« VorigeDoorgaan »
that 51 inches of rain is 'the result. What will be the temperature of the mingled mass after the rain? The mean temperature is 40°, which would be the temperature after the mixture, if no latent caloric is given out in the condensation of vapour. But from the principles explained before, it will be found, that as five inches of rain is of the whole atmosphere in weight, the latent caloric given out in the condensation of the vapour forming this rain, will be sufficient to heat the whole compound 59.7°, which being added to the mean temperature 40°, will make the temperature of the air after the rain 99.7°, almost 20° hotter than the hottest half of the atmosphere before the mixture.
Having found that the Huttonian theory would not bear the test of calculation, I imagined there was but one other possible mode of condensing vapour, and that was that the vapour by its own elasticity in the lower parts of the atmosphere, thrust itself up into a cold stratum above, whenever such a one overlapped the one below, and was thus condensed into rain.
This hypothesis, I thought, was altogether reasonable, from the great discovery of Dalton and Gay Lussac, that vapour in the atmosphere rests only on vapour, and thus forms an independent atmosphere, and is not supported in the least degree by the air. I imagined, then, that vapour could rush with great velocity from air where the dew-point was high, to air where the dew-point was low. But when I discovered that some rains were so great as to be beyond the power of this theory, too, I began to suspect the hypothesis itself, which induced me to put it to the following trial. I united two glass retorts together by their necks, then having covered one with snow, I put ten drops of water into the other, and placed it in a vessel of water at the temperature of 130°, letting it remain in that situation seven hours, the temperature of the room during the experiment being about 70°; not one drop was distilled over in all that time.
I then took the retorts apart, leaving open the neck of the one having the water in it; it has continued in the room, open now for thirty days, with a temperature of 70° night and day, and the dew-point in the room never as high as 40°, the ten drops of water being now only slightly diminished.
This refutes the hypothesis of rapid permeation of air by vapour, and, indeed, proves that vapour, like heat, when it passes up to the upper regions, must be carried by the air, and not thrust up by its own elasticity. But to return from this digression; if the Huttonian theory is unable to produce such a rain as that at Wilmington, what will it do with the one which occurred at Geneva, on the 25th of October, 1822, when it rained thirty inches in twenty-four hours; or the one at Joyeuse, on the 9th of October, 1827, when it rained thirty-one inches in twenty-two hours *?
Or how will it account for a storm of hailt which fell in Orkney on the 24th of July, 1818, in the afternoon, nine inches deep in less than nine minutes? -ESPY, Franklin Journal, August, 1836.
Recent Meeting of German Natu-
THE annual meeting of the naturalists and medical men of Germany, commenced at Jena, in the Duchy of SaxeWeimar, on the 20th ult., and terminated on the 26th, Dr. Kieser, President. The number of members was large. From countries foreign to Germany, there were more from Great Britain than any other. France did not appear to have had one. Among the British visiters, were Professors Daubeny (Oxford,) (distinguished so recently for the effective discharge of his duties as one of the secretaries of the British Association at Bristol,)-Graham (Glasgow,) and-Kane (Dublin.) The Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar and his court were present, and paid the most marked respect to the objects and members of the Association. The Duke of SaxeAltenburg founded a premium in Natural Philosophy, for the students of the University of Jena, as a token of the interest he felt in the Association. The meeting for 1837 is to be held at Prague. It was stated that the number of members at Bonn, in 1835, was about five hundred.
pass, in span*, every other bridge which had preceded it, were examined in England, considerable doubts were entertained, as to the soundness of the principles which had directed some parts of the arrangements, particularly in that where the engineer had made an angle in the direction of the land-chains, and thus deposited a part of the pull upon the rock, &c., where the angle takes place, instead of carrying the whole pull along one continued line, to the point of attachment at the extremities of the chains, as in Menai-Strait Bridge.
From this, or from other, cause have arisen, we regret to say, some appearances of insecurity, and early in this year the authorities of Freiburg temporarily prohibited the transport of heavy loads along it. We shall rejoice to hear that this injunction is removed.
