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superiority of the latter number is the “I came finally," says M. Matteucci" to expression of the immense advance in the most conclusive experiments that I the welfare of the French people in the could have desired for the developement course of the last half-century.

of the electric current in the torpedo. " It is greatly to be wished that the These experiments are always extremely same Function should be carefully cal- difficult, from the feeble vitality of the culated for other countries, in order that animal when often irritated, and from their welfare and prosperity might be the extreme care necessary to preserve accurately compared by one and the it alive when out of the sea. same scale."

By means of a very sensible galva

nometer, I found that the current in the Visible Sparks from the Torpedo. torpedo is constantly in the direction No one up to the present time has yet from the back to the abdomen. The perceived the electric spark in experi- | former may be considered as the posiments made on the torpedo. M. de tive, and the abdomen as the negative Humboldt, even in the native country pole of its apparatus. The discharge of the gymnotus, did not succeed in acts in the same direction in the two observing it. Walsh, unsuccessful in organs which are on the sides of the numerous attempts to obtain it from the torpedo, the current is also obtained torpedo, succeeded, in August, 1776, in precisely the same, when one of the rendering the spark visible, in ope- poles of the galvanometer touches the rating with a gymnotus. Fahlberg, In- lower part of the right organ, and the genhousz, and others, have stated, that other the back of that on the left, or they have observed, at times, a spark inversely. The deviation of the galvanoduring the discharge of the electrical meter is increased, if instead of directly eel of Surinam.

touching the skin of the torpedo with MM. Linari and Matteucci, in some the platina poles, they are brought in experiments upon torpedoes, conducted contact with slips of metal, previously with great care, have arrived at the placed on the two surfaces of the fish; most successful results. A letter, ad. but a continuous current is never prodressed by the latter philosopher to M. duced, however much the organ may Arago, contains some curious details on be compressed. The dischar the subject.

nerally produced with certainty, if the The author, in the first place, de- animal is bent so as to render the abdo scribes the apparatus by means of which men slightly concave. If the skin with M. Linari was able to obtain from a which an organ is covered be removed, single torpedo as many as ten sparks in the deviation diminishes in intensity, succession, every one very visible and but always occurs again when the anibrilliant. As far as M. Linari could mal discharges. When it ceases to ascertain, neither the size, the age, nor discharge, not the least trace of the the sex of the animal made the slightest electric current can be detected in any difference in the production of the part of the organ. The deviation is spark. A small torpedo, of four inches also altogether suspended, when the two and a half in diameter, furnished him extremities of the galvanometer touch with a long train of very brilliant sparks. the back, or the abdomen, of the fish They were also obtained from a torpedo at the same instant. If of the three which had been kept three days out of nervous bodies which run from the the sea, but then the brine of his tub brain and penetrate an organ, two are was obliged to be perpetually renewed. cut away, the discharge still continues, The decomposition of acidulated water, but it immediately ceases on cutting and the permanent magnetizing of steel away the middle one. The other organ, needles, were constantly obtained by if left entire during these operations, M. Linari.

continues to act without interruption." M. Matteucci, after describing his own apparatus, which differs but little from

Fluorine. that of M. Linari, states that he, in the first place, verified the results of the It is not commonly known in this latter experimenter, and then succeeded country* that this simple substance has in obtaining, with the current of the been obtained in its separate state. M. torpedo, all the phenomena of the ordi- Baudrimont, in a dictionary of general nary electric current.

* See Vol. I., p. 294,

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physics, published in December, 1834, United States New Patents' Act. indicated its general properties in these The Bill for the establishment of a terms: “Fluorine is a gaseous body of a deep brownish-yellow; its odour is Patent Office in the United States, and similar to that of Chlorine, or to that of for placing this branch of the adminisburnt sugar; it does not act on glass ; lature, on a simple and rational system,

tration under the control of the legisit deprives indigo of its colour, and combines directly with gold.“ M. Bau- intelligible to all, has passed into a law.

