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Forsaken her helm, that, the dark waters o'er,
Or, piecemeal, the sport of the tempest is torn.
There was nothing, but breakers and billows of foam:
But still forward she kept on her perilous track-
Are the sighs and the tears, that will welcome thee back.
Now, high o'er the billows majestic she rides,
With her twelve noble rowers all lashed to her sides;
Or entomb them for ever beneath the dark wave;
As half-naked, half-dead, from the rigging they fell;
The billows are foaming around them, and loud,
They push their light bark in its perilous track-
Are the sighs and the tears, that will welcome thee back.
The sea-gull flew wildly and mournfully round,
On the tiptoe of hope and of fear we beheld,
As their bark through the billows the rowers impelled, But, at length, in smooth water we saw her safe moored; And what was the boon for the danger endured? Avaunt, selfish hearts! what at first had inspired, Brought its own bright reward all the boon they desired: 'Twas enough to have saved, from the jaws of the grave, Hearts that beat like their own, true, undaunted, and brave.-Anon.
THE finest and best bread is made from wheat. owing to the quantity of gluten which it contains; the average quantity in wheat-flour amounting to about onefifth of the whole weight of the meal. Gluten, which appears to possess many of the properties of animal matter, performs an important part in the chemical changes which take place in the transition made from flour into bread. In all ages, therefore, wheat-bread has been preferred, and with reason, to bread made from other grain, as being more nutritive, wholesome, and of easier digestion. Oats make a pleasanter bread than
either barley or rye: barley-bread has a sweetish taste, is heavy, viscid, and flatulent; and bread made from rye is sour and purgative. Oat-meal bread is charged with causing heartburn in those who are unaccustomed to it, and occasioning affections of the skin in those who make use of it. The first charge is in all likelihood correct, for barley or rye-bread will also create an unpleasant sensation in those not used to it; but the second charge is less generally true.
Bread has been made from turnips and from potatoes; but potato-flour requires a quantity of wheat-flour mixed with it. The London bakers commonly mix a quantity of potatoes, mashed up, with their wheat-flour, in making wheaten-bread: the proportion is about fifteen pounds of potatoes to eight bushels of wheat-flour. Rice, which, in the East, serves many of the important uses that wheat and the potato do with us, makes a very good bread; but, like the potato, it requires the addition of some flour. Maize, which is cultivated in America, from forty-five degrees north latitude to seventy-two degrees south, may be termed the bread-corn of a large extent of that continent. Bread made from pease, the use of which is somewhat common in the northern parts of Great Britain, is disagreeable, from the gas which it generates in the intestines. The chestnut is supposed to be the acorn of ancient history and tradition, and which used to be so frequently almost the only support of the common people in time of famine. It may be made into bread, although it is heavy and indigestible. Sago-bread is used in the Moluccas, made from the pith of the sagotree. It would be tedious to enumerate the various substances which might be made into bread, of greater or lesser nutritive power; even saw-dust, sifted and prepared, will make bread, not only capable of being eaten, but capable of nourishing the human body. In fact, it would appear that, with the aids of science, the pro
babilities of a famine recurring, with all its horrors, are diminished almost to nothing.
Though baking is comparatively a simple process, much depends on the skill and judgment of the baker in making a good loaf. He must be careful to attend both to temperature and to time. The mode of making it is varied according to judgment, experience, or whim; but most commonly the following is the mode pursued in making a wheaten loaf:-A quantity of potatoes (where potatoes are used) are beaten up in a tub; water, yeast, and a handful of flour are added, and all are stirred together. This is set aside for eight hours for the first working." Water and flour are then added, and the mass is stirred briskly, to bring it to a consistence. This is then set (at a proper heat according to the weather), to rise; and this part of the process is technically termed setting the sponge, from the spongy appearance of the mass. The sponge stands for six hours, during which time it rises and falls twice. An additional quantity of flour and water, and a certain quantity of water and salt* are added to the sponge, which is now mixed or broken up by the hand into a thin consistence; flour is added to work the mass into dough, the dough is left in the trough for two hours, taken out for baking, divided into portions according to the size wanted, and the oven being previously heated, baked for two hours.
Of course, in this process everything must be carefully proportioned, according to the quantity of bread which it is intended to make.
The different kinds of bread commonly used in England may be divided into white, wheaten, and household. White bread is made with wheat-flour,
*The French bakers do not put so much salt into their bread as the English bakers do. In fact, French bread is insipid to an English palate; while the Frenchman shrinks with a shrug of his shoulders from the quantity of salt which is commonly used by the English.
carefully sifted; wheaten bread, of flour and the finer kind of bran; and household, of the entire grain, containing all the flour and all the bran. From the preference which is invariably given to white bread, bakers not unfrequently mix alum with the inferior flour, in order to bring it as near as possible to the favourite colour; and it is also stated, that without alum the loaves will stick together in the oven, and not separate from each other with that smooth surface which is so much desired. Whatever mischief may be done to the human stomach by this alum, must be left to the doctor to determine it certainly has a binding effect; but so also has bread made with the finest sifted flour, from the quantity of starch which it contains. Bad flour
may be made into tolerable bread by adding to each pound from twenty to forty grains of the common carbonate of magnesia. But the habitual use of flour so corrected by magnesia would have a pernicious effect on the stomach. Much of the wholesomeness of even the best bread, made from the finest flour, depends on the salt which is added. Nearly a pound of salt is added to each bushel of flour. Some bakers give five pounds of salt to eight bushels of wheat-flour."Saturday Magazine."
ARE YOU ANGRY, MOTHER?