Wanton Destruction annually of a
Million Chaldrons of Coal.
certain legislative enactments, providing that Coal in London should be sold, and the duty upon it be rated, by measure, and not by weight. The smaller coal is broken, the greater the space it fills; it became, therefore, the interest of every dealer in Coal, to buy it of as large a size, and to sell it of as small a size as he was able. This compelled the proprietors of the Coal-mines to send the large Coal only to market, and to consign the small Coal to destruction.
In the year 1830, the attention of parliament was called to these evils ; and pursuant to the Report of a Committee, the duty on Coal was repealed, and Coal directed to be sold by weight instead of measure. The effect of this change has been, that a considerable quantity of Coal is now shipped for the London market, in the state in which it comes from the pit; that after landing the cargo, the small coal is separated by screening from the rest, and answers as fuel for various ordinary purposes, as well as much of the Coal which was sold in London before the alteration of the law.
The destruction of Coals on the fiery heaps near Newcastle, although diminished, still goes on, however, to a frightful extent, that ought not to be permitted; since the inevitable conse
As there is no reproduction of Coal in this country, since no natural causes are now in operation to form other beds of it; whilst, owing to the regular increase of our population, and the new purposes to which the steam-engine is continually applied, its consumption is advancing at a rapidly accelerating rate; it is of most portentous interest to a nation, that has so large a portion of its inhabit-quence of this practice, if allowed to ants dependent for existence on machinery, kept in action only by the use of coal, to economize this precious fuel. I cannot, therefore, conclude this interesting subject without making some remarks upon a practice which can only be viewed in the light of a national calamity, demanding the attention of the legislature.
continue, must be, in no long space of time, to consume all the beds nearest to the surface, and readiest of access to the coast; and thus enhance the price of Coal in those parts of England which castle for their supply; and finally to depend upon the Coal-field of Newexhaust this Coal-field, at a period, nearer by at least one-third, than that to which it would last, if wisely econoWe have, during many years, wit-mized. (See Report of the Select Comnessed the disgraceful and almost incre-mittee of the House of Commons, on the dible fact, that more than a million state of the Coal Trade, 1830, page 242, chaldrons per annum, being nearly one- and Bakewell's Introduction to Geology, third part of the best coals produced by 1833, pages 183 and 543.
the mines near Newcastle, have been condemned to wanton waste, on a fiery heap perpetually blazing near the mouth of almost every coal-pit in that dis
This destruction originated mainly in * The interval between the suspending piers of the Freiburg Bridge is about 870 English feet, and its clear span about 806 The Menai-Strait Bridge (same as its span) is 522 feet.
needless legislative interference; but a We are fully aware of the impolicy of broad line has ben drawn by nature between commodities annually or periodiface, and that subterranean treasure, cally reproduced by the soil on its surand sustaining foundation of Industry, which is laid by Nature in strata of mineral Coal, whose amount is limited, and which, when once exhausted, is gone for ever. As the Law most justly
interferes to prevent the wanton destruction of life and property, it should seem also to be its duty to prevent all needless waste of mineral fuel; since the exhaustion of this fuel would irrecoverably paralyze the industry of millions. The tenant of the soil may neglect, or cultivate his lands, and dispose of his produce, as caprice or interest may dictate; the surface of his fields is not consumed, but remains susceptible of tillage by his successor; had he the physical power to annihilate the Land, and thereby inflict an irremediable injury upon posterity, the legislature would justly interfere to prevent such destruction of the future resources of the nation.
This highly-favoured country has been enriched with mineral treasures in her strata of Coal, incomparably more precious than mines of silver or of gold. From these sustaining sources of industry and wealth let us help ourselves abundantly, and liberally enjoy these precious gifts of the Creator; but let us not abuse them, or by wilful neglect and wanton waste, destroy the foundations of the industry of future generations.
sources of posterity should permit us to allow any extensive exportation of Coal from a densely-peopled manufacturing country like our own; a large proportion of whose present wealth is founded on machinery, which can be kept in action only by the produce of our native Coal-mines, and whose prosperity can never survive the period of their exhaustion. -BUCKLAND's Bridgewater Treatise.
