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NEW PATENTS. 1836.

N. B.-'The first Date annexel to each Patent, is that on which it was sealed and granted; tire second

that on or before which the Specification must be delivered and enrolled. ---The abbreviation For. Comm., signifies that the invention, &c., is “a communication from a foreiguer residing abroad."

OCTOBER cont.

251. John Yule, Glasgow, Practical 241. JEREMIAH Crook, Liverpool, Lanc., gines, or an improved rotatory engine. Nov.

Engineer; for improvements in rotatory enMerchant; for improvements in the ma

15.- May 15. chinery for manufacturing hat bodies. Oct.

252. AUGUSTUS APPLEGATH, Crayford, 28.- April 28. For. Comm. 242. Thomas Edge, Great Peter-street, printing calico and other fabrics. Nov. 15.

Kent, Calico Printer; for improvements in Westm., Gas-apparatus and Lamp Manu

- May 15. facturer; for improvements in lighting or 253. Joseph WHITWORTH, Manchester, illuminating by gas, oil, or spirit-lights, or

Lanc., Engineer; for improvements in malamps. Oct. 28.—April 28. For. Comm.

chinery for spinning and doubling cottonTOTAL, OCTOBER...18.

wool, and other fibrous substances. Nov.

19.—May 19. NOVEMBER

254. WILLIAM NORRIS, Alston, Cumb.,

Land Surveyor; for improvements in the 243. ROBERT COPLAND, Courlands, manufacture of combs. Nov. 19.-May 19. Wandsworth-rd., Surry, Esq. ; for im- For. Comm. provements upon patents already obtained 255. John GORDON CAMPBELL, Glasgow, by him, for combinations of apparatus for Lanark, Merchant, and John Gibson, of gaining power. Nov, 5.—May 5.

the same place, Throwster; for a new or im244. JAMES ELNATHAN SMITH, Liverpool, proved process or manufacture of silk, and Lanc., Merchant; for improvements in silk in combination with certain other fibrous railways, and on locomotive carriages to substances. Nov. 19.-May 19. work on such railways. Nov. 8.-June 8. 256. JOHN BUCHANAN, Ramsbottam, For. Comm.

Lanc., Millwright; for an improved appa245. JOHN WHITCHER, Ringwood, Hants, ratus for the purpose of dyeing, and perCarrier; for improvements in drags or ap- forming similar operations. Nov, 22.paratus applicable to carriages. Nov. 8.- May 22. May 8.

257. THOMAS Robson, Park-rd., Dalston, 246. JAMES SMITH the younger, and Middx., Operative Chemist; for improveFRANCIS SMITH, Radford, Nott., Mecha- ments in firing signal and other lights. Nov. nics; for improvements in certain ma- 22.—May 22. chinery already known, for making bobbin- 258. GEORGE GUYNNE, Holborn, Gent. ; net, or twist lace. Nov. 8.—May 8. and JAMES YOUNG, Brewer, Brick-lane,

247. JOEL LIVSEY, Bury, Lanc., Cotton Middx. ; for improvements in the manuSpinner; for improvements in machinery facture of sugars. Nov. 22.-Jan. 22. used for spinning, preparing, and doubling 259. ISAAC NAYLOR, Stainsbrough, near cotton and other fibrous substances. Nov. Barnsley, York, Gamekeeper; for an 10.—May 10.

alarum gun, or reporter and detector. Nov. 248. BERTIE PATERSON, Peacock-street, 22.—May 22. Newington, Surry, Engineer; for improve- 260. TIMOTHY HACKWORTH, New Shilments in the construction of meters or ap. don, near Bishop Auckland, Engineer ; for paratus for measuring gas or liquids. Nov. improvements in steam-engines. Nov. 22. 12.-May 12.

-May 22. 249. HENRY AUGUSTUS WELLS, New 261. THOMAS Ellis, Stamford Hill, York, but now of Threadneedle-st., Lon- Middx., Esq., and THOMAS BURR, Shrewsdon; for his improvements in the manu- bury, Shropshire; for improvements in the facture of hats. Nov, 15.-Jan. 15. manufacture of sheets and pipes, or tubes,

250. FLETCHER WOOLLEY, York-st. East, and other articles of lead and other metals. Commercial-rd., Middx., Gent. ; for im- Nov. 24.—May 24. provements in the manufacture or prepa- 262. JOSEPH WOOLLAMS, Wells, Som., ration of materials to be used as a substi- Gent. ; for improved means of obtaining tute for bees’-wax, parts of which improve- power and motion from known sources. ments are applicable to other purposes. Nov. 24.-May 24. Nov. 15.-May 15.

