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NEW PATENTS. 1836.
N. B.—The first Date annexed to each Patent, is that on which it was sealed and granted; the second
that on or before which the Specification must be delivered and enrolled. --The abbreviation For. Comm., signifies that the invention, &c., is “ a communication from a foreigner residing abroad."
for manufacturing metal screws. Oct. 6. 219. Moses Poole, Lincoln's Inn, Middr., - April 6. Gent. ; for improvements in anchors and in
231. John SHARP, Dundee, Forfar, N.B., friction-rollers, to facilitate the lowering Flax Spinner; for machinery for conand raising anchors, and for other purposes. verting, ropes into tow, and improvements Sept. 15. - March 15. For. Comm.
in machinery for preparing hemp or flax 220. WILLIAM PRINGLE GREEN, Fal- for spinning; part of which improvements mouth, Cornw., Lieut. R.N. ; for improve- are applicable to the preparing of cotton, ments on capstans applicable to ships and wool, and silk, for spinning. Oct. 8.other purposes, and for contrivances to re- April 8. duce manual labour at capstans used at
232. Henry Scott, Jun., and ROBERT mines. Sept. 28.—March 28.
STEPHEN OLIVER, Hatters, Edinburgh, for 221. John Isaac HAWKINS, Chase Cot- improvements in the manufacture of hats, tage, Hampstead-Road, Middx., Civil-en- caps, and bonnets, Oct. 13.-Apr. 13. For. gineer; for an improvement in the blowing
Comm. pipe of blast-furnaces and forges. Sept. 28.
233. FREDERICK GATHNER, Birmingham, - March 28. For. Comm.
Warw., Brass-founder; for improvements 222. GEORGE CRANE, Yuiseedywyn Iron- applicable to the drawing or winding up of works, Swansea, Iron Master; for an im- window and other roller-blinds, or maps. provement in the manufacture of Iron. Oct. 13.—April 13. Sept. 28.–March 28.
234. John HEMMING, Edward-St., Port223. WILLIAM NEALE Clay, West Brom- man-Sqr., Middx., Gent. ; for improvewich, Staff., Manufacturing Chemist; for ments in the manufacture of white-lead. improvements in the manufacture of sul- Oct. 13.-April 13. phate of soda. Sept. 28.—March 28. 235. THOMAS LUTWYCHE, Liverpool,
224. RICHARD PEARSON, St. Giles, Oxford, Lanc., Manufacturing Chemist; for imOrganist ; for improvements in drags, or provements in the construction of apparatus apparatus for retarding carriages. Sept. and in the method of working or using the
used in the decomposition of common salt, 28.-March 28.
Oct. 13.-April 13.
236. John RUTHYEN, Edinburgh, for im
provements in the formation of rails or OCTOBER.
rods for making railways, and in the me
thod of fixing or joining them. Oct. 13. 225. JOHN LEDYARD PHILLIPS, Melksham, April 13. Wilts., Cloth Manufacturer ; for an im- 237. CHARLES PIERRE Devaux, Fenprovement in the manufacture of woollen church-st., Lond., Merchant ; for an imcloths. Oct. 4.-Dec, 4.
proved apparatus for preventing the explo226. JAMES WHITE, Lambeth, Surry, sion of boilers or generators of steam. Engineer; for improvements on railways. Oct. 13.—April 13. For. Comm. Oct. 4.—April 4.
238. JOHN JOSEPH CHARLES SHERIDAN, 227. CHARLES WILLIAM STONE, Finchley, Peckham, Surry, Chemist; for improveMiddx., Mechanic; for improvements in ments in the several processes of saccharine, harness, for weaving purposes, and in the vinous, and acetous fermentation. Oct. apparatus for making the same. Oct. 4,- 20.— April 20. April 4. For. Comm.
239. WILLIAM BRIDGES_ADAMS, Breck228. HENRY HUNTLEY Mohun, Wal- nock-Crescent, Camden-Town, Middx., worth, Surry, D.M. ; for improvements in Coach-Maker; for certain improvements in the manufacturing of fuel. Oct. 4.-April 4. wheel-carriages. Oct. 20.—April 20.