Clerical Error in the American
IN all the copies of the American Patents-Law passed in July last, which have reached this country, there is a discrepancy as to the cost of the patent. Sect. 9 states that thirty dollars must be paid on an application for a patent; sect. 18 states that forty dollars must be paid on an application for an extension of the term of a patent, "as in the case of an original application for a patent." We find it the same in the copy of the law printed in the Franklin Journal, published at Philadelphia in September. This has led to an error in Art. 2 (a) and 5 of the Tariff of Fees published p. 252 of this Volume. Upon inquiry, we are assured that to be correct they should stand thus:
Might not an easy remedy for this evil be found in a legislative enactment, that all Coals from the ports of Northumberland and Durham, should be shipped in the state in which they come from the pit, and forbidding by high penalties the screening of any sea-borne Coals before they leave the port at which they are embarked. A law of this kind 5.
would at once terminate that ruinous competition among the coal-ownerswhich has urged them to vie with each other in the wasteful destruction of small Coal, in order to increase the profits of the coal-merchants, and gratify the pre- | ference for large Coals on the part of rich consumers; and would also afford the public a supply of Coals of every price and quality, which the use of the screen would enable him to accommodate to the demands of the various classes of the community.
Patent-Law Grievance. No. VIII.
THE penalties inflicted on the inventive genius of Britain during the present year, up to the 25th ult., in the shape of government stamps and fees on patents, amount to more than £36,000!
N.B. This sum has been paid in ready money, on taking the first steps, and as many of the inventors are poor men, (operatives,) and a great many others of them persons to whom it would A further consideration of national be very inconvenient to pay at least policy should prompt us to consider how £100 down, they have been obliged to go far the duty of supporting commercial into debt, or mortgage or dispose of their interests, and of husbanding the re-inventions, either wholly or in part, &c.
NEW PATENTS. 1836.
N. B. The first Date annexed to each Patent, is that on which it was sealed and granted; the second that on or before which the Specification must be delivered and enrolled.The abbreviation For. Comm., signifies that the invention, &c., is " a communication from a foreigner residing abroad."
for manufacturing metal screws. Oct. 6.
SEPTEMBER cont. 219. MOSES POOLE, Lincoln's Inn, Midda.,-April 6. Gent.; for improvements in anchors and in friction-rollers, to facilitate the lowering and raising anchors, and for other purposes. Sept. 15.-March 15. For. Comm.
220. WILLIAM PRINGLE GREEN, Falmouth, Cornw., Lieut. R.N.; for improvements on capstans applicable to ships and other purposes, and for contrivances to reduce manual labour at capstans used at mines. Sept. 28.-March 28.
221. JOHN ISAAC HAWKINS, Chase Cottage, Hampstead-Road, Middx., Civil-engineer; for an improvement in the blowingpipe of blast-furnaces and forges. Sept. 28. -March 28. For. Comm.
222. GEORGE CRANE, Yuiseedywyn Ironworks, Swansea, Iron Master; for an improvement in the manufacture of Iron. Sept. 28.-March 28.
223. WILLIAM NEALE CLAY, West Bromwich, Staff, Manufacturing Chemist; for improvements in the manufacture of sulphate of soda. Sept. 28.-March 28.
224. RICHARD PEARSON, St. Giles, Oxford, Organist; for improvements in drags, or apparatus for retarding carriages. 28.-March 28.
225. JOHN LEDYARD PHILLIPS, Melksham, Wilts., Cloth Manufacturer; for an improvement in the manufacture of woollen cloths. Oct. 4.-Dec. 4.
226. JAMES WHITE, Lambeth, Surry, Engineer; for improvements on railways. Oct. 4.-April 4.
227. CHARLES WILLIAM STONE, Finchley, Midda., Mechanic; for improvements in harness, for weaving purposes, and in the apparatus for making the same. Oct. 4.April 4. For. Comm.
