French Account of the Statistics of the France, the ormer number giving 1š, Book-trade in Germany and England. the latter 4, sheets for each individual.

In England, including pamphlets, GERMANY still stands pre-eminent in reprints, newspapers, magazines, &c., the extent of its Book-trade. The an- the value of printed works in 1833 nual value sold is estimated at £860,000. amounted to £2,420,900. sterling. sterling; thirty years ago the trade was

This trade is almost entirely in the in the hands of only three hundred hands of the London booksellers, of booksellers, or publishers. At present whom there are 832, nearly as many as there are not less than 1094, including there are in Germany. The division of ninety-two commercial houses of Swit- trade in this central mart of bookzerland, Hungary, Prussia, and its trading is remarkable; there are bookPolish provinces. Through the Ger- sellers who entirely devote themselves manic Confederation there is one book to the sale of religious works, others to shop to 93,000 souls, while in Austria that of elementary works for instruction, there is only one to 122,222. The pro- and so on. Exclusive of pamphlets, gression, as regards intelligence, is still reprints, and newspapers,

the number more striking in Prussia, where there is of volumes published in England rose a book-shop to every 33,899 persons; in from 1105 in 1828, to 1507 in 1833, 1830, there were 200, which, in 1833, between which periods there was an had increased to 293. At least fifty- annual increase of about ninety-two or eight new book-shops have been esta- ninety-three volumes, caused by the blished in different parts of Germany rapid progress of “cheap literature," between Easter, 1832, and Easter, 1833. which has effected a reduction in the The number of works published in that

mean price per work from 125. to 10s.7d. country has increased in the following proportion: (1827) 5000, (1828) 5,600, New Surveying Instruments. 1832, in which year many pamphlets were published) 6,122, (1833) 4,635 (?). M. LALANNE, Engineer of the Ponts Of these, Austria furnished 290, Prus- et Chaussées, in France, has laid before sia 1058, Saxony 1810. Leipsic is the the Académie des Sciences three incentre of this immense commerce. struments for topographical surveying,

If we compare the total number of which, if they accomplish all that the works published in Germany from 1814 inventor promises, correctly and with to 1820, which were_50,393, and the facility, will be eagerly sought after. To number published in France during the the immense number of surveyors, who same period, which was only 16,528, it are about to commence operations in would not at first be imagined that the every part of the United Kingdom, proportional increase of literary works under the numerous Railroad Acts has been much greater in the latter which have passed this session, such than in the former country, but so it is ; instruments would be invaluable. They theaggregate amountof workswas barely are, Ist, a Levelling Instrument, or Cardoubled in Germany, while in France in riage, which it is only necessary to run 1826, the number published was 4347, over the ground, the levels of which are or four times as great as in 1814. In desired, and the section is at once ob1828, the French publications were tained ; 2nd, a Drawing Instrument, 7616, a number never reached in the which lays down the plan of the ground; catalogue of the celebrated annual and can be mounted on the carriage of Leipsic fair. The fluctuations in the the Levelling Instrument; 3rd, a labours of the French press are to be Power-measuring Instrument, or Dyattributed to political events. In 1811, namometer, which exhibits the effort forty.five millions, and in 1826, 144 exerted on every point of the line passed millions of sheets were printed in lover.

Mode of ascertaining Proportion of quiries into the Polarization of Heat. Carbon in Cast-Iron.

The result, at the first view, appears BERZELIUS, in a letter communicated very complicated, but they cease to be by M. Pelouze, to the Société Philoma- Hux from terrestrial sources is composed

so on the admission, that the calorific thique of Paris, announces that he has of rays, which, like those of solar heat, discovered a very short process of ana- have the property of being more or less lyzing the various kinds of Cast-iron, transmissible by certain solid and liquid and of ascertaining the exact propor- media. tions of carbon that they contain. His mode consists of boiling the iron

New Botanical Society. in a bichlorate of copper, slightly acidu- SEVERAL meetings have recently taken lated with hydrochloric acid ; then to boil the residue with carbonate of soda. place, with the intention of forming a The weight of this second residue, society, to be entitled, The Botanical washed and dried, gires that of the Society of London. The attendances, carbon. This process has been repeated

and promises of support by subscripby M. Gaultier de Claubry, who found tions and donations to a library and that, to succeed, it was necessary the herbarium have been numerous and chlorate should be strongly acidulated satisfactory. A committee is now rebefore adding the iron in filings, other considering the laws, regulations, &c.