229. SAMUEL TONKIN Jones, Manchester, 240. CHRISTOPHER NICKELS, GuildfordLanc., Merchant; for improvements in the st., Lambeth, Surry, Manufacturer of Catanning of hides and skins. Oct. 6—Apr. 6. outchouc, for improvements in preparing
230. MILES BERRY, Chancery-Lane, and manufacturing caoutchouc, applicable Middx., Mechanical Draftsman; for im- to various useful purposes. Oct. 24.provements in machinery, or apparatus | April 24. For. Comm, in part,
METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL FOR SEPTEMBER, 1836; KEPT AT BLACKHEATH ROAD.
Barom. Ther Thermometer Daily Solar Clouds. Clouds. Direction of wind Luna-
A squall at 10 A.M. ; day fine and clear, with wind.
8 2: 3:28. 8.w. W.
Heavy showers; cumuli and nimbus ; fine evening.
5 3 30.054 63 29.948 | 65 43.0 66.5 54.7 23.5 41 Satur.
( Flying clouds; eve. Cirrus, and indications of rain.
5 4 29.514 63 29.542 66 50.3 70.8 60.6 20.5 48
6 | 3 Sun.
S.S. W. S.S.W.
Much rain before sun-rise ; windy scud.
2 3 2 W. S.W. Fine ; cumulus ; night, squalls of wind and rain.
8 6 29 489 63 29.418 64 48.5 62.9 55.7 14:4 | 48 Tues.
5 3 2
Heavy rain in showers; wind.
Rain at 7 A.M. ; large dense cumuli; cold hard sky.
Cumulus, Cum.-Stratus and nimbi ; little rain fell.
Overcast; rainy afternoon; evening starlight.
Rain early A.M. ; nimbi, with showers; cold rain.
658.0 48.3 19.4 38
3 81.3 2
Sharp air ; showers of rain P.M. ; cold stormy wind
2 n.b E.
Blustering ; strong showers ; scud.
2 2 N.N.E. N. E.
1 1 E.N.E.
Fine morning; cloudy ; cumuli and cum-stratus.
Cloudy; rainy; afternoon clouds broken; fine even.
> Nimbi, with showers. Sun. 18 30.114 61 30.105 62 48.2 58.0 53.1 9.8 46
8 10 2 2 N.b E. n.b E.
(dark and windy.
Much cloud ; cumulus, cum. -stratus ; cold P.M. ; very
A light shower at 10 A.M. ; fine at noon ; P.M. overc.
Much cloud ; cirro-cum, and cum.-stratus.
7 80 1
Clear after midnight, with a hoar-frost; cloudy.
Wind and rain ; cirro-stratus and scud ; fine evening.
Very fine ; loose cumuli ; cloudy at 6 P.M. ; clear.
Cloudy; scud ; mild ; very fine warm weather.
Stratus into scud till noon; cirro-cum, and sultry.
Clouds very thick ; generally overcast.
Cumuli into nimbi with heavy showers; thunder n.
Rain early; gloomy; rainy P.m.; high wind 5 to 6.
N. 8. W.
Nimbi, with squalls ; very cold clear even. ; Aurora.
Bar. Max. 30.396 in, on the 22nd. Ther. Max. 71.4° on the 26th. Lowest point of Rad. 31°, on the 22nd.
9 A.M. attch.
DR. BUCKLAND'S BRIDGEWATER TREATISE. Geology and Mineralogy considered with reference to Natural Theology.
By William BUCKLAND, D.D. &c. vols. 8vo. THE BRIDGEWATER TREATises may be regarded as marking an epoch in our literature: the agreeable and attractive manner in which the most exalted subject which can occupy the mind of man—the knowledge of the Creator and his attributes—has been inculcated in these works, having been productive of as much pleasure combined with instruction as perhaps any equal number of volumes ever published. If, therefore, Dr. Buckland's work had only constituted the concluding one of the series it would have excited great interest, but other circumstances have concurred to attach peculiar importance to his contribution, and these circumstances must be borne, in mind to enable us to appreciate the difficulties which the author had to contend with, and the degree of success with which he may be considered to have overcome them.
