dicine, and Fellow of the Royal College of and shall have a common seal, and shall by Physicians.

the same name sue and be sued, implead William Thomas Brande, Esq., Vice- and be impleaded, and answer and be anPresident of the Royal Society.

swered unto in every Court of us, our heirs, James Clarke, Esq., Doctor in Medi- - and successors. And we do hereby will cine, Fellow of the College of Physicians, and ordain, that by the same name they and of the Royal Society.

and their successors shall be able and ca. Philip Cecil Crampton, Esq., Doctor of pable in law to take, purchase, and hold to Civil Law, Fellow of the Royal Society, them and their successors any goods, chatand our Surgeon-General in Ireland. tels, or personal property whatsoever, and

John Dalton, Esq., Doctor of Civil Law, shall also be able and capable in law, notand Fellow of the Royal Society.

withstanding the statutes of mortmain, to 6. William Empson, Esq., Barrister-at- take, purchase, and hold to them and their Law, Professor of General Polity and the successors, not only all such lands, buildLaws of England at the East India College. ings, hereditaments, and possessions, as may

Michael Faraday, Esq., Doctor of Civil be from time to time exclusively used and Law, Fellow of the Royal Society.

occupied for the immediate purposes of the Sir Stephen Love Hammick, Bart., Doc- said University, but also any other lands, tor in Medicine, Fellow of the Royal Col- buildings, hereditaments, and possessions lege of Physicians, and of the Royal Society. whatsoever, situate within our United

John Stevens Henslow, Clerk, Master Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of Arts, Professor of Botany in the Uni- not exceeding the annual value of 10,000l. ; versity of Cambridge.

such annual value to be calculated and Cornelius Hewett, Esq., Doctor in Me- ascertained at the period of taking, purdicine, and Downing Professor of Medi- chasing, or acquiring the same ; and that cine in the University of Cambridge. they and their successors shall be able and

Thomas Hodgkin, Esq., Doctor in Me- capable in law to grant, demise, alien, or dicine.

otherwise dispose of, all or any of the proFrancis Kiernan, Esq.

perty, real 'or personal, belonging to the John George Shaw Lefevre, Esq., Fel- said University, and also to do all other low of the Royal Society.

matters incidental or appertaining to a John William Lubbock, Esq., Vice-Pre- body corporate. And we do hereby further sident and Treasurer of the Royal Society. will and ordain that the said body politic

Sir James M'Grigor, Bart., Doctor in and corporate shall consist of Chancellor, Medicine, Doctor of Civil Law, Fellow of one Vice-Chancellor, and such number of the Royal Society, Fellow of the College of Fellows or Members of the Senate as we Physicians, one of our Physicians Extraor- shall from time to time appoint under our dinary, and Director-General of the Army sign manual ; and that our right trusty and Medical Board.

right well-beloved cousin the aforesaid Richard Rainy Pennington, Esq. William Cavendish, Earl of Burlington, be Jones Quain, Esq., Doctor in Medicine. the first Chancellor, John William LubJohn Rideout, Esq.

bock, Esq., the Vice-Chancellor, and the Peter Mark Roget, Esq., Doctor in Me- aforesaid Edward Lord Bishop of Durham, dicine, Secretary of the Royal Society. William Lord Bishop of Chichester, Henry

Nassau William Senior, Esq., one of the Baron Brougham and Vaux, George Biddell Masters of our High Court of Chancery, Airy, Andrew Amos, Thomas Arnold, John and Fellow of the Royal Society.

Austin, Neil Arnott, John Bacon, Francis Joseph Henry Gerrard, Doctor of Laws, Beaufort, Archibald Billing, William ThoPrincipal of the Bristol College.

mas Brande, James Clarke, Philip Cecil Richard Sheepshanks, Clerk, Fellow of Crampton, John Dalton, William Empson, the Royal Society.

Michael Faraday, Sir Stephen Love HamJohn Sims, Esq., Doctor in Medicine. mick, John Stevens Henslow, Cornelius

Cornop Thirlwal, Clerk, Fellow of Tri- Hewett, Thomas Hodgkin, Francis Kiernan, nity College, Cambridge.

