posed partly of skill, partly of chance; a man may] The ship made a tolerable appearance, and as anobe beat at times by one who has not the tenth part ther inducement, I was let to know that six agreeof his wit. Now Goldsmith's putting himself able passengers were to be my company. Well, against another, is like a man laying a hundred to we were but two days at sea when a storm drove one, who can not spare the hundred. It is not us into a city of England, called Newcastle-uponworth a man's while. A man should not lay a Tyne. We all went ashore to refresh us, after the hundred to one, unless he can easily spare it; though fatigue of our voyage. Seven men and I were one he has a hundred chances for him, he can get but day on shore, and on the following evening, as we a guinea, and he may lose a hundred. Goldsmith were all very merry, the room door bursts open, enis in this state: when he contends, if he get the betters a sergeant and twelve grenadiers, with their ter, it is a very little addition to a man of his literary bayonets screwed, and puts us all under the king's reputation; if he do not get the better, he is misera-arrest. It seems my company were Scotchmen in bly vexed." the French service, and had been in Scotland to Though now arrived at an age when reflection enlist soldiers for the French army. I endeavoured on passing objects and events might have been oc- all I could to prove my innocence; however, I recasionally elicited, yet it does not appear that any mained in prison with the rest a fortnight, and with thing of that kind worth preserving occurred in our difficulty got off even then. Dear sir, keep this all poet's correspondence with his friends. The only a secret, or at least say it was for debt; for if it were circumstance which seems to have excited particu-once known at the university, I should hardly get lar remark was the economy of the Scotch in cook- a degree. But hear how Providence interposed in ing and eating; and of this he would sometimes give my favour; the ship was gone on to Bordeaux berather a ludicrous account. His first landlady, he fore I got from prison, and was wrecked at the used to say, nearly starved him out of his lodgings; mouth of the Garonne, and every one of the crew and the second, though somewhat more liberal, was were drowned. It happened the last great storm. still a wonderful adept in the art of saving. When There was a ship at that time ready for Holland; permitted to put forth all her talents in this way, I embarked, and in nine days, thank my God, I arshe would perforin surprising feats. A single loin rived safe at Rotterdam, whence I travelled by land of mutton would sometimes be made to serve our to Leyden, and whence I now write." poet and two fellow-students a whole week; a bran- He proceeds in the same letter to amuse his dered chop was served up one day, a fried steak ano-friends with a whimsical account of the costume ther, collops with onion sauce a third, and so on, till and manners of the Hollanders; which we also exthe fleshy parts were quite consumed, when finally tract for the entertainment of the reader. a dish of broth was made from the well-picked bones on the seventh day, and the landlady rested from her labours.

"You may expect some account of this country; and though I am not well qualified for such an undertaking, yet I shall endeavour to satisfy some After he had attended some courses of lectures at part of your expectations. Nothing surprised me Edinburgh, it was thought advisable that he should more than the books every day published descripcomplete his medical studies at the University of tive of the manners of this country. Any young Leyden, then celebrated as a great medical school: man who takes it into his head to publish his travels, his uncle Contarine furnishing the funds. Gold-visits the countries he intends to describe; passes smith accordingly looked out at Leith for a vessel through them with as much inattention as his valet for Holland; but finding one about to sail for Bor- de chambre; and consequently, not having a fund deaux, with his usual eccentricity engaged a pas- himself to fill a volume, he applies to those who sage. He found himself, however, in an awkward wrote before him, and gives us the manners of a dilemma about the time of embarkation. He had country; not as he must have seen them, but such become security to a tailor for a fellow-student in a as they might have been fifty years before. The considerable amount. The tailor arrested him for modern Dutchman is quite a different creature from debt; and, but for the interference of Mr. Lachlan him of former times: he in every thing imitates a Maclane and Dr. Sleigh, he would have been Frenchman, but in his easy disengaged air, which thrown into prison. Rescued from this difficulty, is the result of keeping polite company. The he embarked, but encountered a storm, and a de- Dutchman is vastly ceremonious, and is perhaps tention, and an escape from shipwreck, and finally exactly what a Frenchman might have been in the arrived safe at Rotterdam, instead of Bordeaux; all reign of Louis XIV. Such.are the better bred. which is thus related by himself, in an extract from But the downright Hollander is one of the oldest a letter, without date, to his generous uncle Conta- figures in nature. Upon a head of lank hair he rine. wears a half-cocked narrow hat, laced with black