The publication of the Reliquiæ Diluvianæ* has caused Dr. Buckland to be looked upon as the champion of that party which views with jealousy and suspicion those discoveries made by geologists as to the past history of our globe, which appear at variance with the Mosaic account of the Creation. Most of our readers may recollect the triumph with which that work was received as a refutation of these deductions. Scientific men, who had simply, in good faith, promulgated the results of their investigations had been accused of infidelity, and, in the blind zeal to expose them, the charity which ought to have attributed their supposed errors to defective judgment, rather than to sinister intentions, and the common sense which should have suggested that it was another, and equally authentic revelation of Divine powert, which they were attempting to interpret, were alike forgotten.
We fear it was as much this party feeling as Dr. Luckland's acknowledged qualifications for the task, that caused him to be selected to write the treatise on Geology for the Bridgewater series; and the result of his labours was, naturally, expected with anxiety by two classes of readers. The religious alarmists hoped thit they would produce an explanation of the facts recently ascertained as to the early state of our planet, which would be in accordance with their views; for the scrupulous adherence to the purest spirit of inductive philosophy, which has characterized the prosecution of this branch of science, during the last twenty years, has given an authority to the deductions promulgated by its cultivators, that cannot be shaken by mere declamatory arguments.
On the other hand, those who had received these deductions as physical truths, without reference to their bearings on a subject with which they had properly no connexion, were curious to ascertain how far Dr. Buckland would feel himself obliged to modify his opinions, in consequence of the facts brought to light since the publication of his
* Reliquiæ Diluviane, or Observations on Action of an Universal Deluge. — 4to., the Organic Remains contained in Caves, 1823, Fissures, and Diluvial Gravel: and on + The “ book of God's works” as Lord other Geological Phenomena, attesting the | Bacon styles Nature, VOL. II. Z
former work. They knew that even in the Reliquiæ Diluvianæ, though the truth had been told, it was not the whole truth; enough had been stated to furnish arguments to those who, unable or unwilling to examine for themselves, were desirous of decrying opinions repugnant to their feelings, but the suppressed evidence was as fatal to these arguments as that brought forward appeared favourable to them, and the time was now arrived, when that evidence was too generally known and admitted by competent judges, not to be openly allowed by all *.
It will be, therefore, acknowledged that Dr. Buckland had a difficult and a delicate task to execute in his present work. His character as a scientific man required from him a full exposition of those geological facts which had been authenticated, and of the conclusions which followed from them, whether they were in accordance or not, with the doctrines he had previously advocated; while the unfortunate association between the truths of a physical science and those of a moral revelation, which he had so essentially assisted in establishing, compelled him again to enter into a discussion, alike injurious to true religion and to sound knowledge. Having considered the subject in its theological bearing in another place, we shall no further allude to this discussion than to point out how Dr. Buckland in his present work has erred, in our opinion, by again mixing up two such incongruous matters. The object of the Bridgewater treatises, according to their founder's intention, was to illustrate the power, wisdom, and goodness of God, manifested in the creation ; in short, both according to the words, as well as the spirit of the bequest, they were intended to form a body of Natural Theology, in which the arguments adduced by Paley and others should be elaborated, extended, and corrected, according to the improved state of our knowledge of the material universe. It was by strictly adhering to this plan, and by sedulously avoiding reference to Revelation, that Dr. Buckland's colleagues, with a single exception, succeeded in producing a series of works equally instructive and beneficial; this path was open to that gentleman, and the example of Mr. Kirby should have warned him of the mischief that must accrue from deviating from it; but the author of the Reliquiæ Diluvianæ, fettered by the load of his previous reputation, appears to have been unwilling entirely to surrender a position by the defence of which it was acquired; and has consequently missed the opportunity of establishing a more permanent and more desirable celebrity, by becoming the author of a work which should be equally characterized by sound knowledge, philosophical reasoning, and by its freedom from polemical disquisitions.
