classes to him; his accusers stood forth; he had a who find satisfaction in such acclamations, made liberty of pleading in his own defence, and one or worse by it; and history has too frequently taught two more had a liberty of pleading against him: me, that the head which has grown this day giddy when found guilty by the panel, he was consigned with the roar of the million, has the very next been to the footman who attended in the house, who had fixed upon a pole. previous orders to punish, but with lenity. By this means the master took off the odium of punishment from himself; and the footman, between whom and the boys there could not be even the slightest intimacy, was placed in such a light as to be shunned by every boy in the school.*

As Alexander VI. was entering a little town in the neighbourhood of Rome, which had been just evacuated by the enemy, he perceived the townsmen busy in the market-place in pulling down from a gibbet a figure, which had been designed to represent himself. There were also some knocking down And now I have gone thus far, perhaps you will a neighbouring statue of one of the Orsini family, think me some pedagogue, willing, by a well-timed with whom he was at war, in order to put Alexanpuff, to increase the reputation of his own school; der's effigy, when taken down, in its place. It is posbut such is not the case. The regard I have for sible a man who knew less of the world would have society, for those tender minds who are the objects condemned the adulation of those bare-faced flatof the present essay, is the only motive I have for terers; but Alexander seemed pleased at their offering those thoughts, calculated not to surprise zeal, and turning to Borgia his son, said with a by their novelty, or the elegance of composition, but smile, Vides, mi fili, quam leve discrimen patibumerely to remedy some defects which have crept lum inter et statuam. "You see, my son, the into the present system of school-education. If small difference between a gibbet and a statue.” this letter should be inserted, perhaps I may trouble If the great could be taught any lesson, this might you in my next with some thoughts upon a uni- serve to teach them upon how weak a foundation versity education, not with an intent to exhaust their glory stands, which is built upon popular apthe subject, but to amend some few abuses. I am, plause, for as such praise what seems like merit, they as quickly condemn what has only the appearance of guilt.


Popular glory is a perfect coquette; her lovers

ON THE INSTABILITY OF WORLDLY must toil, feel every inquietude, indulge every caGRANDEUR. price, and perhaps at last be jilted into the bargain. True glory, on the other hand, resembles a woman An alehouse-keeper near Islington, who had of sense; her admirers must play no tricks, they long lived at the sign of the French King, upon feel no great anxiety; for they are sure in the end the commencement of the last war with France of being rewarded in proportion to their merit. pulled down his old sign, and put up the Queen When Swift used to appear in public, he generalof Hungary. Under the influence of her red face ly had the mob shouting in his train. "Pox take and golden sceptre, he continued to sell ale till she these fools," he would say, "how much joy might was no longer the favourite of his customers; he all this bawling give my Lord Mayor!" changed her, therefore, some time ago, for the King of Prussia, who may probably be changed in turn for the next great man that shall be set up for vulgar admiration.

Our publican in this imitates the great exactly, who deal out their figures one after the other to the gaping crowd beneath them. When we have sufficiently wondered at one, that is taken in, and another exhibited in its room, which seldom holds its station long; for the mob are ever pleased with variety.

We have seen those virtues which have, while living, retired from the public eye, generally transmitted to posterity as the truest objects of admiration and praise. Perhaps the character of the late Duke of Marlborough may one day be set up, even above that of his more talked-of predecessor; since an assemblage of all the mild and amiable virtues is far superior to those vulgarly called the great ones. I must be pardoned for this short tribute to the memory of a man, who, while living, would as much detest to receive any thing that wore the appearance of flattery, as I should to offer it.

I must own I have such an indifferent opinion of the vulgar, that I am ever led to suspect that merit which raises their shout; at least I am certain to find those great, and sometimes good, men,

I know not how to turn so trite a subject out of the beaten road of common-place, except by illus trating it, rather by the assistance of my memory than my judgment, and instead of making reflections, by telling a story.