"Some time after the receipt of your last, I em-riband; no coat, but seven waistcoats, and nine pair barked for Bordeaux, on board a Scotch ship, call- of breeches; so that his hips reach alinost up to his ed the St. Andrew, Captain John Wall, master. arm-pits. This well-clothed vegetable is now fit to


see company, or make love. But what a pleasing thing can equal its beauty. Wherever I turn my creature is the object of his appetite? Why, she eyes, fine houses, elegant gardens, statues, grottos, wears a large fur cap, with a deal of Flanders lace; vistas, presented themselves; but when you enter and for every pair of breeches he carries, she puts their towns you are charmed beyond description No misery is to be seen here; every one is usefulon two petticoats. "A Dutch lady burns nothing about her phleg-ly employed. "Scotland and this country bear the highest matic admirer but his tobacco. You must know, sir, every woman carries in her hand a stove with contrast. There, hills and rocks intercept every coals in it, which, when she sits, she snugs under prospect; here, 'tis all a continued plain. There her petticoats; and at this chimney dozing Strephon you might see a well dressed duchess issuing from lights his pipe. I take it that this continual smok-a dirty close; and here a dirty Dutchman inhabiting is what gives the man the ruddy healthful com- ing a palace. The Scotch may be compared to a plexion he generally wears, by draining his super- tulip planted in dung; but I never see a Dutchman fluous moisture; while the woman, deprived of this in his own house, but I think of a magnificent amusement, overflows with such viscidities as tint Egyptian temple dedicated to an ox. the complexion, and give that paleness of visage "Physic is by no means taught here so well as which low fenny grounds and moist air conspire to in Edinburgh; and in all Leyden there are but cause. A Dutch woman and a Scotch will bear four British students, owing to all necessaries being an opposition. The one is pale and fat, the other so extremely dear, and the professors so very lazy lean and ruddy. The one walks as if she were (the chemical professor excepted,) that we don't straddling after a go-cart, and the other takes too much care to come hither. I am not certain how masculine a stride. I shall not endeavour to de- long my stay here may be; however, I expect to prive either country of its share of beauty; but have the happiness of seeing you at Kilmore, if I must say, that of all objects on this earth, an En- can, next March."

While resident in Leyden, he attended the lecglish farmer's daughter is most charming. Every woman there is a complete beauty, while the higher tures of Gaubius on chemistry, and those of Albiclass of women want many of the requisites to nus on anatomy. In the letters of Goldsmith to make them even tolerable. Their pleasures here his uncle, Gaubius is the only professor of whose are very dull, though very various. You may talents he gives a favourable opinion. Of all the smoke, you may doze, you may go to the Italian other professors he seems to have formed rather a comedy, as good an amusement as either of the for- contemptuous estimate; and with regard to the inmer. This entertainment always brings in Har- habitants in general, his remarks are by no means lequin, who is generally a magician; and in conse-of a laudatory description. But to appreciate the quence of his diabolical art, performs a thousand characters of men, and describe the manners of a tricks on the rest of the persons of the drama, who people with accuracy, require the nicest discrimiare all fools. I have seen the pit in a roar of laugh- nation, and much knowledge of the world. On ter at this humour, when with his sword he touches such subjects, therefore, the opinions of our poet, the glass from which another was drinking. 'Twas at this early period of his life, are to be the less renot his face they laughed at, for that was masked: garded. His Dutch characteristics can only be they must have seen something vastly queer in the deemed good humoured caricatures, and probably wooden sword, that neither I, nor you, sir, were were drawn as such, merely for the amusement of his friends in Ireland. you there, could see.

