under the modest title of An Essay, the geological description of the north of France. He there divides our land into seven formations, which he respectively designates, in going from the lower to the upper, by the names of trappeenère, ardoisière, bituménifère, du grès rouge, du culcaire horizontale, du grès blanc, du terrain meuble; he sketches rapidly the principal geographical and geognostical characters of these groups, and only leaves to those who shall seize the pencil after him, the care of shading this vast drawing. After having described the country of his birth, he undertook a geological map of that immense empire to which his country had been united, and presented, in 1813, to the Institute of France, the first results of this enormous labour, with a cut representing the structure of the lands, which extend from our Ardenne, to the mountains in the centre of France. The first who hastened to follow the steps of M. D’Omalins was M. Bouesnel. From 1811 to 1815 he published, successively, seven memoirs; upon the position of the beds (gisement) of the minerals in the department of Sambre and Meuse ; upon the mines of iron of the middle Sambre and Meuse; upon the zinc-mine of the Vieille-Montagne; upon the pipe-clay of Ardenne; on the minerals produced from the copper-mine of Stolzembourg; upon the iron-ore in the forest of Soigné; and upon the mines of pit-coal of Flence. These useful labours, known to all the Belgian geologists, cause it to be deeply regretted that since 1815, their learned author has only published one single geolo gical piece, that in which he described, in 1826, the calamine of Santour, near Philipville. We are now arrived at the epoch when natural science has taken, in Belgium, a flight which has been sustained and developed even to the present day. Previous to indicating the results which it has produced, we must go back to the causes which have excited it.

“From the first period of its restoration, the academy had resolved to bring forward for competition for all the provinces of Belgium, the description of their geological constitution, that of the species of minerals and fossils that they contain, with the mark of their localities, and the synonymy of the authors who have already written of them. Plainly put as it is, this question obliged all the competitors to follow the only route which could conduct them to satisfactory and durable theories in natural science; it only demanded from them the observation and classification of facts; for, said Cuvier, “it is that which gives to natural science its peculiar character, and which, taking from the field which it traverses, every obstacle and every limit, promises certain success to every reasonable observer, who, not yielding himself to rash suppositions, follows the only route open to the human mind, in its actual state. The creation of special professorships of mineralogy and

' geology in the three universities of Belgium, at the Atheneum of Namur, and at the School for Medicine, and the Museum of Brussels, has powerfully contributed to propagate the taste for these sciences among our young fellow-countrymen: the establishment of collections of minerals and rocks in these towns, has seconded this intellectual movement, in giving to the scholars, without trouble or expense to them, an idea of the wonders of nature, and in leading them to go to study and admire them in their true places. The government had also taken another step eminently fitted to attain the same end; it had directed the construction of a correct geological chart of Belgium; it had confided the compilation to MM. Van Breda and Van Gorum, who were to act in concert with MM. D'Omalins and Bouesnel, and who had charged with the determination of the limits of the lands two men well worthy of their confidence; MM. Schulz and Van Panhuys. The first died at an early age, leaving at least, as a proof of his talents in the graphic arts, a collection of views of the Grotto of Remouchamp. Nothing Vol. II.


remains to us of the second but the remembrance of his learning, his zeal, and his accuracy, and the regret of having lost with him the nearly-complete geological charts of the provinces of Hainault and Namur. If the events of 1830, had not stopped the great work of which we have just spoken, Belgium would now possess, like England, and many parts of Germany, its Geological Chart, so impatiently expected by science and industry. The government has acknowledged the necessity of recommencing immediately, and of pursuing actively the execution of it; and if it has not yet adopted the measures most proper to attain this end, this delay can only be attributed to the difficulty of finding a sufficient number of able naturalists at this moment in which so many new institutions claim the co-operation of all the talent which Belgium possesses. Let us however hope that these difficulties are about to disappear with the circumstances which have given rise to them, and that we shall soon have the pleasure of hearing that the construction of our Geological map is recommenced with desirable activity.

“The impulse given by the academy, and by the government, to the study of the sciences of observation, and particularly of those whose object it is to make us acquainted with the composition of this little, but most interesting part of the crust of the globe occupied by Belgium, has been seconded by so great a number of naturalists, that I cannot venture to present here a complete enumeration of the works with which they have enriched science, I sball only name the principal, beginning with those which have been composed without the influence and the patronage of the academy, although their authors are almost all of the number of its fellow-labourers.

" In spite of the service which he had rendered by the publication of bis Essay on the Geology of the North of France, M.D'Omalins thought that he had not yet done enough in favour of those of his fellow-citizens, who had taken him for their guide in their geological studies; and wishing to facilitate more and more the execution of the labours destined to complete his work, he published, in 1822, a Geological Map, composed in 1813, of France, the Low Countries, and some neighbouring states; in 1828, a collection of his memoirs corrected, and all new discoveries in the science, since the first edition, inserted; in 1831, his Elements of Geology, of which the edition has been so rapidly sold that he was obliged to bring out another in 1835; in the interval between the two publications of this work he has also published, in 1833, his Introduction to Geology, comprising remarks on astronomy, meteorology, and mineralogy.