It received the fiat of the President drimont has recently obtained it by treating a mixture of fluoride of calcium the 4th of July last,—the Sixtieth

(“APPROVED, ANDREW JACKSON,") on and peroxide of manganese, with sulphuric acid in a glass bottle; the excess dence. The act is called an Act to

Anniversary of American Indepenof one of the substances employed would produce either oxygen or hydro- promote Useful Arts, and we look with fluoric acid, and this last by its action envy on the title. Nothing could be on the glass would be changed into morable day on which it obtained the

more in perfect harmony with the mesilicated-Huoric gas. His first method

American “Royal Assent," and though of extracting the fluorine, consisted in

we admit that the passing of such an Act decomposing fluoboric gas by means of the deutoxide of lead heated to red- richly deserved an anniversary of its ness, and he obtained fluorine but own, yet, taking it as it occurred, what less pure than subsequently.

could possibly be more peculiarly imM. Pelouze has lately announced pressive than the contemplation of the another mode; he decomposed fluoret of the anniversary of that nation's inde

chief magistrate of a great nation, on silver in water by means of chlorine, the pendence, giving validity to an Act to result, according to M. Baudrimont, ought to be a compound of hypochloric priate subject for an historical picture

promote the useful arts. A more approand hydrofluoric acids. A great difference is deserving of in the Washington Capitol can scarcely

be imagined. remark between the fluorine obtained

From such a scene, if we turn our eyes by these processes and that which might have been expected to be the national pride; here we see high offi

homeward, what humiliation awaits our base of fluoric or hydrofluoric acids, social personages clutching exorbitant well known for its energetic action on fees, and baflling every attempt made glass, and which appears to be more de

by our most enlightened and intelligent leterious than other hydro-acids. We may hope, therefore, soon to be arts." Here we see delay, and maneuvre,

countrymen " to promote the useful better acquainted with fluorine than and deception, successfully deferring, with fluoric-acid itself, which can neither be prepared nor preserved in glass teresting to our native talent, and uni

year after year, a measure deeply invessels.

versally important to the national ma

nufactures. Is it possible to contemplate Railroad Acts to end of recent

unruffled this contrast between the Session.

Old and the New Country ?" In this,

a fee of a few dollars on each patent, withThe following Railroad Acts have received the royal assent since our notice, maintains an office, in which qualified

out a farthing from the government, p. 78; they complete the list for the

persons are in attendance to advise in recent Session of Parliament.

cases of doubt, and to examine, and regis28th July. 30. London and Black- ter, and exhibit all specifications, in

wall Commercial Railway. which are provided scientific books, perio 31. Tremoutha Har

dical publications, models, and collections bour and Railway.

of machines, products, &c., all selected

and preserved for the purpose of spread: Aug. 13. 32. Edinburgh, Leith,

ing accurate information on subjects and Newhaven Railway. connected with patents, patentees, and

33. Dublin and Dro. patent-rights. In our country, nearly gheda Railway.

£30,000, perhaps more, has been paid. Parliament was prorogued on the 20th * An Abstract of this Bill is given at of August.

p. 76 of the present volume.

99

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within the current year to high public

Patent term may be extended seven years functionaries, who do nothing in the beyond the first term of fourteen, on applimatter, out of the pockets of inventors cation to commissioner, setting forth reaseeking security for their own discover- sons, giving public notice of same, furnishing es; -what have they received in return? the Board appointed to judge with descrip-about 300 lumps of green wax! not a

tion of invention, profit and loss, &c., and “drachma" more; not a particle of in- Board. Commissioner is then to extend

obtaining a favourable decision of the said formation has been granted—not the the patent by a certificate of said decision. slightest guarantee of the validity of No grant of extension can be made if the the patent has been vouchsafed, and first term be already expired. so little real knowledge has been pur- Applications pending at time of passing chased by this enormous outlay, that Act, and on which duty is paid, to be prothe instruments to which these lumps ceeded with as though filed after the passing are appended, have been correctly de- thereof. fined by one intimately conversant We have extracted the Fees, and with them, to be generally “traps tabulated them for convenient reference, for the unwary, sources of heart-break- and also to exhibit more conspicuously ing annoyance, and, in many cases, the vexatious pre-eminence as to excauses of utter ruin."