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SCIENTIFIC ALMANACS.

The Nautical Almanac; Connaissance des Tems; Astronomisches Jahr

buch (Berlin); Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes; British Annual, fc.--for 1837.

The return of the season at which the host of almanacs makes its appearance, has this year been distinguished by that of the first number of a British Annual, published in imitation of the French Annuaire. This adoption of a plan which has been followed with such success for many years by our continental neighbours, seems to demand some notice in a scientific work like ours; and we shall take this opportunity of passing in review the principal almanacs, to enable our readers to form a judgment on their comparative merits, as well as on those of the stranger newly associated to them.

The original and essential purport of an almanac was to supply those in any way interested in astronomical pursuits with the relative position, during the current year, of the heavenly bodies, and with data for making calculations of their movements in the intervals between those periods for which the almanac furnished them. Immediately connected with this object, was the notice of future phenomena of occasional recurrence, such as eclipses, transits, occultations, &c. The importance to society generally, of everything connected with the calendar, or with the measurement and division of time, as immediately dependent on the apparent motions of the sun, &c. seemed to necessitate the addition of information on this subject, to the purely astronomical details originally contemplated. The intrusion of extraneous matter once allowed, the regular republication of a work with such contents, offered an opportunity for adding any other which might be generally interesting, that was of a periodical character; almanacs, accordingly, became a mélange of scientific, civil, and political notices, the two latter having no other connexion with the first than that of being annually modified.

We will not touch on that melancholy and humiliating chapter in the moral history of mankind—and the more painful because it is not yet finally closed *-which narrates the progress of credulity and imposture,

* We observed, but yesterday, a placard pany's almanacs—the obscene; but this announcing the recent publication of a class was discontinued in 1829. (!) work entitled Phrenology and Astrology “There are now only two astrological harmonized, showing that the compartments almanacs, Vox Stellarum, by Francis of the head, as divided for phrenological Moore, physician, and Merlinus Liberatus, study, exactly agree with the astrological by John Partridge. Moore's improved houses of Heaven, fic. &c.

almanac has this year (1832) ceased to beThe following passage from a cotempo- long to this class. These two contribute, rary journal, published before the repeal there is good reason to believe, one-half of of the duty on almanacs, presents some the revenue upon almanacs—that is, they remarkable statements on this subject:- sell 250,000 copies. Of these again, nine

“ The total number of almanacs pub- tenths of the number may be put to the lished may be divided into the astrological account of Francis Moore. So that this and the non-astrological. The astrological relic of ancient absurdity is probably more are published by the Stationers' Company read than any other work in the kingdom. only. There was a third class of the com- “ John Partridge commenced his vocaVOL. II.

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attaching themselves to a science that would otherwise have earlier exalted our nature, by the contemplation of eternity, of space and duration, viewed through a medium uncontaminated by their breath; and which describes them as working their baleful spells under the arrogated sanction of her name, and gradually increasing their influence till it blinded the majority of the human race to truth and reason. Most almanacs, as our readers know, were formerly the vehicles for the dissemination of much of the poison we allude to; and, perhaps, the jealous anxiety to rescue the true original object of their institution from any portion of this disgraceful stigma, may have been a powerful, though unacknowledged, reason for again separating the purely astronomical part of their contents from the miscellaneous matter which was being continually engrafted on the parent stock: a separation, however, sufficiently accounted for by the demands of an extending knowledge in the science, and in the dependent art of navigation, which required a greater space being devoted to their use than was compatible with the admission of anything not essentially connected with the subject. This separation accordingly has taken place in most European nations, and in the United States, but it is to the three leading astronomical almanacs of the old world, that our remarks will be chiefly confined.

Our own national almanac and the French Connaissance des Tems undoubtedly stand at the head of all these works. We place them