"In winter, when their canals are frozen, every It happened, unfortunately for Goldsmith, that house is forsaken, and all people are on the ice; one of his most dangerous propensities met with sleds drawn by horses, and skating, are at that too much encouragement during his stay in Holtime the reigning amusements. They have boats land. The people of that country are much addicthere that slide on the ice, and are driven by the ed to games of chance. Gaming tables are to be winds. When they spread all their sails they go met with in every tavern, and at every place of more than a mile and a half a minute, and their amusement. Goldsmith, unable to resist the conmotion is so rapid, the eye can scarcely accompany tagion of example, with his usual facility sailed them. Their ordinary manner of travelling is very with the stream; and fortune, according to custom, cheap and very convenient. They sail in covered alternately greeted him with smiles and frowns. His friend, Dr. Ellis,† who was then also studyboats drawn by horses; and in these you are sure to meet people of all nations. Here the Dutch ing at Leyden, used to relate, that on one occasion slumber, the French chatter, and the English play he came to him with much exultation, and countat cards. Any man who likes company, may have Gaubius died in 1780, at the age of 75, leaving a splendid them to his taste. For my part, I generally dereputation. He was the favourite pupil of Boerhaave. and ached myself from all society, and was wholly wrote several learned and ingenious works. taken up in observing the face of the country. No

Afterwards clerk of the Irish House of Commons.

When this expedition was projected, it is most likely that nothing more was intended than a short excursion into Beigium and France. The passion for travel, however, which had so long lain dormant

ed out a considerable sum which he had won the uncle was an amateur of such rarities. With his preceding evening. "Perceiving that this tempo- usual inconsiderateness he immediately concluded rary success," said Ellis, "was only fanning the a bargain for a parcel of the roots, never reflecting flame of a ruinous passion, I was at some pains to on his own limited means, or the purpose for which point out to him the destructive consequences of his money had been furnished. This absurd and indulging so dangerous a propensity. I exhorted extravagant purchase nearly exhausted the fund him, since fortune had for once been unusually he had already received from his friend Ellis, and kind, to rest satisfied with his present gains, and it is not unlikely that the gaming table gleaned the showed, that if he set apart the money now in his little that remained; for it has often been asserted, hands, he would be able to complete his studies that after his magnificent speculation in tulip roots without further assistance from his friends. Gold- he actually set out upon his travels with only one smith, who could perceive, though he could not al-clean shirt, and without a shilling in his pocket. ways pursue the right path, admitted all the truth of my observations, seemed grateful for my advice, and promised for the future strictly to adhere to it." The votary of play, however, is never to be so asily cured. Reason and ridicule are equally im- in his mind was now thoroughly awakened. potent against that unhappy passion. To those Blessed with a good constitution, an adventurous infected with it, the charms of the gaming table spirit, and with that thoughtless, or perhaps happy may be said to be omnipotent. Soon after this, he disposition, which takes no care for to-morrow, he once more gave himself up to it without control, continued his travels for a long time in spite of inand not only lost all he had lately won, but was numerable privations; and neither poverty, fatigue, stripped of every shilling he had in the world. In nor hardship, seems to have damped his ardour, or this emergency he was obliged to have recourse to interrupted his progress. It is a well authenticated Dr. Ellis for advice. His friend perceived that ad- fact, that he performed the tour of Europe on foot, monition was useless, and that so long as he re- and that he finished the arduous and singular unmained within reach of the vortex of play, his dertaking without any other means than was obgambling propensities could never be restrained. tained by an occasional display of his scholarship, It was therefore determined that he ought to quit or a tune upon his flute. Holland; and with a view to his further improve- It is much to be regretted that no account of his ment, it was suggested that he should visit some tour was ever given to the world by himself. The of the neighbouring countries before returning to oral communications which he sometimes gave to his own. He readily acceded to this proposal, and friends, are said to have borne some resemnotwithstanding the paucity of his means, resolved blance to the story of the Wanderer in the Vicar of to pursue it without delay. Ellis, however, kindly Wakefield. The interest they excited did not arise took his wants into consideration, and agreed to so much from the novelty of the incidents as from accommodate him with a sum of money to carry the fine vein of moral reflection interwoven with his plan into execution; but in this, as in other in- the narrative. Like the Wanderer, he possessed a stances, his heedless improvidence interfered to sufficient portion of ancient literature, some taste render his friend's generosity abortive. When about in music, and a tolerable knowledge of the French to set out on his journey, accident or curiosity led language. His learning was a passport to the hoshim into a garden at Leyden, where the choicest pitalities of the literary and religious establishflowers were reared for sale. In consequence of an ments on the continent, and the music of his flute unaccountable mania for flowers having at one generally procured him a welcome reception at the time spread itself over Holland, an extensive trade cottages of the peasantry. "Whenever I apin flower roots became universally prevalent in that proached a peasant's house towards night-fall," he country, and at this period the Dutch florists were used to say, "I played one of my merriest tunes, the most celebrated in Europe. Fortunes and and that procured me not only a lodging, but sublaw suits innumerable had been lost and won in sistence for the next day; but, in truth;" his conthis singular traffic; and though the rage had now stant expression, "I must own, whenever I attemptgreatly subsided, flower roots still bore a considera-ed to entertain persons of a higher rank, they alble value. Unluckily, while rambling through the ways thought my performance odious, and never garden at Leyden, Goldsmith recollected that his made me any return for my endeavours to please them." The hearty good-will, however, with