A Chinese, who had long studied the works of Confucius, who knew the characters of fourteen thousand words, and could read a great part of every book that came in his way, once took it is

This dissertation was thus far introduced into the volume of Essays, afterwards published by Dr. Goldsmith, with the following observation:

"This treatise was published before Rousseau's Emilius: if there be a similitude in any one instance, it is hoped the author of the present essay will not be termed a plagiarist."


his head to travel into Europe, and observe the
customs of a people whom he thought not very SOME ACCOUNT OF THE ACADE-
much inferior even to his own countrymen, in the
arts of refining upon every pleasure. Upon his ar-
rival at Amsterdam, his passion for letters naturally THERE is not, perhaps, a country in Europe, ir
led him to a bookseller's shop; and, as he could which learning is so fast upon the decline as in
speak a little Dutch, he civilly asked the bookseller Italy; yet not one in which there are such a num-
for the works of the immortal llixofou. The book-ber of academies instituted for its support. There is
seller assured him he had never heard the book scarcely a considerable town in the whole country,
mentioned before. "What! have you never heard which has not one or two institutions of this na-
of that immortal poet?" returned the other, much ture, where the learned, as they are pleased to call
surprised; that light of the eyes, that favourite of themselves, meet to harangue, to compliment each
kings, that rose of perfection! I suppose you other, and praise the utility of their institution.
know nothing of the immortal Fipsihihi, second Jarchius has taken the trouble to give us a list
cousin to the moon?"-"Nothing at all, indeed, of those clubs or academies, which amount to five
sir," returned the other. "Alas!" cries our tra- hundred and fifty, each distinguished by somewhat
veller, "to what purpose, then, has one of these whimsical in the name. The academies of Bo-
fasted to death, and the other offered himself up as logna, for instance, are divided into the Abbando-
sacrifice to the Tartarean enemy, to gain a renown nati, the Ausiosi, Ociosio, Arcadi, Confusi, Dubbi-
which has never travelled beyond the precincts of osi, etc. There are few of these who have not
China !"
published their transactions, and scarcely a member
who is not looked upon as the most famous man in
the world, at home.

There is scarcely a village in Europe, and not
one university, that is not thus furnished with its
little great men. The head of a petty corporation,
Of all those societies, I know of none whose
who opposes the designs of a prince who would works are worth being known out of the precincts
tyrannically force his subjects to save their best of the city in which they were written, except the
clothes for Sundays; the puny pedant who finds Cicalata Academia (or, as we might express it,
one undiscovered property in the polype, describes the Tickling Society) of Florence. I have just
an unheeded process in the skeleton of a mole, and now before me a manuscript oration, spoken by the
whose mind, like his microscope, perceives nature late Tomaso Crudeli at that society, which will at
only in detail; the rhymer who makes smooth once serve to give a better picture of the manner
verses, and paints to our imagination when he in which men of wit amuse themselves in that
should only speak to our hearts; all equally fancy country, than any thing I could say upon the occa-
themselves walking forward to immortality, and sion. The oration is this:

desire the crowd behind them to look on. The "The younger the nymph, my dear companions, crowd takes them at their word. Patriot, philoso- the more happy the lover. From fourteen to seven pher, and poet, are shouted in their train. Where teen, you are sure of finding love for love; from was there ever so much merit seen? no times so seventeen to twenty-one, there is always a mixture important as our own! ages yet unborn shall gaze of interest and affection. But when that period is with wonder and applause! To such music the past, no longer expect to receive, but to buy: no important pygmy moves forward, bustling and longer expect a nymph who gives, but who sells swelling, and aptly compared to a puddle in a her favours. At this age, every glance is taught its duty; not a look, not a sigh without design; the lady, like a skilful warrior, aims at the heart of another, while she shields her own from danger.


I have lived to see generals, who once had crowds hallooing after them wherever they went, who were bepraised by newspapers and magazines, "On the contrary, at fifteen you may expect those echoes of the voice of the vulgar, and yet they nothing but simplicity, innocence, and nature. have long sunk into merited obscurity, with scarce- The passions are then sincere; the soul seems ly even an epitaph left to flatter. A few years ago, seated in the lips; the dear object feels present hap the herring fishery employed all Grub-street; it piness, without being anxious for the future; her was the topic in every coffee-house, and the burden eyes brighten if her lover approaches; her smiles

of every hallad. We were to drag up oceans of are borrowed from the Graces, and her very mis-
takes seem to complete her desires.

