Time smoking a Picture" (1761). See also his Analysis of

No. 83.

Beauty (p. 118, ed. 1753).

PAGE 13. Motto. Virgil, Æn. ii. 6-8.

Duelling. See vol. i. p. 36 n. *y 164


No. 84.

No. 84.

No. 85.

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Pharamond. See vol. i. p. 288 and note. The names Eucrate (ib.) and Spinamont are coined by Steele to give point to his modern application, the former signifying 'temperate' (UKρaтos), the latter being a disguise for Mr. Richard Thornhill, who shot Sir Cholmondeley Dering in a duel in Tuttle-fields on 9th May 1711. This encounter, which, according to Swift, "made a noise at the time, is referred to by him in his Journal to Stella under that date. See B. I. (Thornhill, Richard). Jeremy Collier had already anticipated some of Steele's arguments in his conference Of Duelling' between Philotimus and Philalethes (Essays, 2nd ed. 1697, p. 103).

PAGE 15. Line 12. 'which spoke the utmost sense of his Majesty without ability to express it,' A.

PAGE 17. Motto. Horace, Ars Poet., 319-322.

Pye, piety, a very ancient pun. Cf. vol. i. p. 330.

PAGE 18. The evergreen 66
History of the Two Children in the
Wood" was printed with "The old Song upon the Same" in
chap-book form in 1700. See Ashton's Chapbooks of the Eighteenth
Century, p. 369 et seq., for an account of this rare pamphlet. The
earliest version of the ballad in the British Museum is dated 1640.
Line 29. 6
are such as Virgil himself would have touched upon
had the like story been told by that Divine Poet. For which . A.
With this allusion to Virgil in A cf. vol. i. Nos. 70 and 74.
Addison's emendations throughout this paper are for the most
part a reduction of the emphasis of the first issue-e.g. 'wonder-
fully natural' becomes 'natural,'-a peace-offering to the "little
conceited Wits" who had not relished his praise of the Ballads.
In the concluding paragraph Addison may refer to an anony-
mous threepenny pamphlet, ascribed to Dr. William Wagstaffe,
A Comment upon the History of Tom Thumb, which reached a
second edition in 1711. "It is a surprising thing," writes the
satirist, "that in an Age so Polite as this, in which we have such a
number of Poets, Criticks, and Commentators, some of the best
things that are extant in our language should pass unobserv'd. . .
Indeed we had an Enterprising Genius of late, that has thought
fit to disclose the Beauties of some Pieces to the World, that
might have been otherwise indiscernable, and believ'd trifling
and insipid, for no other Reason but their unpolish'd Homeliness
of Dress. And if we were to apply our selves, instead of the
Classicks, to the Study of Ballads it is impossible to say
what improvement might be made to Wit in general and the Art
of Poetry in particular.' The story of Tom Thumb will be found
superior to either of those incomparable Poems of Chevy Chase
or The Children in the Wood" (pp. 1, 2). He commends "the
Beauty, Regularity, and Majestic Simplicity of the Relation" (p. 18)
and adds, "tho' I am very well satisfied with this Performance,
yet according to the usual modesty of Authors, I am oblig'd to
tell the World it will be a great Satisfaction to me, knowing my
own insufficiency, if I have given but some hints of the Beauties
of this Poem" (p. 21). And again, "The most refin'd Writers of
this Age have been delighted with the reading it. Mr. Tho.
D'Urfey, I am told, is an Admirer, and Mr. John Dunton has

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been heard to " say, more than once, 'He had rather be the No. 85, Author of it than all his Works '" (p. 23).

PAGE 19. Line 3. for a goodnatured Reader not,' A.

Horace, Odes, III, iv. 9-13.

Charles Sackville, Lord Dorset the 'Eugenius' of Dryden's
Essay of Dramatic Poesy.

-greatest Candour-'greatest Humanity,' A.

-Molière's Misanthrope I. ii., where Alceste quotes an old song, and declares its superiority to a sonnet about Phillis, just recited. He adds

"La rime n'est pas riche, et le style en est vieux :
Mais ne voyez-vous as que cela vaut bien mieux
Que ces colifichets dont le bon sens murmure,
Et que la passion parle-là toute pure?"

See also the Prologue to Rowe's Jane Shore (1713) for the expression of the same notion.

PAGE 20. Motto. Ovid, Metam. ii. 447.

-Speak that I may see thee. "Ut te videam aliquid eloquere,"
a saying ascribed to Socrates by Apuleius in his Florida (ii.).
PAGE 21. Martial Epigrams, XII. liv.

-The ingenious author is probably Baptista della Porta, whose
De Humana Physiognomia, in 4 books, appeared in 1586.

-Nahum Tate translated P. Coste's Life of Condé in 1693,
under the title The Life of Louis of Bourbon, late Prince of Condé,
digested into Annals. Done out of French.