It was the celebrated tulip mania. For a tulip root, known which he was received by the harmless peasantry, by the name of Semper Augustus, 5501. sterling was given; seems to have atoned to him for the disregard of and for other tulip roots less rare, various prices were given,

from one hundred to four hundred guineas. This madness the rich. raged in Holland for many years, till at length the State in- upon his terfered, and a law was enacted which put a stop to the trade. ]

How much their simple manners won affections, may be discovered from the fina

passage in his "Traveller," in which he so happi-length become his favourite study. Naturally ava ly introduces himself:

How often have I led thy sportive choir

With tuneless pipe beside the murmuring Loire!
Where shading elms along the margin grew,
And freshen'd from the wave the zephyr flew:
And haply, though my harsh touch, falt'ring still,
But mock'd all tune, and marr'd the dancers' skill,
⚫ Yet would the village praise my wondrous power,
And dance, forgetful of the noontide hour.

ricious, his training as an attorney had nothing
diminished the reign of that sordid passion, and it
discovered its most odious features in almost every
transaction. When he engaged a tutor, there-
fore, he took care to make a special proviso, that
in all money matters he should be at liberty to tu-
tor himself. A stipulation of this kind so cramp-
ed the views and propensities of Goldsmith, and
afforded to the pupil so many opportunities of dis-
playing his mean disposition, that disgust and dis-
like almost immediately ensued. When arrived