pense, which a “subject of the king The nal bill of the United of Great Britain" must hold, so long as States is so little altered by the his own government will not follow the Act, and the abstract we gave of the example of other nations, and relieve former at p. 76, is so copious and cor- or remove the oppressive burden. rect, that we consider it unnecessary to Duties to be paid on Applications, &c., for reprint the new document. There are Patents, and other Business relating some additions, of which the following thereto, under an Act of the United States, are the principal.

passed the 4th of July, 1836, entitled "An Commissioner has the privilege of frank

Act to promote useful Arts," &c. ing all letters and packages by mail, rela- 1. Caveat, to be returned if Patent ting to the business of the Patent-Office.

be subsequently taken On a renewed application for a patent

2. Application for Patent,

(a) If by a Citizen, oran Alienbeing refused, applicant may have exa- resident of a year, having miners of his claim appointed. Inventor not to lose his right to a patent,

become Citizen

9 0 0

(b) If by a Subject of the “ by reason of his having previously taken

king of Great Britain 500...112 10 01 out letters-patent therefor in a foreign (c) By all other Persons ..... 300... 67 10 0 country, and the same having been pub- 3. Request for Examination of

Application lished at any time within six months, next Addition of new Improvepreceding the filing of his specification.” ment to an original Specifi. Patent, on request, may date from filing

5. Extension of Patent .... 40... 900 of specification, if the same do not exceed

6. Register of Transfer of Patent six months from issuing of patent.

Right

0 13 6 Specification, on request, may be pre- 7. Surrender of an invalid Patent served secret in the Patent-Office for a year, 8. Attested Copy of Specification,

for Renewal ....

15... 3 7 6 or until the necessary models be furnished;

per 100 Words

..10 Cents .. 0 0 54 during which time applicant to be entitled 9. Copies of Drawings, to notice of interfering applications.

ble expense of making them.”

An Examiner not to be paid, Caveat must set forth the design and

in any one case, more than characteristics of invention,-may be pre- 10 Dollars (£2. 58.) for his served secret in Patent-Office. Person filing caveat to file his specification, &c., We must not be understood as giving within three months after receiving notice

our unqualified approbation to the whole of interfering application.

of this New Patents Act of the United Defendant in an action relying on previous States, nor expressing an opinion that it invention, knowledge, or use of the thing is perfect; but in our extreme destitution patented, must give special notice of the name and residence of party possessing it would be absurd to be fastidious, and such prior knowledge.

we cordially congratulate our TransPatentee believing himself inventor at Atlantic brethren on their valuable actime of application, not to lose patent on quisition, hoping, though against conaccount of invention having been known or viction, that a few years may wipe out used in a foreign country, it not appearing one article, at least (viz., 2 b), from their that it had been patented or described in Tariff. any printed publication.

made oath of intention to

40...

25... 5 12 6

4.

cation

15...

3 7 6

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services.

Patent-Law Grievance. No. VII. ready money, on taking the first steps,

and as many of the inventors are poor The penalties inflicted on the inventive men, (operatives,) and a great many genius of Britain during the present others of them persons to whom it would year, up to the 25th ult., in the shape of be very inconvenient to pay at least government stamps and fees on patents, £100 down, they have been obliged to go amount to more than £33,000!

into debt, or mortgage or dispose of their N.B. This sum has been paid in / inventions, either wholly or in part, &c.

NEW PATENTS. 1836.