228. HENRY HUNTLEY MOHUN, Walworth, Surry, D.M.; for improvements in the manufacturing of fuel. Oct. 4.-April 4. 229. SAMUEL TONKIN JONES, Manchester, Lanc., Merchant; for improvements in the tanning of hides and skins. Oct. 6-Apr. 6. 230. MILES BERRY, Chancery-Lane, Midda., Mechanical Draftsman; for improvements in machinery, or apparatus
231. JOHN SHARP, Dundee, Forfar, N.B., Flax Spinner; for machinery for converting ropes into tow, and improvements in machinery for preparing hemp or flax for spinning; part of which improvements are applicable to the preparing of cotton, wool, and silk, for spinning. April 8.
232. HENRY SCOTT, Jun., and ROBERT STEPHEN OLIVER, Hatters, Edinburgh, for improvements in the manufacture of hats, caps, and bonnets, Oct. 13.-Apr. 13. For. Comm.
233. FREDERICK GATHNER, Birmingham, Warw., Brass-founder; for improvements. applicable to the drawing or winding up of window and other roller-blinds, or maps. Oct. 13.-April 13.
234. JOHN HEMMING, Edward-St., Portman-Sqr., Middx., Gent.; for improvements in the manufacture of white-lead. Oct. 13.-April 13.
235. THOMAS LUTWYCHE, Liverpool, Lanc., Manufacturing Chemist; for improvements in the construction of apparatus used in the decomposition of common salt, and in the method of working or using the same. Oct. 13.-April 13.
236. JOHN RUTHVEN, Edinburgh, for improvements in the formation of rails or rods for making railways, and in the method of fixing or joining them. Oct. 13. April 13.
237. CHARLES PIERRE DEVAUX, Fenchurch-st., Lond., Merchant; for an improved apparatus for preventing the explosion of boilers or generators of steam. Oct. 13.-April 13. For. Comm.
238. JOHN JOSEPH CHARLES SHERIDAN, Peckham, Surry, Chemist; for improvements in the several processes of saccharine, Oct. vinous, and acetous fermentation. 20.-April 20.
239. WILLIAM BRIDGES ADAMS, Brecknock-Crescent, Camden-Town, Middx., Coach-Maker; for certain improvements in wheel-carriages. Oct. 20.—April 20.
240. CHRISTOPHER NICKELS, Guildfordst., Lambeth, Surry, Manufacturer of Caoutchouc, for improvements in preparing and manufacturing caoutchouc, applicable to various useful purposes. Oct. 24.April 24. For. Comm. in part.
METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL FOR SEPTEMBER, 1836; KEPT AT BLACKHEATH ROAD.
9 A.M. attch. 3 P.M. attch./
Day of Month
Clouds. Clouds Direction of wind Luna-
3.2 s. S. W.
66.5 54.7 23.5 41
70.8 60.6 20.5 48
5 29 670
57.6 11.1 51
6 29 489
55.7 14.4 48
7 29 751
29 803 63
60.0 54.3 11.8 47
Thurs. 8 29 902
63.4 56.0 14.9 47
Friday, 9 29 856
55.6 18.8 45
Satur. 10 29 900
11 30 132 58
12 30 104 59
9 10 2.3 2 N.b E.
Tues. 13 30 169 59
2 N.b E.
Wed. 14 30 234 60
Thurs. 15 30 275
Friday, 16 30 200
9.1 48 10
Satur. 17 30 196 61
5 5 1 2
18 30 114 61
48.2 58.0 53.1
8 10 2
19 30 097 61
30-056 61 48.4 56.9
6 10 8.5 47
30 277 57 36.2
30 331 57 33.0
Friday, 23 30 092
30 006 61 48.5
9 10 3 3
Satur. 24 30 258 63 30 218 65 53.5 66.0
59.8 12.5 50
Tues. 27 29 954
10 2 2
Wed. 28 29 806 66
50 2 60.0 55.1
9.8 48 10
45.8 53.2 49.5
7.4 43 6
Thurs. 29 29 400
Lowest point of Rad. 31°, on the 22nd.