The learned and religious houses also appear to have been equally hospitable. "With the members of these establishments," said he, "I could converse on topics of literature, and then I always at Marseilles they mutually agreed to separate; forgot the meanness of my circumstances." and the poet having received the small part of his In many of the foreign universities and con- salary that was due, his pupil, terrified at the exvents there are, upon certain days, philosophical pense of travelling, instantly embarked for Engtheses maintained against every adventitious dis-land. putant; for which, if the champion opposes with Goldsmith, thus freed from the trammels of tuany dexterity, he can claim a gratuity in money, torship, set out once more on foot, and in that mana dinner, and a bed for one night. The talents of ner travelled through various districts of France. Goldsmith frequently enabled him to command the He finally pursued his journey into Italy, visiting relief afforded by this useful and hospitable cus- Venice, Verona, Florence, and other celebrated tom. In this manner, without money or friends, places. At Padua, where he staid six months, he he fought his way from convent to convent, and is said to have taken a medical degree, but upon from city to city, examined mankind more nearly, what authority is not ascertained. While resiand, as he himself expressed it, saw both sides of dent at Padua he was assisted, it is believed, by the picture. remittances from his uncle Contarine, who, howTo Goldsmith's close and familiar intercourse ever, unfortunately died about that time. In with the scenes and natives of the different coun- Italy, Goldsmith found his talent for music altries through which he passed, the world is indebt-most useless as a means of subsistence, for every ed for his "Traveller." For although that poem peasant was a better musician than himself; but was afterwards "slowly and painfully elaborated," his skill in disputation still served his purpose, and still the nice and accurate discrimination of na- the religious establishments were equally hospitational character displayed could only be acquired ble. At length, curiosity being fully gratified, he by actual examination. In the progress of his resolved to retrace his steps towards his native journey, he seems to have treasured his facts and home. He returned through France, as the shortobservations, with a view to the formation of this er route, and as affording greater facilities to a delightful poem. The first sketch of it is said to pedestrian. He was lodged and entertained as have been written after his arrival in Switzerland, formerly, sometimes at learned and religious estaband was transmitted from that country to his bro-lishments, and sometimes at the cottages of the ther Henry in Ireland. peasantry, and thus, with the aid of his philosophy and his flute, he disputed and piped his way homewards.

When Goldsmith arrived at Dover from France,

After his arrival in Switzerland, he took up his abode for some time in Geneva. Here he appears to have found friends, or formed acquaintances; for we find him recommended at this place as tu- it was about the breaking out of the war in tor to a young gentleman on his travels. The 1755-6. Being unprovided with money, a new youth to whom he was recommended was the ne- difficulty now presented itself, how to fight his phew of Mr. S******, pawnbroker in London, who had unexpectedly acquired a large fortune by the death of his uncle. Determined to see the world, he had just arrived at Geneva on the grand tour, and not being provided with a travelling tutor, Goldsmith was hired to perform the functions of that office. They set out together for Marseilles; but never were tutor and pupil so miserably assorted. The latter, before acquiring his fortune, nad been for some time articled to an attorney, and while in that capacity had so well learned the art

of managing in money concerns, that it had at dan:-Campbell's Biography of Goldsmith.


"The Rev. Thomas Contarine was descended from the noble family of the Contarini of Venice. His ancestor, having married a nun in his native country, was obliged to fly with her into France, where she died of the small-pox. Being land; but the puritanical manners which then prevailed, havpursued by ecclesiastical censures, Contarini came to Eng. ing afforded him but a cold reception, he was on his way to Ireland, when at Chester he met with a young lady of the name of Chaloner whom he married. Having afterwards conformed to the established church, he, through the interest