“ M. Van Breda, who has powerfully contributed to exploring the geology of Belgium, published in 1829, with Mr. Van Hees, an account of the bones of mammiferous animals found in the rock which forms the platform of St. Pierre, near Maestricht; he composed, in 1830, a memoir, not yet published, upon Flanders, and he would no doubt have communicated to us the result of his researches upon the fossils of some of our lands, and upon the bones buried in some of them, if the events of 1830 had not interrupted the course of his laborious and devoted studies.

M. Levy, who during his stay, alas! too short among us, has done much to propagate the taste for mineralogy, by the brilliant as well as profound manner in which he has professed it in the University of Liège, has only left as a remembrance to the country which had adopted him, a memoir upon various mineral substances, of which one is new,—the bed of lapis calaminaris, of Vieille Montagne.

“M. Schmerling has principally investigated that period so interesting in the natural history of the globe, characterized by the appearance of man upon its surface: the great work that he is publishing at this moment, upon

the fossil-bones of the province of Liège, and his immense collection of the remains of those animals which the earth supported at the period of which I have just spoken, are incontestable titles to the national gratitude for this indefatigable naturalist.

“M. Moren, whose studies have principally for their object physiology, zoology, and botany, has also occupied himself in researches which interest the geologist; he published, in 1832, his observations on the human bones found in the peat-bogs of Flanders, and in 1834, on the fossil-bones of elephants, found in Belgium.

“In giving publicity to the numerous observations that he has made upon the lead-mine of Lougively, which he directs, M. Benoit has contributed to extend the circle of our knowledge of the Ardenne, that part of Belgium which is so interesting to the geologist.

“M. Nyst has just made a new step in the study of our tertiary lands, in printing his researches upon the fossil-shells of the environs of Antwerp.

Many learned foreigners are also joining their efforts to those of the Belgian geologists, and adding some materials to those already collected by them, to serve for a geological description of Belgium. We have much pleasure in noticing the services rendered by MM. Faujas de Saint Fond, Bory de Saint Vincent, Dechen Oeynhausen, Eninghans, Fitton, Lajoukaire, De-ville-neuve, Rozet, and Clère.

“ Although M. Vandermaelen (Philippe) has not published any original work on that branch of natural science which is the object of this Report, we ought to acknowledge that he has rendered great services to it, in organizing in his establishment, at present known by all those who cultivate the sciences in Belgium, collections which are the greatest help to the naturalist, in instituting courses of lectures, destined to spread, among all classes of society, a taste for the beautiful and the sublime; in drawing towards him to concur in the accomplishment of his generous and philanthropic views young men, whom he afterwards sends to traverse distant countries, there to complete their instruction, and to collect materials of every species, for the construction of the monument which he raises here to the sciences of observation.

“The extraordinary and daily increasing developement of industry, during the recent period that we are surveying, has had also a great influence upon the progress of the mineralogical and geological sciences; and these sciences have, in their turn, lent their salutary aid to the branches of that industry which is exercised on mineral substances. To develop this truth, which is not now doubted except by ignorance, would be to insult the understanding of those who listen to me; I shall therefore limit myself to that the members of the mining body, principally destined to enlighten with the torch of theory, the arts of working and treating minerals, have seconded by the communication of elements drawn from practice, the efforts of the geologists who have written on the Belgian Provinces in which mines exist. It only remains for me to speak of the geological works which have been composed under the influence or patronage of the academy; but here a new reserve is imposed upon me, for if I have ventured to give an opinion, or rather to recall the judgment already formed by the public, upon those rather ancient, and generally-extended works which I have cited above, I cannot act in the same manner in regard to those with which I am now to be occupied. It is to public opinion that we must exclusively defer, for the confirmation or contradiction of our judgment, for appreciating our works, and for assigning them their suitable place in the archives of human knowledge,—the appeal of the Academy has been heard and understood; of nine memoirs which have been remitted to it, in answer to the question of geology, successively applied to the provinces of Hainault, Namur, Luxembourg, Liège, and Brabant, it has adjudged seven prizes to their authors, (five first and two second) whom I feel obliged to name in following the chronological order of their works. They are MM. Drapiez, Cauchy, Steininger, Englespach, Larivière, Dumont, Davreux, and Galéotti. Although I do not permit myself to speak of these writings, I cannot, however, do otherwise than mention here, that the new and ingenious views presented of our ancient lands by M. Dumont in his Geological Description of the Province of Liège, have just received a striking confirmation, by the verification which the Geological Society of France has made of them this summer; and by the memoirs which the learned Murchison has published upon the northern part of Great Britain.

