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15th century archeological archival Archivio artisans artists bespectacled Bologna bone camera obscura cited concave lenses concave mirrors convex lenses crystal crystalline lens d'ochiali depicted documents Dominican Duke early especially evidence exports eyeglasses fact fifteenth century Firenze Florence Florentine Florentine spectacles Francesco Francesco Sforza frate frescoes friars Galeazzo Maria Sforza Galileo Giordano Giovanni guild horn ibid images imported instrument invention Italian Italy Jerome leather Leonardo letter listed London Lorenzo magnifying lenses Maria Medici medieval mentioned merchants Milan monastery Museum myopia occhiali Ophthalmology optical theory opticians paia painting pair of spectacles Piero Pisa Portrait presbyopia production published reading records refraction Renaissance rivet spectacles Rome Ronchi round bridge saint Salvino seventeenth century Sforza sixteenth soldi spectacle frames spectacle makers spectacle-making Stato storia tacles telescope Tomaso trade translation treatise Treviso various Venetian Venice vetri vetro vision aids visual wearing glasses
Pagina 57 - E perÚ puote anche la stella parere turbata; e io fui esperto di questo l'anno medesimo, che nacque questa canzone, che per affaticare lo viso molto a studio di leggere, in tanto debilitai gli spiriti visivi, che le stelle mi pareano tutte d'alcuno albore ombrate...
Pagina 242 - I leave it to natural philosophers to discuss the way in which this image or picture (pictura) is put together by the spiritual principles of vision residing in the retina and in the nerves, and whether it is made to appear before the soul or tribunal of the faculty of vision by a spirit within the cerebral cavities, or the faculty of vision, like a magistrate sent by the soul, goes out from the council chamber of the brain to meet this image in the optic nerves and retina, as it were descending...
Pagina 61 - Author of all ages and times permits us miserable mortals, puffed up with emptiness, thus to wander about, until finally, coming to a tardy consciousness of our sins, we shall learn to know ourselves. In my prime I was blessed with a quick and active body, although not exceptionally strong; and while I do not lay claim to remarkable personal beauty, I was comely enough in my best days.
Pagina 57 - Canzone, e' par che tu parli contraro al dir d'una sorella che tu hai; che questa donna, che tanto umil fai, 75 ella la chiama fera e disdegnosa. Tu sai che '1 ciel sempr'e lucente e chiaro, e quanto in se non si turba gia mai; ma li nostri occhi per cagioni assai chiaman la Stella talor tenebrosa.
Pagina 191 - I do not know how it is that paintings that are without fault look beautiful in a mirror; and it is remarkable how every defect in a picture appears more unsightly in a mirror.
Pagina 42 - I have already said there are mirrors which increase every object they reflect. I will add that everything is much larger when you look at it through water. Letters, however tiny and obscure, are seen larger and clearer through a glass ball filled with water.
Pagina 5 - It is not yet twenty years since there was found the art of making eye-glasses which make for good vision, one of the best arts and most necessary that the world has.
Pagina 61 - Forma non glorior excellenti, sed quae placere viridioribus annis posset; colore vivido inter candidum et subnigrum; vivacibus oculis et visu per longum tempus acerrimo, qui praeter spem supra sexagesimum xtatis annum me destituit, ut indignanti 25 mihi ad ocularium confugiendum esset auxilium. Tota aetate sanissimum corpus senectus invasit: et solita morborum acie circumvenit.
Pagina 70 - B. Smalley, English Friars and Antiquity in the Early Fourteenth Century (Oxford, 1960), p.
Pagina 192 - When you wish to see whether your whole picture accords with what you have portrayed from nature take a mirror and reflect the actual object in it. Compare what is reflected with your painting and carefully consider whether both likenesses of the subject correspond, particularly in regard to the mirror.