N. B.-The first Date annexed to each Patent, is that on which it was sealed and granted; the second

that on or before which the Specification must be delivered and evrolled. The abbreviation Fur. Comm., signifies that the invention, &c., is “ a communication from a foreigner residing abroad."

TOTAL, AUGUST...19.

211. JoshuA BATES, Bishopsgate-st.,

Lond., Merchant; for improved apparatus SEPTEMBER.

or machinery for inaking metal hinges.

Sept. 15.- March 15. For. Comm. 204. ROBERT GRIFFITHS, Birmingham, 212. PETER ASCANIUS TEALDI, late of Warw., Machine-maker, and John Gold, Mondovi, Piedmont, Manchester, Lanc., of the same place, Glass-cutter; for im- Merchant; for a new extract or vegeprovements in machinery for grinding, table acid obtained from substances not smoothing, and polishing plate-glass, win- hitherto used for that purpose, which may dow-glass, marble, slate, and stone; and be employed in various processes of manualso glass vessels, and glass spangles, and facture, and in culinary or other useful drops. Sept. 1.-March 1.

purposes, together with the process of 205. JOHN PICKERSGILL, Coleman-st., obtaining the same. Sept. 15.- March 15. Lond., Merchant; for improvements in For. Comm. preparing and in applying India-rubber 213. WILLIAM Bates, Leicester, Fuller (caoutchouc) to fabrics. Sept. 1.–March 1. and Dresser ; for improvements in the For. Comm.

manufacture of reels for reeling cotton, 206. JAMES SURREY, York-house, Bat- Sept. 16.-March 16. tersea, Surry, Miller; for a new applica- 214. MOSES POOLE, Lincoln's-inn, Middx., tion of a principle by which mechanical Gent.; for improvements in the depower may be obtained or applied. Sept. scription of public vehicles, called cabs. 1.-Jan. 1.

Sept. 21.–March 21. For. Comm. 207. WILLIAM BUSH, Wormwood-st., 215. ROBERT JUPE, Bond-st., Middx., Lond., Surveyor and Engineer; for im- Cabinet-maker; for improvements in appaprovements in the means of, and in the ratus applicable to book and other shelves, apparatus for, building and working under Sept. 22.–March 22. water, part of which improvements are 216. WILLIAM Crofts, Radford, Nott., applicable for other purposes. Sept. 3.- Machine-maker ; for certain improvements March 3.

in machinery for making bobbin-net lace, 208. CHARLES FARINA, Clarendon-pl., also called twist-net or lace, part of which Maida Vale, Middx., Gent. ; for an im- improvements are for the purpose of proved mashing apparatus. Sept. 15.— making figured or ornamental bobbin-netMarch 15.

lace, or ornamental twist-lace. Sept. 22. 209. WILLIAM HINCKES Cox, Bedmin- -March 22. ster, Bristol, Tanner; for improvements 217. HENRY VAN WART, Birmingham, in tanning hides and skins. Sept. 15.- Warw., Gent., and SAMUEL ASPINALÍ March 15.

GODDARD, of the same place, Merchant; 210. JOHN FREDERICK WILLIAM HEM- for certain improvements in locomotive PRL, of Oranienburg, Prussia, Clapham, steam-engines and carriages, parts of which Surry, Officer of Engineers, and HENRY improvements are applicable to ordinary BLUNDELL, Hull, York., Paint and Colour steam-engines and to other purposes. Sept. Manufacturer; for an improved method 22.-March 22. of operating upon certain vegetable and 218. JOHN SMITH, Halifax, York., Dyer; animal substances in the process of manu- for certain improvements in machinery facturing candles therefrom. Sept. 15– for dressing worsted and other woven March 15. For. Comm.

fabrics. Sept. 22.-March 22.

2

254

BRITISH ASSOCIATION.

BRISTOL SESSION.