“Besides these very long works, we must also remember that there is in the nine volumes of the New Memoirs of the Academy, the ‘Dissertation on the Stratiform Trap-Rocks,' of M. Kickx; the relation of a ‘Voyage to the Grotto of Han,' made in 1822 by MM. Kickx and Quetelet; a notice on * Les Pierres à chaux Hydraulique, of the provinces of Hainault and Namur,' by the Editor of the present Report; “Observations on the Divisions of the Lands,' by M. D’Omalins: and in the Bulletin des Séances, published by the Academy since 1832, a great number of isolated observations which we offer to those who will one day come to take a part in the interest for science and art.

“We may then consider as nearly terminated tho mineralogical and geological description of the five above named provinces; that is to say, of that part of Belgium which presents the greatest interest under the relation in which we here regard it.

“ That of the province of Antwerp has been the object of one of the prize questions of 1836; and that of the two united Flanders, is already proposed for the prize of 1837. When it shall have obtained satisfactory answers to these two questions, the academy will doubtless judge it necessary to give its attention to the revision which will probably be needful, at least for the first memoirs that it has received; and to call all the Belgian geologists to a great meeting, whose object will be to dispose and re-unite all these works digested by different authors, and at periods whose extremes are separated by a very long interval. Then Belgium will no longer have cause to envy neighbouring nations, which have made most progress in the study of those lands whose surface she occupies. In the mean while, and wishing at the same time to show the extent of the works executed at this day upon the geological constitution of this country, and to satisfy, as much as is in my power, the natural impatience of persons, who, by taste or necessity, have an interest in knowing its mineral riches, I have undertaken summarily to unite all the mineralogical and geological observations which are found scattered in the numerous writings which have been recently named, and I have the honour to submit to the judgment of the academy, A Synoptical Table of the Minerals and Rocks of Belgium, considered under a Mineralogical, Geological, Geographical, and Technological relation.'

But it is time to terminate this nomenclature of scientific works, whose barrenness will be, I hope, in part excused by the motives of expediency which have influenced my pen. I hasten also to call the attention of the public for an instant to the 'Geological Description of the Province of Brabant,' whose author we are about to crown. His memoir will be immediately printed; it will be read with the most lively interest, we cannot for a moment doubt, not only by the friends of science, but by all the educated men of this capital. These wish to know what the country formerly was which they inhabit, they will see that in the place of populous cities, of delicious gardens, and smiling fields which surround them, a vast and deep sea covered rocks which now

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constitute the soil of Ardenne, and beat with its unconquered waves those which disclose to us the summits in the environs of Hal, of Genappe, and of Jodoigne; they will learn by what a series of revolutions the deep valleys, which furrowed this ancient soil have been overwhelmed, and its high mountains covered by successive deposits, which have at last produced the level soil which we at present tread.

“M. Galeotte will not himself be present to receive the only recompense which we are able to grant to his useful and fatiguing labours. Just returned from a scientific excursion in the countries of Germany, where he might make trial of his useful talent, he is gone to Mexico, to exercise it there in a newer and vaster field, that he may gather there a new harvest of knowledge, with which he will return to do homage to Belgium, and to acquire scientific riches, which he will place in the geographical establishment of Brussels, where he has pursued his studies.

“ It is then upon some steep peak of the Andes, upon the burning crater of some volcano, or in the bottom of some mine in the New World, that he will receive the palm which we are about to decree to him. If it shall too forcibly recall the memory of his absent country, if some regret shall mix its bitterness with the joy which shall fill his heart, may he think that we here apply to him those beautiful verses of the poet Millevoye,

“Gloire à l'homme inspiré que la soif de connaître

Exile noblement du toil que l'a vu naître,
Les tranquilles honneurs, les trésors, l'amitié,
A ses projets hardis tout est sacrifié.
Les travaux, les dangers, son zèle les surmonte;
L'obstacle, il le combat, le trépas, il l'affronte,
Faut-il franchir les monts ? faut-il dompter les flots?

Son intrepidité ne craint que le repos. The sitting was terminated by the distribution of medals decreed to the competitors of 1834 and 1835. The permanent secretary successively proclaimed the names of the laureates, who received the medals from the hands of the directors.


No. II.

In this ramble I shall propose taking the reader again over a part of the ground we beat in our last, that is to say, under the Castle-cliffs to the zig-zag path by the Station-house. Here we shall break upon new ground, and proceed under the South-foreland cliffs to St. Margaret's, and thence returning over the downs, by the lighthouse and the castlehill, we will digress a little from the straight road when we reach the latter spot, to examine the fields and lanes about Charlton. As we proceed, a great many of the same plants mentioned in my last will come before us again, but I shall not refer to them excepting in a few instances, where I may have something to observe. My object is to point out the localities of plants I have not before mentioned; it must therefore be expected, that the more we ramble, the fewer we shall have to note.

Proceeding then under the Castle-cliffs to the winding path by the Station-house, we will here begin again to make our observations. The

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