tion as an almanac-maker soon after the It must not be supposed that England restoration; Francis Moore began his ca- stands alone in this disgraceful position, reer of imposture in 1698; Partridge, Moore's almanac was, till lately, if not is, therefore, has the advantage of senility annually reprinted in Paris and in Bouover his rival, and that ought to go a good logne, and similar evidences of barbarity way in balancing the relative merits of annually make their appearance at Liège, their stupidity. It is probable, however, Coblentz, &c. &c. At home, the sale of that Partridge's almanac never entirely this work is chiefly confined to the agriculmade head against the wicked wit of tural population, the least enlightened in all Swift; for it is a remarkable fact that stages of society. Mr. Baily, in alluding to Bickerstaff killed this identical almanac | the endeavours made by the respectable for a season, and frightened the real Part- | editors of these kinds of almanacs to purify ridge from attempting to set it up again. them gradually from the nonsense they conThe Stationers' Company, however, were tain, states, that such an endeavour was not to be so beaten out of a profitable im- made with regard to Moore's almanac, by posture, and they had the impudence, in omitting, one year, the column of influences 1714, to publish a Partridge's Almanac, of the moon on parts of the body, and that with a portrait of the seer, which the wor- nearly the whole impression of 100,000 thy man refused to acknowledge. The was, in consequence, returned by the buyers defeated astrologer obstinately persisting on the hands of the publisher, as denot to prophesy in the flesh, the com- fective. pany continued to employ the ghost only The worshipful company mentioned in of Partridge, and the work even the above extract advertise this year bears the motto, Etiam mortuus loquitur. (1837), in their annual list of eighteen This original schism, and the acknowledg- almanacs, Francis Moore, price 60.ment of the death of the almanac-maker, Moore's Almanac Improved, 9d. ; the imis the only reason we can assign for Part- provement for which the extra price is ridge not being as popular as Moore. He charged consisting chiefly of the omission is unquestionably as silly.” (Quarterly of the predictions, &c. In the same list, Journal of Education. No. V.)

Partridge's almanac still holds the third The name of Partridge was assumed; place, the post of honour being assigned to the compiler's real one was Gadbury, a the genuine Moore, in consequence, we most prolific writer, to judge by the num- fear, of its being still the most profit. ber of his works extant in the British able. Museum, all treating of astrology, &c.

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together, because they have advanced to their present degree of perfection in consequence chiefly of the reciprocal effect they have had on each other. If the Connaissance des Tems can lay claim to seniority of birth, the volume for 1837 being the hundred and fifty-ninth of a series which has never suffered interruption since its commencement in 1679 by Picard, yet we suspect it would no

more have attained its maturity without the spirit of emulation excited by the subsequent appearance of our Nautical Almanac, than this would, if it had not been for the beneficial example of such a pre-existing model, and for the assistance derived from the authentic sources of means for calculation, so liberally communicated by the French astronomers to ours.

The Nautical Almanac was the fruit of the exertions of the late Dr. Maskelyne in the cause of his favourite pursuit. That distinguished practical astronomer, in the course of several voyages undertaken by him for scientific purposes, had ample opportunity for remarking the difficulties the navigator laboured under, owing to the want of proper works on nautical astronomy: he presented a memorial to the Commissioners of Longitude on February 9th, 1765, in which he proved, by facts, the utility of the method of deducing the longitude by means of the moon's distance from the fixed stars, as it had been promulgated by him in a work he had recently published for that purpose, called The British Mariner's Guide: he then stated the necessity that existed for a good nautical ephemeris to enable the full benefit of this method being reaped. The board having heard the evidence of four naval officers as to the advantages of the new method of “lunar distances,” came to a resolution that the “tables of the late Professor Mayer should be purchased of his widow, and printed; and that a nautical ephemeris should be compiled to use with them.” The superintendence of the latter labour was confided to Dr. Maskelyne, who had then become astronomer royal, and he exerted himself so actively on the occasion, that the first number of the Nautical Almanac for the year 1767 was published in 1766, accompanied by a preface written by him, describing the use and construction of the tables, and stating those from which the calculations had been made *.

The work appeared regularly with little or no alteration in its general contents and arrangement, for upwards of sixty years t, except that the calculations were made from every improved formula, or set of

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* Dr. Maskelyne did not confine his , each month; these were increased, for labours to the publication of the Alma- Mercury, to every third day,, before nac; a series of tables, requisite to be used | 1800 ; but all the rest remained as with it, appeared at the same time, drawn before, except that the right ascension up by him; this valuable work, which has of the planets was added soon after the ever since been known by the above quaint year 1810. In the almanac for 1833, title, has gone through numerous editions, several additions were made; among éach being improved on that which pre- others, the times of the rising and setting ceded it.

of the sun's and moon's centres. These + In the first Nautical Almanac for columns have disappeared again since that 1767, the column of differences of the year, in order to make way for more genesun's declination, which appeared sub- rally valuable matter, contrary, however, sequently from about 1800 to 1833, was to the practice of the Connaissance des not given. In the earliest numbers the Tems and the Astronomisches Jahrbuch, tables of the five planets then known both of which works give these times. were only given for every six days of

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