* We must refer, generally, on this sub- land has acknowledged that subsequent ject, to the article on Geology in our last discoveries have invalidated the justness of number; nevertheless we will here briefly his conclusions deduced from organic rerecapitulate the evidence by which the as- mains, but he has not, that we know of, sertion in the text is supported.
exposed the other weak points in his arguDr. Buckland's object, in his former ments, which it did not require any addiwork, was to show, “that the general dis- tional facts to make evident. persion of gravel and loam over hills and Though there was physical evidence of elevated plains as well as valleys, was the the violent effects of water over the whole effect of an universal and transient de-known surface of the earth, as far as it luge;" that the general form of valleys, had been examined, yet there was, not only, their mutual connexion and ramifications, none that it had acted simultaneously, even could only be accounted for on this suppo- at any two adjoining localities, but the very sition; that the evidence derived from the circumstance that the traces were those of races of animals destroyed at the period, violent currents, excavating valleys, deand the tradition throughout all nations of positing gravel, boulders, &c., on hill-sides such a cataclysm, were collateral proofs of and tops, was a direct proof that the water it; and that the event had occurred about had not acted universally and simulta6000 years ago.
Therefore these effects neously. If we suppose a mountain lake to were the result of the Noachian deluge. burst its barrier, or a subterranean move
“ In the full confidence that these diffi- ment to elevate a large extent of the bed culties will at length be removed, by the of the ocean, the hydraulic action of the further extension of physical observations, water so displaced might produce such we may for the present rest satisfied with effects as those mentioned. But no laws the argument that numberless phenomena with which we are acquainted could cause have been already ascertained, which, with currents, adequate to that purpose, in an out the admission of an universal deluge, it ocean gradually elevated above the summits seems not easy, nay, utterly impossible to of the highest mountains; and Dr. Buckexplain.” (Reliq. Dil.) And by afford- land must have been aware that, except by ing the strongest evidence of an universal the immediate will of a Divine Power, susdeluge leads us to hope that it will no pending at his pleasure the otherwise longer be asserted, as it has been by high immutable laws of nature, no universal authority, that geology supplies no proofs deluge ever could have occurred on the of an event, in the reality of which the earth. The attempt, therefore, to estabtruth of the Mosaic records is so materially lish the truth of a miracle by human reainvolved.” (Dedication to the Bishop of soning was in this, as in every other case, Durham.)
as unphilosophical as it was fruitless. Our readers are aware that Dr. Buck
Ever since the futility of all attempts to construct a “theory of the earth," in the present state of our knowledge, was distinctly recognised, it has been the proud boast of the cultivators of geology that they sedulously avoided all speculative hypotheses, and confined themselves to the accumulation of facts; it is the strict adherence, by the leading geologists of our times, to this precept, that has raised the science to its present pre-eminence, and has made the study of it attractive to well-disciplined minds.
The first prominent defect that strikes us in the outset in Dr. Buckland's book, is occasioned by the disregard of this rule; having commenced with a disquisition on the verbal interpretation of the Mosaic cosmogony, and having endeavoured to prove that there is no discrepancy between that record of creation and the results of our observations on the successive conditions of the earth, Dr. Buckland could hardly avoid entering into an account of the first emergence of the globe from a chaotic state, and by so doing, he has, in some measure, blighted the ripening fruits of the more philosophical mode of proceeding, of his cotemporaries.
But failure accompanies this as well as every other attempt to substantiate revealed truth by the collateral aid of finite intelligence. Dr. Buckland's
cosmogomy has not the slightest connexion with that of Moses, and is obscure and unintelligible; although the deductions of physical astronomy render it highly probable, that our globe may have, at one time, been in a semi-fluid state, yet no knowledge we at present possess can enable us to frame, with anything approaching consistency, an account of its transition from a level, uniform, spheroidal surface, acquired by rotation, to its present irregularity, both in density and level. This subject has been touched on by a cotemporary geologist of the first rank, and we gladly avail ourselves of his words.
“ It is difficult for a speculator to believe, that Geology may become a very important branch of natural science, though it should wholly dis