gold from the bottom of the sea; we were to sup-
ply all Europe with herrings upon our own terms. "Lucretia was just sixteen. The rose and lily
At present we hear no more of all this. We took possession of her face, and her bosom, by its
have fished up very little gold that I can learn ; nor hue and its coldness, seemed covered with snow.
do we furnish the world with herrings as was ex- So much beauty and so much virtue seldom want
pected. Let us wait but a few years longer, and admirers. Orlandino, a youth of sense and merit,
we shall find all our expectations a herring fishery. was among the number. He had long languished

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for an opportunity of declaring his passion, when languages have been formed before grammar. NaCupid, as if willing to indulge his happiness, ture renders men eloquent in great interests, or brought the charming young couple by mere acci- great passions. He that is sensibly touched, sees dent to an arbour, where every prying eye but love things with a very different eye from the rest of was absent. Orlandino talked of the sincerity of mankind. All nature to him becomes an object his passion, and mixed flattery with his addresses; of comparison and metaphor, without attending u but it was all in vain. The nymph was pre-en- it; he throws life into all, and inspires his audience gaged, and had long devoted to Heaven those with a part of his own enthusiasm. charms for which he sued. "My dear Orlandino," It has been remarked, that the lower parts of said she, "you know I have long been dedicated mankind generally express themselves most figurato St. Catharine, and to her belongs all that lies tively, and that tropes are found in the most ordibelow my girdle; all that is above, you may freely [nary forms of conversation. Thus, in every lanpossess, but farther I can not, must not comply. guage, the heart burns; the courage is roused; the The vow is passed; I wish it were undone, but eyes sparkle; the spirits are cast down; passion innow it is impossible." You may conceive, my flames; pride swells, and pity sinks the soul. Nacompanions, the embarrassment our young lovers ture every where speaks in those strong images, fet upon this occasion. They kneeled to St. Ca- which, from the frequency, pass unnoticed. tharine, and though both despaired, both implored Nature it is which inspires those rapturous enher assistance. Their tutelar saint was entreated thusiasms, those irresistible turns; a strong passion, to show some expedient, by which both might con- a pressing danger, calls up all the imagination, and tinue to love, and yet both be happy. Their peti- gives the orator irresistible force. Thus a captain tion was sincere. St. Catharine was touched with of the first caliphs, seeing his soldiers fly, cried out, compassion; for lo, a miracle! Lucretia's girdle "Whither do you run? the enemy are not there! unloosed, as if without hands; and though before You have been told that the caliph is dead; but bound round her middle, fell spontaneously down God is still living. He regards the brave, and will to her feet, and gave Orlandino the possession of all reward the courageous. Advance!" those beauties which lay above it."



A man, therefore, may be called eloquent, who transfers the passion or sentiment with which he is moved himself into the breast of another; and this definition appears the more just, as it compre hends the graces of silence and of action. An intimate persuasion of the truth to be proved, is the sentiment and passion to be transferred; and who effects this, is truly possessed of the talent of eloquence.


Or all kinds of success, that of an orator is the most pleasing. Upon other occasions, the applause we deserve is conferred in our absence, and we are insensibie of the pleasure we have given; but in eloquence, the victory and the triumph are insepa- prevent those passages which are truly eloquent rable. We read our own glory in the face of every and dictated by nature, from being blended with spectator; the audience is moved; the antagonist others which might disgust, or at least abate our is defeated; and the whole circle bursts into un-passion.

I have called eloquence a talent, and not an art, as so many rhetoricians have done, as art is acquired by exercise and study, and eloquence is the gift of nature. Rules will never make either work or a discourse eloquent; they only serve t prevent faults, but not to introduce beauties; t

solicited applause.