The formation of the society is said to wise copper is precipitated; but with this precaution, the analysis may be be patronized by Professor Lindley, and

other eminent botanists. completely accomplished in ten or twelve minutes.

Consumption of Oxygen by burning Temperature of Space.

Wood. The result of some reflection upon the MM. PETERSEN and Schödler have degree of cold, registered by Captain applied themselves to a long and most Back, when in the Polar regions *, induced M. Arago to state to the Aca- fatiguing series of experiments in order démie des Sciences, that it was his which is taken from atmospheric air

to determine the quantity of oxygen opinion the temperature of celestial in effecting the perfect combustion of a space could not be lower than the maxi- given weight of several kinds of wood. mum of cold mentioned by Captain B., viz. 102° Fahr. below the freezing-point. determinations made by them, of the

This result has been deduced from M. Poinsot, on the contrary, thought quantity of oxygen which each kind of such a consequence ought not to be wood contains before combustion, and drawn from the data, and contended

of the quantity of additional oxygen that the temperature of the upper strata of the atmosphere must necessarily be necessary to burn it completely. lower than that of space.

These experimenters arrived at the

first of these necessary data in the folAmber.

lowing way :-Each specimen, carefully

reduced to powder, was exposed in a “The beautiful amber which is found drying apparatus, and there heated and on the eastern shores of England, and exposed to a current of dry air until no on the coasts of Prussia and Sicily, and further loss of weight occurred. It was which is supposed to be fossil resin, is then weighed with every precaution, derived from beds of lignite in the and mixed with oxide of copper in a hot tertiary strata.

porcelain vessel, The mixture, after Fragments of fossil gum were found having been deprived of all hygrometric in digging the tunnel through the moisture in a vacuum, was burnt in a London clay at Highgate, near London."

proper tube. From the water and the -BUCKLAND's Bridgewater Treatise carbonic acid which were obtained, were 1836.

deducted the carbon and the hydrogen, Polarization of Heat.

and the amount of oxygen contained in

the wood ascertained. M. MELLONI has addressed a memoir

Twenty-four kinds of wood were exato the Académie des Sciences which mined in these experiments. The contains the whole of his curious in- specimens were taken, in all cases, from * See p. 242, Vol. ii.

the trunk of the tree. Y

10 Vol. II.



Quantity of oxygen that !00 parts
of wood absorbs from the atmo-
sphere during complete combustion

Quantity of Carbon contained

in each kind of wood.

Quantity of Hydrogen contained

it each kind of wood.

Quantity of Oxygen contained

in each kind of wood.

1 Lime......

The kinds of wood, and the results Correct Notion of Steam-Engine obtained, are arranged, in the following

Horse-power. Table, according to the quantity of oxygen required for their coinbustion.

WHEN engineers speak of a twenty-fivehorse engine, they mean one which would do the work of that number of horses constantly acting; but supposing that the same horses could work only

eight hours in every twenty-four, there Kind of Wood

must be seventy-five horses, at least, submitted to

kept to produce the effect of such an

engine. The largest engine in CornExperiment.

wall may, if worked to the full extent, be equal to, from a three-hundred to a three-hundred-and-fifty-horse power and would, therefore, require a thousand

horses to be kept to produce the same 140·523 49:408 6 861430731

constant effect. In this way it has been 2 Elm.

139-408 50 186 6 425 43 384 3 Deal (white) .... 138:377 49 946 6 407 43 647 said that an engine was of a thousand4 Larch .. 138.082 50 106 6 310 43 584

horse-power, but this is not according to 5 Horse-chestnut... 138 002 49 0776714 44:209 6 Box 137.315 49 368 6 521 44:111

the usual computation.—Letter of J. 7 Maple.

136.960 49 803 6 307 43 890 8 Scotch Fir (Pinus} |136 931 49 937 6.250 43 813

Taylor, Esq.. to Dr. Buckland. sylvestris. 9 Silver Fir (Pinus } 136 866 49-591 6-384 44:025 picea.)