of his wife's family, obtained ecclesiastical preferment in the

diocese of Elphin. This gentleman was their lineal descan

way to the metropolis. His whole stock of cash and habits, it was peculiarly distasteful. How long could not defray the expense of the ordinary con- he remained in this situation is not well ascertained, veyance, and neither flute nor logic could help but he ever spoke of it in bitterness of spirit. The him to a supper or a bed. By some means or other, very remembrance of it seemed to be gall and wormhowever, he contrived to reach London in safety. wood to him; and how keenly he must have felt its On his arrival he had only a few halfpence in his mortification and misery, may be gathered from the pocket. To use his own words, in one of his let- satire with which it is designated in various parts ters, he found himself "without friend, recom- of his works. The language which he has put mendation, money, or impudence;" and, contrary into the mouth of the Wanderer's cousin, when he to his usual habits, began to be filled with the applies to him for an ushership, is feelingly characgloomiest apprehensions. There was not a mo- teristic. "I," said he, "have been an usher to a ment to be lost, therefore, in seeking for a sit-boarding-school myself; and may I die by an anouation that might afford him the means of imme-dyne necklace, but I had rather be an under-turndiate subsistence. His first attempt was to get ad- key in Newgate! I was up early and late: I was mission as an assistant to a boarding-school or aca-browbeat by the master, hated for my ugly face by demy, but, for want of a recommendation, even the mistress, worried by the boys within, and never that poor and painful situation was found difficult permitted to stir out to meet civility abroad. But, to be obtained. This difficulty appears also to have are you sure you are fit for a school? Let me been nothing lessened by his stooping to make use of examine you a little. Have you been bred apa feigned name. What his motives were for such prentice to the business?"-No.-"Then you won't a measure has never been fully explained; but it do for a school. Can you dress the boys' hair ?"— is fair to infer, that his literary pride revolted at No.-" Then you won't do for a school. Have servitude, and perhaps, conscious that his powers you had the small-pox?"-No.-" Then you won't would ultimately enable him to emerge from his do for a school. Can you lie three in a bed?"— present obscurity, he was unwilling it should after-No.-" Then you will never do for a school. Have wards be known that he had occupied a situation you got a good stomach?"—Yes.-"Then you so humble. Deceit and finesse, however, are at all will by no means do for a school. No, sir: if you times dangerous, be the motive for employing them are for a genteel, easy profession, bind yourself ever so innocent; and in the present instance our seven years as an apprentice to turn a cutler's author found them productive of considerable emwheel; but avoid a school by any means." barrassment; for, when the master of the school On another occasion, when talking on the same demanded a reference to some respectable person subject, our author thus summed up the misery of for a character, Goldsmith was at a loss to account such an employment:-" After the fatigues of the for using any other name than his own. In this day, the poor usher of an academy is obliged to dilemma he wrote to Dr. Radcliff, a mild benevo- sleep in the same bed with a Frenchman, a teacher lent man, who had been joint-tutor with his perse- of that language to the boys, who disturbs him cutor Wilder, in Trinity College, and had some- every night, an hour perhaps, in papering and fillettimes lectured the other pupils. Having can- ing his hair, and stinks worse than a carrion, with didly stated to the doctor the predicament in which his rancid pomatums, when he lays his head beside he was placed, and explained the immediate object him on his bolster.”

in view, he told him that the same post which Having thrown up this wretched employment, conveyed this information would also bring him a he was obliged to cast about for one more congenial letter of inquiry from the school-master, to which to his mind. In this, however, he again found conit was hoped he would be so good as return a fa-siderable difficulty. His personal appearance and vourable answer. It appears that Dr. Radcliff address were never prepossessing, but at that parpromptly complied with this request, for Goldsmith ticular period were still less so from the thread-bare immediately obtained the situation. We learn state of his wardrobe. He applied to several of the from Campbell's Philosophical Survey of the medical tribe, but had the mortification to meet with South of Ireland, that our author's letter of thanks repeated refusals; and on more than one occasion to Dr. Radcliff on that occasion was accompanied was jeered with the mimicry of his broad Irish acwith a very interesting account of his travels and cent. At length a chemist, near Fish-street-hill, adventures. took him into his laboratory, where his medical The employment of usher at an academy in Lon-knowledge soon rendered him an able and useful don, is of itself a task of no ordinary labour; but, assistant. Not long after this, however, accident independent of the drudgery and toil, it is attended discovered to him that his old friend and fellowwith so many little irritating circumstances, that student, Dr. Sleigh, was in London, and he deterof all others it is perhaps a situation the most pain-mined, if possible, to renew his acquaintance with ful and irksome to a man of independent mind and him. "It was Sunday," said Goldsmith, "when liberal ideas. To a person of our author's temper I paid him the first visit, and it is to be supposed 1

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