What we clearly conceive, says Boileau, we can The rewards which attend excellence in this clearly express. I may add, that what is felt with way are so pleasing, that numbers have written emotion is expressed also with the same moveprofessed treatises to teach us the art; schools have ments; the words arise as readily to paint our emobeen established with no other intent; rhetoric has tions, as to express our thoughts with perspicuity. taken place among the institutions, and pedants The cool care an orator takes to express passions have ranged under proper heads, and distinguished which he does not feel, only prevents his rising with long learned names, some of the strokes of na-into that passion he would seem to feel. In a ture, or of passion, which orators have used. I say word, to feel your subject thoroughly, and to speak only some; for a folio volume could not contain all without fear, are the only rules of eloquence, prothe figures which have been used by the truly elo-perly so called, which I can offer. Examine a quent; and scarcely a good speaker or writer, but writer of genius on the most beautiful parts of his makes use of some that are peculiar or new. work, and he will always assure you, that such Eloquence has preceded the rules of rhetoric, as passages are generally those which have given him

the least trouble, for they came as if by inspiration. over our heads; that time was passed, and eternity To pretend that cold and didactic precepts will begun; that Jesus Christ in all his glory, that man make a man eloquent, is only to prove that he is of sorrows in all his glory, appeared on the tribunal, incapable of eloquence. and that we were assembled here to receive our But, as in being perspicuous it is necessary to final decree of life or death eternal! Let me ask, have a full idea of the subject, so in being eloquent impressed with terror like you, and not separating it is not sufficient, if I may so express it, to feel by my lot from yours, but putting myself in the same halves. The orator should be strongly impressed, situation in which we must all one day appear bewhich is generally the effect of a fine and exquisite fore God, our judge; let me ask, if Jesus Christ sensibility, and not that transient and superficial should now appear to make the terrible separation emotion which he excites in the greatest part of his of the just from the unjust, do you think the greataudience. It is even impossible to affect the hear- est number would be saved? Do you think the ers in any great degree without being affected our-number of the elect would even be equal to that of selves. In vain it will be objected, that many the sinners? Do you think, if all our works were writers have had the art to inspire their readers examined with justice, would we find ten just perwith a passion for virtue, without being virtuous sons in this great assembly? Monsters of ingratithemselves; since it may be answered, that senti- tude! would he find one?" Such passages as these ments of virtue filled their minds at the time they are sublime in every language. The expression were writing. They felt the inspiration strongly, may be less speaking, or more indistinct, but the while they praised justice, generosity, or good-na- greatness of the idea still remains. In a word, we ture; but, unhappily for them, these passions might may be eloquent in every language and in every have been discontinued, when they laid down the style, since elocution is only an assistant, but not pen. In vain will it be objected again, that we a constituter of eloquence.

can move without being moved, as we can convince Of what use then, will it be said, are all the prewithout being convinced. It is much easier to de-cepts given us upon this head both by the ancients ceive our reason than ourselves; a trifling defect in and moderns? I answer, that they can not make reasoning may be overseen, and lead a man astray, us eloquent, but they will certainly prevent us from for it requires reason and time to detect the false- becoming ridiculous. They can seldom procure a hood; but our passions are not easily imposed upon, single beauty, but they may banish a thousand our eyes, our ears, and every sense, are watchful to faults. The true method of an orator is not to atdetect the imposture. tempt always to move, always to affect, to be conNo discourse can be eloquent that does not ele-tinually sublime, but at proper intervals to give rest vate the mind. Pathetic eloquence, it is true, has both to his own and the passions of his audience. for its only object to affect; but I appeal to men of In these periods of relaxation, or of preparation sensibility, whether their pathetic feelings are not rather, rules may teach him to avoid any thing accompanied with some degree of elevation. We low, trivial, or disgusting. Thus criticism, propermay then call eloquence and sublimity the same ly speaking, is intended not to assist those parts thing, since it is impossible to possess one without which are sublime, but those which are naturally feeling the other. Hence it follows, that we may mean and humble, which are composed with coolbe eloquent in any language, since, no language ness and caution, and where the orator rather enrefuses to paint those sentiments with which we deavours not to offend, than attempts to please. are thoroughly impressed. What is usually called sublimity of style, seems to be only an error. Eloquence is not in the words but in the subject; and in great concerns, the more simply any thing is At the bar it is quite discontinued, and I think with expressed, it is generally the more sublime. True justice. In the senate it is used but sparingly, as eloquence does not consist, as the rhetoricians as- the orator speaks to enlightened judges. But in sure us, in saying great things in a sublime style, the pulpit, in which the orator should chiefly adbut in a simple style; for there is, properly speak-dress the vulgar, it seems strange that it should be ing, no such thing as a sublime style, the sublimity entirely laid aside.