John George Shaw Lefevre, John William James Walker, Esq., Fellow of the Lubbock, Sir James M'Grigor, Richard Rainy Royal Society, and

Pennington, Jones Quain, John Rideout, Henry Warburton, Esq., Member of the Peter Mark Roget, Nassau William Senior, Commons' House of Parliament, and Fel- Joseph Henry Gerrard, Richard Sheeplow of the Royal Society,

shanks, John Sims, Cornop. Thirlwall, During our Royal will and pleasure, and James Walker, and Henry Warburton, be all persons whom we may hereafter appoint the first Fellows and Members of the Senate to be Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, or Fel- thereof. That whenever a vacancy shall lows, as hereinafter mentioned, one body occur in the office of Chancellor of the said politic and corporate, by the name of the University, either by death, resignation, or University of London, by which name such otherwise, we will, under our sign manual, body politic shall have perpetual succession, I nominate a fit and proper person to be

Chancellor instead of the Chancellor occa- to one of our principal Secretaries of State, sioning such vacancy. That the office of and approved of and countersigned by him. Vice-Chancellor of the said University shall That all questions which shall come be an annual office; and the Vice-Chan- before the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, and cellor hereinbefore named shall, at the ex- Fellows, shall be decided by a majority of piration of one year from the 1st of July, the members present ; and the chairman 1837, go out of office, and the said Fellows at any such meeting shall have a vote, and or Members of the Senate shall, at the in case of an equality of votes, a second or meeting to be holden by them for that pur- casting vote. pose, on some day within a month before That no question shall be decided at any the expiration of the tenure of the said meeting unless the Chancellor, or Viceoffice, of which due notice shall be given, Chancellor, and five Fellows, or, in the abelect one other fit and proper person to be sence of the Chancellor and Vice-Chanthe Vice-Chancellor of the said University, cellor, unless six Fellows at the least, shall and so from time to time annually; or, in be present at the time of such decision. case of the death, resignation, or other That at every meeting of the Chancellor, avoidance of such Vice-Chancellor, before Vice-Chancellor, and Fellows, the Chanthe expiration of his year of office, shall, at cellor, or in his absence the Vice-Chancellor, a meeting to be holden by them for that shall preside as chairman, or in the absence purpose as soon as conveniently may be, of of both, a chairman shall be chosen by the which due notice shall be given, elect some members present, or the major part of other fit and proper person to be Vice- them. Chancellor for the remainder of the year That the said Chancellor, Vice-Chanin which such death, resignation, or other cellor, and Fellows, for the time being, shall avoidance shall happen; such person to be have full power from time to time to apchosen from among themselves by the ma- point, and, as they shall see occasion, to jor part of the Fellows present at such remove all examiners, officers, and servants meeting, and to be approved of by the of the said University. Chancellor of the said University for the That once, at least, in every year, the time being.

said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, and FelThat we reserve to ourselves to be the lows, shall cause to be held an examination visitor of the said University of London, of candidates for degrees; and on every with authority to do all things which pertain such examination the candidates shall be to visitors, as often as to us shall seem examined either by examiners appointed for meet.

the purpose from among the Fellows by the That the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, and Feland Fellows. for the time being, shall have lows, or by other examiners so to be apthe entire management of, and superin- pointed ; and that on every such examinatendence over, the affairs, concerns, and tion the candidates shall be examined in as property of the said University; and in all many branches of general knowledge as the cases unprovided for by this our charter, said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, and Fel. it shall be lawful for the Chancellor, Vice- lows, shall consider the most fitting subjects Chancellor, and Fellows, to act in such of such examination. And whereas it is expemanner as shall appear to them best cal- dient to extend the benefits of colleges and culated to promote the purposes intended establishments already instituted, or which by the said University; and the said Chan- may be hereafter instituted, for the promocellor, Vice-Chancellor, and Fellows, shall tion of literature, science, and art, whether have full power from time to time to make, incorporated or not incorporated, by conand also to alter any by-laws and regula- necting them for such purposes with the tions (so as the same be not repugnant to University created by this our Royal charthe laws of our realm, or to the general ter-We do hereby further will and ordain, objects and provisions of this our charter) that all persons shall be admitted as cantouching the examinations for degrees, didates for the respective degrees of Bacheand the granting of the same, and touch- lor of Arts, Master of Arts, Bachelor of ing the mode and time of convening the Laws, or Doctor of Laws, to be conferred meetings of the Chancellor, Vice-Chan- by the said University of London, on precellor, and Fellows, and in general touch- senting to the said Chancellor, Vice-Chaning all other matters whatsoever regarding cellor, and Fellows, a certificate from any the said University; and all such by-laws of the institutions hereinafter mentioned, to and regulations, when reduced into writ- the effect tbat such candidate has completed ing, and after the common seal of the said the course of instruction which the said University shall have been affixed thereto, Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, and Fellows, shall be binding upon all persons members by regulation in that behalf shall determine. thereof, and all candidates for degrees to That such certificates as aforesaid may be conferred by the same ; all such by-laws be granted from our college called and regulations having been first submitted | University College, or from our College VOL. II.

2 I


called King's College, both situate in ferred, as the said Chancellor, Vice-Chan. London, or from such other institution, cellor, and Fellows, with the approbation of corporate or unincorporate, as now is, or the Commissioners of our Treasury, shall hereafter shall be, established for the pur- from time to time direct; and such fees poses of education, whether in the metropo- shall be carried to one general fee fund for lis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom, the payment of the expenses of the said and as we, under our sign manual, shall University, under the directions and reguhereafter authorize to issue such certificates. lations of the Commissioners of our Trea.