As we by no means consider the appointments of officers to the British Association as merely honorary, or complimentary, we have thought it a duty to obtain a more correct list of them than it was possible to do before the publication of our last Number. We now insert it. The visiters of the several Sections may there. fore see to whom the management of each was confided. If we could have extended the salutary regulation recently adopted in Parliamentary Committees, and thus have been enabled to report the actual attendance of each officer, and each committee-man, we would have cheerfully done so. We have been told that many members were never seen at the Committees to which they were appointed. To prevent those members from being either commended or blamed, who were not at Bristol at all, we have printed their names in italics.

OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF COMMITTEES.

SECTION A.-MATHEMATICS and Physics.
President.

Committee.

Lubbock, J. W. Esq., Lond. Whewell, Rev. W., Camb. Babbage, Prof., Cambridge McCullagh, Prof., Dublin Vice-Presidents.

Bailey, F. Esq., London Moll, Prof., Utrecht Brewster, Sir D., Edinburgh

Challis, Prof.,

Cambridge Peacock, Rev. G., Camb. Hamilton, Sir W. R., Dublin Chatfield, H. Esq. Devonp. Rigaud, Prof., Oxford

Fox, R. W. Esq., Falmouth Ritchie, Prof., London
Secretaries.

Frend, W. Esq., London Robisou, J. Esq., Edinb. Forbes, Prof., Edinburgh Gerrard, G. Esq., Bristol Stevelly, Prof., Belfast Gerrard, F. W. Esq., Bristol Lloyd, Rev. Dr., Dublin Talbot, H. F. Esq., Wilts. Harris, W.S. Esq., Plymouth / Lloyd, Prof., Dublin Wheatstone, Prof., London

SECTION B.-CHEMISTRY and MINERALOGY.
President.

Committee.

Roget, Dr., London Cumming, Prof., Cambridge Barker, Prof., Dublin Thompson, Prof., Glasgow Vice-Presidents. Coathupe, C. T. Esq., Bristol Thompson, T. Jun.,

Esq., do. Dalton, Dr., Manchester

Daubeny, Prof., Oxford Thomson, Dr. R. D., Lond. Henry, Dr., Manchester Harcourt, Rev. W. H., York Turner, Prof., London

Hare, Prof., Philadelphia Watson, H. H. Esq., Bolton Secretaries.

Johnson, Prof., Durham West, W., Bristol Apjohn, Dr., Dublin Lowe, G., Esq., London Whewell, Rev. W., Camb, Henry, Dr. C., Manchester Miller, Prof., Cambridge Yelloly, Dr., Norwich Herapath, W. Esq., Bristol | Phillips, R. Esq., London Yorke, Col., London

Section C.-GEOLOGY and GEOGRAPHY.
President.

Committee.

M‘Adam, J. Esq., Belfast Buckland, Prof., Oxford Beche, H. S. De la, London Mackenzie, Sir G. Vice-Presidents.

Breda, Prof. Von, Leyden Melen, M. Van der Greenough, G. B. Esq., Lond Carne, J. Esq., Penzance Northampton, Lord, Castle Griffith, R. Esq., Dublin

Charlesworth, E. Esq., Lond. Ashby, Northamptonshire
Murchison, R. J. Esq., Lon- Clerke, Major, Knightsbridge Parigot, Prof., Brussels
don (for Geography)
Cole, Lord, London

Phillips, Prof., London
Conybeare, Rev. W.D., Bris- Sedgwick, Prof., Cambridge
Secretaries.
tol

Smith, W. Esq., London Sanders, W. Esq., Bristol Hopkins, Rev. W., Camb. Taylor, J. Esq., London Stutchbury, S. Esq., Bristol Hutton, R. Esq., Bristol West, D. W., Dublin Torrie, T. J. Esq., Edin. Ibbetson, B. Esq., Isle of Worsley, S. Esq., Bristol Rankin, F. H. Esq., Clif- Wight

(ster Yates, Rev. J., London ton (for Geography) Lewes, Rev. T. T., Leomin

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