Combe.- Application of the Term. 10 Poplar,

136.623 49 699 6 312 44.989 11 Pear

135 881 49 395 6-351 48 254 12 Walnut. 135.690 49 113 6 443 44:444

The term Combe, so common in the 13 Alder

133.953 49 196 6 217 44 587 names of upland villages, is usually 14 Willow

133 951 48 839 6 360 44-801 15 Oak 133.470 49 432 6.069 44:499

applied to that unwatered portion of a 16 Apple

133 34048 902 6.26744.831 valley, which forms its continuation be17 Ash 133 251 49 356 6:075 44 569

yond, and above, the most elevated 18 Birch

133.229 48 602 6:375 44 023 19 Cherry 133 139 48 824 6 276 44.900

spring that issues into it; at this point, 20 Acacia

132-543 48.669 6:272 45 059 or spring-head, the Valley ends, and 21 Beech (white). 132 312 48 533 6:301 43 166

the Combe begins. The convenience 22 Plum

132 088 49-311 5 964 44725 23 Beech (red) 130 834 48.846 277 45:539 of water and shelter which these spring24 Ebony 128 47849 838 5:352 44 810

heads afford, have usually fixed the site The practical application of these round the margin of elevated plains.

of the highest villages that are planted results will be evident, if we consider -BUCKLAND's Bridgewater Treatise. that the quantities of oxygen absorbed

1836. from the atmosphere during the perfect combustion of each kind of wood, is the correct expression of the combustible

Bottles, foc. sunk in the Sea. value of the wood, since the quantity of heat given out during combustion is CAPT. Smyth found, on two trials, that proportional to the quantities of oxygen the cylindrical air-tube, under the vane

attached to Massey's Patent Log, col

lapsed, and was crushed quite flat, New Map of Central Asia. under a pressure of about three hundred

fathoms. A claret-bottle, filled with air, A MAP of Central Asia, compiled by M. and well corked, was burst before it Klaproth, and based upon communica- descended four hundred fathoms. He tions made by the missionaries at Pekin, also found that a bottle filled with fresh has been presented to the Académie des water, and corked, had the cork forced Sciences, by M. Landresse. By adding at about a hundred and eighty fathoms all the facts that could be obtained from below the surface; in such cases, the the most recent authorities, particularly Huid sent down is replaced by salt-water, those derived from Chinese writers, M. and the cork, which had been forced in, Klaproth has been able to determine is sometimes inverted. the configuration of the surface of these Capt. Beaufort also informs me, that immense countries.

he has frequently sunk corked bottles

taken up.


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in the sea, more than a hundred fathoms | meetings,) to deliberate upon the prodeep, some of them empty, and others priety of providing reporters for each containing a fluid; the empty bottles Section,-for each meeting of the General were sometimes crushed, at other times committee, -for every one of the Aggrethe cork was forced in, and the bottle gate Meetings, that there may be obreturned full of sea-water. The cork tained, and immediately printed, the of the bottles containing a fluid was most ample reports of each meeting, uniformly forced in, and the fluid ex- (even those of the Dinners should not be changed for sea-water; the cork was omitted.) Why not embody them in a always returned to the neck of the morning publication, to begin a week bottle, sometimes, but not_always, in before the meeting, takes place with

inverted position." — BUCKLAND, that preliminary information which Bridgewater Treatise, 1836.)

every visiter has hitherto been distressed

for, and to be continued not only during Suggested Sessional Journal of the the days of meeting, but for as many British Association.

days after as may bring up the arrears that unavoidably accrue ?

This may Too much publicity cannot be given to be entitled the “ Journal of the Sesthe important investigations and under- sion," and from being prepared on takings which have been recommended, the spot at the time of meeting, and and for which funds have been provided, under the revision of persons, in posat the several sessions of the British session, from official position, of accurate Association, if any useful and valuable and early information, it would be free results are to be obtained from them. from those errors and deficiencies which This publicity, it would seem, must must happen to others who are not reprincipally depend upon the voluntary sponsible for their accuracy, and cannot and friendly assistance of the periodical command admission to meetings, docupress, for, beyond the range of the ments, &c. What grant of money General-committee-men present at the which has been made, or ever can be voting of the money, and who no doubt made, would more effectually promote knew what they were voting it for, not the great interests of the Association ? the smallest effort has been made, as What would more facilitate the acqui