And for the purpose of granting the de- sury, to whom the accounts of income and grees of Bachelor of Medicine, and Doc- expenditure of the said University shall tor of Medicine, and for the improvement once in every year be submitted, which acof medical education in all its branches, counts shall be subject to such examinaas well in medicine as in surgery, mid- tion and audit as the said Commissioners wifery, and pharmacy –We do further may direct. hereby will and ordain that the said Chan- That at the conclusion of every exami. cellor, Vice-Chancellor, and Fellows, shall nation of the candidates, the examiners shall from time to time report to one of our prin- declare the name of every candidate whom cipal Secretaries of State, what appear to they shall have deemed to be entitled to any them to be the medical institutions and of the said degrees, and the departments of schools, whether corporate or unincorpo- knowledge in which his proficiency shall rated, in this our metropolis, or in other have been evinced, and also his proficiency parts of our United Kingdom, from which in relation to that of other candidates, and either singly or jointly with other medical he shall receive from the said Chancellor a institutions and schools in the country or in certificate, under the seal of the said Uniforeign parts, it may be fit and expedient in versity of London, and signed by the said the judgment of the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, in which the particulars so deChancellor, and Fellows, to admit candi- clared shall be stated. dates for medical degrees, and on approval Provided always, that all by-laws and of such report by our said Secretary of State, regulations made from time to time touchshall admit all persons as candidates for the ing the examinations of candidates, and respective degrees of Bachelor of Medicine granting of degrees, shall be submited for and Doctor of Medicine, to be conferred by the consideration of one of our principal the said University, on presenting to the Secretaries of State, to be approved of by said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, and Fel- him. lows, a certificate from any such institution And, lastly, we do hereby for us, our or school, to the effect that such candidate heirs and successors, grant and declare that has completed the course of instruction these our letters patent, or the enrolment which the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, or exemplification thereof, shall be in and and Fellows, from time to time, and with the by all things valid and effectual in law, acapproval of one of our principal Secretaries cording to the true intent and meaning of of State, to vary, alter, and amend any such the same, and shall be construed and adreports, by striking out any of the said in- judged in the most favourable and beneficial stitutions or schools included therein, or by sense for the best advantage of the said adding others thereunto.

University, as well in all courts as elseThat the said Chancellor, Vice-Chan- where, notwithstanding any non-recital, miscellor, and Fellows, shall have power, after recital, uncertainty, or imperfection, in examination, to confer the several degrees these our letters patent. of Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, Bache- In witness whereof, we have caused these lor of Laws, Doctor of Laws, Bachelor of our letters to be made patent. Witness Medicine, Doctor of Medicine, and to ex- ourself, at our (Palace of Westminster, the amine for medical degrees in the four 28th day of November, in the seventh year branches of medicine, surgery, midwifery, of our reign. and pharmacy, and that such reasonable

By Writ of Privy Seal, fees shall be charged for the degrees so con


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Nomenclature of Comets. tion in the world, ought not to be more The designation of comets by the names of the comet of 1818. He ought, in

favoured than M. Pons, the discoverer of men, is now established by custom. justice, to give up the honour to the As this practice may be useful in ex- calculator. For the same reason that citing the zeal of astronomers, it may the comet of the short period is called be well to adhere to it. One condition, that of Encke, (and for my part, I conhowever, seems indispensable,—that the sider this appellation highly proper,) names shall be constantly chosen by an the comet of 6 years, should bear the invariable rule, which shall be free from all personal and national prejudices. persist in calling it the comet of Bielá,

name of GAMBART*.

Those who may Whether or not such a rule has been will evidently have two weights and two observed, with strict justice, up to the present time, may be learnt from the M. Pons, simply saw the comet before

measures, for the Austrian officer, like following statement :

any other observer-he followed its Three periodical comets are known ;-the comet whose revolucalculated neither its parabolic, nor its

march among the constellations, but he tion requires 76 years : the comet of

elliptic orbit.--ARAGO. 3 years is; and that of 6 years. The first bears the name of Halley; the Honour due,and granted.--Mr. Francis second, that of Encke; the third, that

Baily. of Biela. These three appellations, evidently do not proceed from the same rule. The circumstances of the recent election

In each case of a periodical comet, of a corresponding member of the Secthere may be distinguished,—the astro- tion of Astronomy in the Académie des nomer who was the first to observe it; Sciences, of Paris, cannot fail to be highly the astronomer who was likewise the gratifying to our scientific countrymen. first to ascertain, by the means of its At a meeting of the Academy on the parabolic elements, that it had previous- 14th of November last, the Astronomical ly appeared; and finally, the astrono- Section presented the following list of mer who, by the study of its elliptic persons, whose services and reputation elements, calculated the time of its in astronomical science the Section conrevolution. We may give the prefer- sidered sufficient to render them worthy ence, according to our own peculiar of the distinction of filling the vacancy views, either to a calculator, or to the produced by the death of Mr. Pond :observer; but the decision once made,

1. Baily.

London. it would be unjust not to adhere to it.

