ferred to in the order in which you require them, during the actual writing of the first draft.

NOTES. - Central Idea:- Picturesque Tranquillity. Aspect :-Early morning in summer in farmhouse garden-the hillside-church-hanging wood-sheep.

Daily Life:-Farm noises-daily tasks-departure of milk-ducks-cows-valley pastures -breakfast-the field-labourer-his life-tranquillity-age-feeding chickens-the farmer-the yeoman (quotation).

Aspect.-Afternoon, from same point of view.

Daily Life.-End of day, corresponding with beginning COWS - chickens - ducks

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Aspect.—Evening noises-cricket—sheep, rest

ing cattle-rooks-sunset-night.

You have, now, your material in a convenient form, under your hand. Before beginning to put it into shape, arrange it roughly into the three constructional divisions of Introduction, Argument, and Conclusion. Introduction - Aspect-early morning. Argument: - Daily Life, etc. Conclusion:-Aspect again-night.

Now begin to write your first draft, or rough copy. But, let me caution you, here, once for all, against being misled by the common expression, 'rough copy.' It does not imply that you may write carelessly. A rough copy should be composed with freedom, but with care, and should be written as neatly, and with as scrupulous an attention to 'the style of the copy,' as a fair copy. The only object of writing a rough copy-more accurately, a first draft-is, that you may presently improve on what you have done, not by way of correction of unnecessary

errors but, by doing a little better than you were able to do upon your first attempt. And you may call to mind that (although the passing of examinations is not the only object of life) in an examination you may have no time to write two copies; you will have to rely upon your first attempt; and unless you have acquired the habit of care, you will assuredly fail. Leave either plenty of space between the lines, or a wide margin, for


Have your notes before you as you write: but remember, that these are only the scaffolding of the building; that you are not bound to follow their arrangement, if a better disposition occurs to you as you write; and that, in any case, the arrangement will be subject to revision when you have completed your first draft.


First Draft

Introduction.-The garden

of the old farmhouse lies all in a cool morning shadow, pearled with dew. Beyond the old yew-trees, beyond the low, red-roofed church

tower, the hanging woods

and the great green slope


First Draft corrected for Fair copy, with explanatory notes.

'old' used in preceding sentence; 'low' inappropriate to tower; too many adjectives to qualify 'tower' and downland'; 'bathed' inexpressive. Correct to:Beyond the yew-trees, beyond the square church

of the downland are bathed

in sunlight. The cattle are

feeding on the near pasture; so still is the air, you may hear the sounds of the

wrenching of the fresh grass,

and the steady munching of the placid beasts. Higher on the hill, a moving flock of sheep shews in a patch. of dull grey upon the green. Upon the sky-line, stands the bent figure of the shepherd, his dog crouched beside him; appearing (by a curious illusion common upon the downs) larger than his real size.

(Transition to-) The crow of the farmyard cock breaks the sunny stillness;


Argument.) and now, the

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day's slow round of tasks

begins; there is a rattle of milk-cans, coming from beyond the wall under the

trees, which separates the garden from the farmyard.

The early milk-van is pre

paring to start for the neighbouring town, which lies

beyond the shoulder of the

hills. A loud noise of

quacking ducks arises; and

a solemn procession waddles out from their sleeping quarters, across the road, leaving flat foot-prints in the white dust, dives through a hole in the low flint wall, and breaks up into a cheerful conclave on the round


Now come the cows, one

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by one, filing from the milk

ing sheds towards their pas

tures. One by one they

pass into the shadow of the

great ilexes which over-arch which,' better:-that, be

the roadway by the Vicarage

cause used with active verb.

gate, and emerge into the wide valley, which slopes to the edge of the cliffs. Thin wreaths of smoke ascend

Make a better picture :whose green curves round upon the blue uplifted wall of the sea. New paragraph.

from the cottage chimneys;

and the men go along the road to the single row of houses, where breakfast is preparing. Presently they emerge, and lean, pipe in mouth, against walls. These stolid, round-shouldered, somewhat meagre figures, dressed in heavy corduroy, earth-coloured, and great boots, are on their

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