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ing the Course, by which knowledge is to be gained, from the Course, by which knowledge is to be made useful.

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3. This PRIMARY or OBJECTIVE COURSE begins with the parts, which it puts together, or "builds up;" hence, it is called “the putting together" or Synthetic Course.

4. Knowledge contributes to the growth or development of mind, as food contributes to the growth or development of the body.

5. In gaining knowledge, the mind is influenced by the state of the feelings; just as the body is affected in its growth by the light and air which surround it.

6. In the Primary, Objective or Synthetic Course knowledge is gained in the following order;

First. DOING OR ART.

THINGS, material and immaterial. Anything from which we gain or learn ideas, notions or perceptions.

3. The SECONDARY or SUBJECTIVE COURSE begins with our knowledge of a subject, taken as a whole; this it applies or uses in parts; hence, it is called, the "taking apart" or Analytic Course.

4. Using knowledge gives strength and vigor to the mind, as exercise gives strength and vigor to the body.

5. In using knowledge, the activity of the mind is affected by the importance, which we attach to that, which is to be gained; just as the greatest bodily powers are exerted when the end to be secured is most earnestly desired.

6. In the Subjective or Analytic Course, knowledge is used or applied in the following order;

First. KNOWLEDGE, OR AB

STRACT SCIENCE. Nomenclature-names or terms, abbreviations or contractions, signs or symbols.

Models, pictures, maps, charts, |

diagrams. Second.

CONCRETE SCIENCE. Nomenclature-names or terms, abbreviations or contractions, signs or symbols.

Truths-expressed in principles or in rules.

7. Knowledge, gained by the Primary, Objective or Synthetic Course is not power. It is the foundation of power only. It is contained in books-in libraries. Human beings have it. It is passive knowledge. He who has it, and does not use it, is simply the man of knowledge.

By the Primary, Objective or Synthetic Course, we become men of knowledge.

"To one, he giveth knowledge by the same spirit."

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Now, in order to enable the pupil to gain knowledge, and also to make it useful, the instructions in each lesson must be addressed to, and arouse every one of the mental faculties, and each in its natural order;

FIRST, The Perceptives or Receptives-Sensation, Attention, Perception.

SECOND, The Retentives-Memory, Suggestion, (?) Association.
THIRD, The Inventives or Reflectives—Imagination, Reason, Judgment.

In the construction of every lesson in these Works, the above law has been as carefully observed as was possible.

The above general outline of the plan of "The American Series of Text Books," is all that our present space permits. Farther details may be found in "The Philosophy of Language," Book Sixth.

It is the intention of the Publishers and of the Author to present to the public complete setts of Text Books on the different studies, arranged on the above plan, to be called "The American Series of Text Books," because the plan was originated in America.

The first of this Series issued, will be the Works heretofore known as "Cruttenden's Series of Arithmetics," consisting of

The Young Pupil's Arithmetic. No. I

(First Course.) The Objective or Synthetic Arithmetic. No. II. (Second Course.) The Subjective or Analytic Arithmetic. No. III. And also the Works on Language, by the same Author, consisting of— The Rhetorical Grammar. Part I.

The Philosophy of Language. Part II.

. These works will be carefully revised and improved, and will be re-stereotyped. They will contain the best and latest improvements in these Sciences.

The first Primary or Objective Arithmetic, arranged according to the above plan, was "The New Primary Arithmetic," of which Prof. D. H. Cruttenden is the author. It was first published in 1849, and enlarged in 1852. Our present No. II., is that of 1852 revised and enlarged by its author. A Teacher's Copy is published containing Directions for teaching Arithmetic objectively.

The first purely Subjective or Analytic Arithmetic, arranged according to the above plan, was "The Systematic Arithmetic," published by its author, in 1845, and revised and enlarged in 1850. Our present Subjective or Analytic Arithmetic is that of 1850, again revised, enlarged and improved by its author, aided by the suggestions of experienced and eminent teachers.

The Rhetorical Grammar or Part I., is a complete Primary or Objective Course on Language in general,

and the English Language in particular. A Teacher's Copy is published containing Directions for teaching Language objectively.

The Philosophy of Language or Part II., is a complete Subjective or Analytic Course on the philosophy of all Language generally, exemplified, in this Work, in the English Language only. It also contains, in Book Sixth, a short system of that part of Mental Philosophy, pertaining to knowledge.

The author requests us to say, that all doubts which have ever existed in his mind, as to the propriety and expediency of arranging Text Books on the above plan, have been entirely removed, and his convictions of its great value have been fully confirmed by the following means;—

First. The plan of these works has always received the full and hearty approbation of every one who has become familiar with it. Among these are numbered many prominent and successful teachers, and other intelligent and sincere friends of Education.

Second. The best assurance that the plan is good, is in the fact, that the later works of other authors are gradually approaching it; some doing this, indubitably, by that general diffusion of intelligence on this subject, which would naturally lead to this result; while others, it is feared, have used these works, as a model, without giving the author any credit for the help they have received, even the poor one of quotation marks.

The author has in manuscript, and hopes to have it published soon, a Work on Objective and Subjective Teaching, to be called, "Teaching and Teachers' Institutes."

For further information see the Books.

LANGUAGE PREFACE.

In this Work, we have attempted to show two things:

First, That the Science of Language is one of "The Exact Sciences." Second, That the Science of Language is neither a human invention nor the "Result of Human Usages."

I. LANGUAGE, AN EXACT SCIENCE.

THOUGHT-LANGUAGE OR SPEECH is one of God's good gifts to mankind. He gave Voice or Vocal power to mankind and to certain brutes nearly alike; but to man alone he gave the power of Speech, and this distinguishes him from the brute. Language was created subject to certain laws or principles, which no human usages can change; so that language is correct, when it is used according to those laws, in accordance with which it was created, and it is incorrect, when it contradicts those laws. In studying, it is necessary: First, to observe the essential elements of language, or that which the language is used to express, in order to find: 1st, what these elements are; 2d, wherein relations exist between these elements, and wherein relations between them do not exist; and 3d, what effects are produced by establishing relations between these elements, or by the unification of these elements. Second, it is necessary to observe what relations exist between that which is expressed, and the language which is used in its expression-between that which is contained, and that which contains it, so that we may always be observ ing and learning in the order of causes and their effects. Thus, we shall be enabled to discover those essential principles or laws of language, according to which all constructions of language must be framed, in order that the thought shall be correctly expressed; and again, these principles, or laws shall be the true test of the correctness or accuracy of a given expression. That is, the one possessing a knowledge of these principles, would prove or disprove a given expression, by showing that it correctly

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