2. Dunlop

Paramatta, Let us now, leaving Halley out of the 3. Carlini

Milan. question he having been the first who

4. Littrow,

Vienna. gave attention to periodical comets, exa- 5. Hansen

Gotha. mine on what grounds the comet dis

Two of these, and the first on the list, covered by M. Pons, on the 26th November, 1818, has generally taken the it will be observed, are Englishmen.

On the 21st of November, the Acaname of Hr. Encke. It is, indisputably, from the reason, that the celebrated demy proceeded to the election. There

were forty-two members present who astronomer of Berlin was the first to calculate its elliptic elements ; it is, that voted, and the result was, this calculation was considered more

34 for Baily.
7 for

Carlini. important, more difficult, and more

1 white ball. deserving of grateful recollection, than the discovery: but if this be true of

42 the comet of 1818, it should not be considered false when applied to the * The acute and accomplshed Director of comet of 1826. The discoverer of this the Observatory at Marseilles, recently last, whatever may be his rank or posi- ' deceased.






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Mr. Baily was therefore declared a Vienna

1 in 24 births. correspondent member of the Academy. London

1 27 The scientific rank of England, is, there- Prussian monarchy 1 29 fore, still maintained in the Astrono-Brunswick

33 mical Section of this distinguished body. Stockholm .

1 36

jin the towns 1 20:4 Doubts of the Eficiency of Fusible Belgium

lin the country 1

38.2 Discs on Steam-boilers.


1 15.5 The use of discs of fusible metal, as a


1 28.0 Sens

1 19 means of preventing explosion in steamboilers, though little practised in this The differences that may be remarked country, was considered by our neigh- in the numbers furnished by the various bours on the continent as one of the countries and places are, perhaps, not most efficacious. It received the ap- quite so great as they would appear at the probation of the Académie des Sciences, first glance. For actually, the still-born and the French government enforced it entered in the registers under that name, by a law, in which the proportions of the may be divided into two classes, one of alloy, the dimensions of the discs, &c. which would contain those which are were minutely prescribed. Experience without life at the moment of birth, has since shaken the confidence reposed and the other, those which die within on this means, and a commission which the three days allowed for the declahas recently sat at Toulon upon the ration of the death to be made. The subject, have decided, that, in their influence of the law, of municipal opinion, these discs furnish no pre- regulations, and of the negligence of servation against explosions, but are a poor and obscure families, has a great source of real danger. The statement effect upon the second class, which which this commission laid before must be more numerous in the towns the Government has induced the and the great seats of manufacture, latter to take into consideration the than in the villages and in the country. propriety, not only of suspending the The town of Issoudun, situated in the present regulations which enforce their centre of France, free from the agitations use, but, in the new ones about to be and changes of the manufacturing disissued, of forbidding the use of these discs tricts, of an average size and population, altogether in every kind of steam-genera- appeared well adapted to afford a mean tor, whether in navigation or manufac- between the cities, and the country, of tures.

France. An extract from its registers The proposal for the adoption of this was obtained, which contains an acmeans of security, having proceeded count of all infants still-born, for thirty from the Acaderny, the Government years. The proportion, 28, which is have thought proper to call upon the result of this research, approaches that body for an examination of the very nearly to the mean of the numobjections which have been raised, and bers given by M. Quetelet for the towns for a thorough discussion of this im- and villages of Belgium, and to the portant question.

number corresponding to the Prussian The academy have appointed MM, monarchy. And until we are in posArago, Dulong, Dupin, D'Arcet, and session of more accurate documents on Seguier, to report upon the subject. the subject, this proportion, 28, is, proba

bly, the true one for the whole of France. Proportion of Infants Still-born.

-DEMONFERRAND. FROM an examination of documents, selected as favourable to a correct re

'Paradox in graduating Circular sult, it would appear, that the number

Instruments. of children still-born, bears the following In a theodolite constructed by M. proportion in the undermentioned places. Gambey of Paris, for Mr. Pentland, Strasburg

1 in 11 births. the minister despatched by the English Hamburg

1 15

government to Bolivia, the graduation Amsterdam

1 17

is said to have been accurately and Dresden


beautifully executed by a machine, in Paris


which it is not necessary that the circle Berlin


to be graduated should have its centre


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