-Socrates was an extraordinary instance. The first half of the paragraph is a transcript from Cicero's De Fato, ch. v., which recounts the diagnosis of Zopyrus the physiognomist; the second, concerning Socrates conquering his particular vices,' from the Tusculan Disputations, iv. 37.

the Platonist,' author of the

PAGE 23. Silenus. Plato, Symposium, 215A.
-Dr. Moore. Henry More,
Enchiridion Ethicum (1669).
Motto. Virgil, Eclog. ii. 17.

Ugly Club. See vol i. p. 64 and note. Idols, see vol. i. p. 277.
Hecatissa. See vol. i. p. 179.

PAGE 24.

PAGE 25. Sacrificed my necklace, etc., ante, p. 6.

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PAGE 26. T. T.' has been identified with Laurence Eusden.

This paper in A concludes with the following Advertisement : "This is to give Notice, That the three Criticks who last Sunday settled the Characters of my Lord Rochester and Boileau, in the Yard of a Coffee-house in Fuller's Rents, will meet this next Sunday at the same Time and Place, to finish the Merits of several Dramatick Writers: And will also make an End of the Nature of True Sublime."

Motto. Virgil, Eclog. iii. 16.

This paper, which is a companion to Nos. 96, 107, and 137,
may be compared in many of its details with Act I. sc. i. of
Steele's Conscious Lovers, and with his dramatic fragment, The
Gentleman. Townley's High Life Below Stairs (Drury Lane,
Oct. 1759) is said to have been founded on it.

No, 86.

No. 87,

No. 88.

No. 88.

No. 89,

No. 90.

No. 91

No. 92,

PAGE 28. Purle, "a kind of medicated malt liquor, in which wormwood and aromaticks are infused" (Johnson). Cf. also Purl-royal (Halliwell).

PAGE 29. The Ring. See vol. i. p. 357.

White's. See vol. i. pp. 323, 352. It was situated at the lower
end of St. James's Street, and was notorious as a resort of fashion-
able gamesters.
It is the building in the background of the Fourth

Plate of Hogarth's "Rake's Progress
has directed a streak of lightning.

Side-boxes, ante, p. 3 and note.

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against which the artist

PAGE 30. Motto. Persius, Sat. v. 64-71. Addison printed juvenesque
for puerique in the first line.

PAGE 31. Philander and Strephon had been introduced by the Tatler.
See especially Nos. 13 and 245.

PAGE 33.

PAGE 34.

Paradise Lost, viii. 469-495, 500-511.

Motto. Virgil, Georgics, iii. 99-100.

Notions of Plato. Republic (towards the end), Gorgias (524), but especially Phado (81).

PAGE 35.

The Platonists. So, too, Henry More, referred to on p. 23.
Virgil. En. vi. 604-7. Dryden's translation, vi. 818-23:

'By their sides is set.'
PAGE 36. Monsieur Pontignan. Addison's learned author is Bayle,
and "the other occasion is his article on the abbey of Fontev-
raud [Frontevaux]. Pontignan, the hero of the adventure, is
introduced in a footnote (in the editions after that of 1697)
thus :-"This brings to my mind an adventure I read in a little
book which was printed at Paris and Holland anno 1682," i.e. the
Académie Galante. The "gay rambler," runs the footnote, found
"these ladies, how immodest soever they may be represented,
were more prudent than the Devotees of Frontevaux."

PAGE 38. Motto. Virgil, Georgics, iii. 244. This paper, according to
Chalmers (ii. 10, iv. 128, notes), was written by Hughes.

PAGE 39.
PAGE 40.

Her snuff-box. See vol. i. p. 357.

Fine Gentleman. See vol. i. No. 75.

Sidley (Sedley), etc., from Rochester's Allusion to the Tenth Satire of the First Book of Horace, 11. 64-70. The original reads (2) "resistless Power" and (5) “ Betwixt declining Virtue." PAGE 41. Celia the Fair. Dryden, A New Song (xi. p. 176). Correctly, "Sylvia the fair, in the bloom of fifteen."

-Barn-elms, a favourite duelling ground. The Kit-Cat clubhouse was there (see vol. i. P. 331).

-Rival Mother. There were Rival Brothers, Rival Fools, Rival Kings, Rival Ladies, Rival Queens, Rival Sisters familiar to playgoers of Steele's day. Perhaps this hit at the popular epithet would specially recall Dryden's Rival Ladies, in which there is a

character named Honoria.

PAGE 42. Motto. Horace, Epist. II. ii. 61-3.

-Tea-equipage (see vol. i. p. 332).

-Leonora (see vol. i. p. 135) has been identified as Mrs. Perry, sister of Miss Shepheard, the Parthenia' of No. 140 and 'Leonora of No. 163. Both were kinswomen of Sir Fleetwood Shepheard. -Dalton's Countrey Justice first appeared in 1630, and ran

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