we (members) know, by the sition and interchanges of information managers of the Association, to dis- during the meeting, and prevent those seminate the information. One-sixth eternal regrets of lost opportunities of this year has already run out, and which fill the last day or two of the we know individuals, selected as directors session ? What could more promptly. of these investigations, &c. and dis- and extensively, and satisfactorily, circuposers of the funds, who are not yet ac- late to the distant friends of science, the quainted with their appointment. The gratifications, the advantages, and the vital principle of the Association is acquisitions of those who are present? voluntary exertion--scientific labour for But, we believe, no grant, or, at most, the love of it; but how are the ener- a very small one, would be necessary. gies of the members and friends of the With proper management, a very lowAssociation to be roused and directed, priced Journal might accomplish this if the officers who possess the infor- great desideratum, and pay its own exmation do not distribute it? Suppose penses. With this on our table, we could the reporters of the public press had not wait with more temper than we have attended, and the copious accounts of the done during the twelve months that the meeting had not been given by this Maga. volume is in labour. zine, by the Athenæum, and other jour- In the absence of such means, we nals, how little would have been known shall continue to acquire, and insert all of the proceedings of the Association information in our power, which may up to this hour! We recommend the appear to us to be necessary for the memmost unsparing expense to acquire, and bers, and promoters of scientific informaextensively distribute, the earliest and tion not members, to be made acquainted most copious accounts of every transac- with. Of this nature we conceive the tion, suggestion, &c., of the Association items in the following list to be, but of as a body, and we submit to the con- which we have no means of being quite sideration of the managing body, (if certain of the completeness or accuany such exists in the interval of the racy.

far as

} 70 {

Investigations, &c., recommended by the British Association-Bristol Session.


Sums voted.

Directors. 1. Discussion of Observations on the Tides.

£200 Lubbock. 2. Observations on the Tides in the port of Bristol.

150 Whewell, 3. Deduction of the Constants of the Lunar Nota

Brisbane, Robison, tions.

Whewell, 4. Hourly Observations on the Barometer and Hygro- } 30 Harris. 5. Establishment of Meteorological Observations on a

100 uniform Plan.

Harris, Phillips,

Powell, Sykes. 6. Experiments on Subterranean Temperature.

Baily, Cubitt, 7. Data, depending upon very accurate measurements Colby, De la Beche, of points, situated on two straight lines, at right Greenough, Griffith,

Lubbock, Mackenzie, of the permanence or variability of the relative Portlock, Robison, Levels of the Land and Sea.

Sedgwick, Stevenson,

Whewell, Sec. 8. Experimental Investigation of the Form of Waves, as modified by the wind, by the depth &c., of

100 Robison, Russell. canals, and by the manner in which the Wave is

initiated. 9. Reduction of Observations in the Histoire Céleste ; and in Mém. Acad. des Sciences, 1789 and 1790, 500

Lubbock, Robison. tome ix. 10. Experiments on Vitrification.


Faraday, Harcourt,

Turner. 11. Construction of a Lens in Rock-salt.

80 Brewster. 12. Continuation of Report on the Magnetism of the } Sabine,

Earth. 13. Report of Committee for the consideration of a Airy, Baily,

proposition by Mr. Lubbock, for the Construction Challis, Hamilton, of new empirical Lunar Tables.

Lubbock, Rigaud. 14. Application to the French Government for Copies of Observations on Tides.

SECTION B.-CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 15. Inquiry into the Specific Gravity of Gases. 50 {

Dalton, Henry,

Henry, c. 16. Inquiry into the Quantities of Heat developed in

Combustion, and in other Chemical Combina- 30

tions. 17. Inquiry into the Components of Atmospheric Air. 15 Dalton. 18. Publication of Tables of Chemical Constants. 241. 13s. Johnstone. 19. Inquiry into the Comparative Strength of Iron,

60 made with hot, and with cold, air blasts.

Fairbairn, Hodgkinson. 20. Report on the present State of Knowledge of the Chemical and Physical Properties of dimorphous

Johnstone. Bodies. 21. Continuation of Experiments on the Effects of long

Harcourt. continued Heat on Minerals.

SECTION C.-GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 22. Experiments on the Quantity of Mud suspended in


De la Beche, Rennie,

20 River-water.


Yates. 23. Special Inquiry into Subterranean Temperature and Electricity

} 30 Fox. 24. Inquiry into the Origin and Nature of the Peat

50 Colby. mosses of Ireland. 25. Report on the Mineral Riches of Great Britain, particularly in the metalliferous districts,

} Taylor. 26. Discovery of Plants of any kind in Slate-rocks, older

than the coal-formation.


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