I have hitherto insisted more strenuously on that eloquence which speaks to the passions, as it is a species of oratory almost unknown in England.

lies only in the things; and when they are not so, the language may be turgid, affected, metaphorical, but not affecting.

What can be more simply expressed than the following extract from a celebrated preacher, and yet what was ever more sublime? Speaking of the small number of the elect, he breaks out thus among bis audience: "Let me suppose that this was the

The vulgar of England are, without exception, the most barbarous and the most unknowing of any in Europe. A great part of their ignorance may be chiefly ascribed to their teachers, who, with the most pretty gentleman-like serenity, deliver their cool discourses and address the reason of men who have never reasoned in all their lives. They are told of cause and effect, of beings self-existent,

kast hour of us all; that the heavens were opening and the universal scale of beings. They are in

formed of the excellence of the Bangorian contro-|long and obvious; where the same thought is often versy, and the absurdity of an intermediate state. exhibited in several points of view; all this strong The spruce preacher reads his lucubration without sense, a good memory, and a small share of experilifting his nose from the text, and never ventures ence, will furnish to every orator; and without to earn the shame of an enthusiast. these a clergyman may be called a fine preacher, a judicious preacher, and a man of good sense; he may make his hearers admire his understandingbut will seldom enlighten theirs.

When I think of the Methodist preachers among us, how seldom they are endued with common The polite of every country have several motives sense, and yet how often and how justly they affect to induce them to a rectitude of action; the love of their hearers, I can not avoid saying within myself, virtue for its own sake, the shame of offending, and had these been bred gentlemen, and been endued the desire of pleasing. The vulgar have but one, with even the meanest share of understanding, the enforcements of religion; and yet those who what might they not effect! Did our bishops, who should push this motive home to their hearts, are can add dignity to their expostulations, testify the basely found to desert their post. They speak to same fervour, and entreat their hearers, as well the 'squire, the philosopher, and the pedant; but as argue, what might not be the consequence! the poor, those who really want instruction, are left uninstructed.

The vulgar, by which I mean the bulk of mankind, would then have a double motive to love religion, first from seeing its professors honoured here, and next from the consequences hereafter. At present

By this means, though his audience feel not one word of all he says, he earns, however, among his acquaintance, the character of a man of sense; among his acquaintance only did I say? nay, even with his bishop.

I have attended most of our pulpit orators, who, it must be owned, write extremely well upon the ext they assume. To give them their due also, the enthusiasms of the poor are opposed to law; they read their sermons with elegance and pro- did law conspire with their enthusiasms, we should not only be the happiest nation upon earth, but the wisest also.

Enthusiasm in religion, which prevails only

priety; but this goes but a very short way in true eloquence. The speaker must be moved. In this, in this alone, our English divines are deficient. Were they to speak to a few calm dispassionate among the vulgar, should be the chief object of hearers, they certainly use the properest methods politics. A society of enthusiasts, governed by of address; but their audience is chiefly composed reason among the great, is the most indissoluble, of the poor, who must be influenced by motives of the most virtuous, and the most efficient of its own reward and punishment, and whose only virtues decrees that can be imagined. Every country, poslie in self-interest, or fear. sessed of any degree of strength, have had their

How then are such to be addressed? not by enthusiasms, which ever serve as laws among the studied periods or cold disquisitions; not by the la- people. The Greeks had their Kalokagathia, the bours of the head, but the honest spontaneous dic- Romans their Amor Patriæ, and we the truer and tates of the heart. Neither writing a sermon with firmer bond of the Protestant Religion. The regular periods and all the harmony of elegant ex- principle is the same in all; how much then is it pression; neither reading it with emphasis, pro- the duty of those whom the law has appointed priety, and deliberation; neither pleasing with teachers of this religion, to enforce its obligations, metaphor, simile, or rhetorical fustian; neither and to raise those enthusiasms among people, by arguing coolly, and untying consequences united in which alone political society can subsist. a priori, nor bundling up inductions a posteriori; neither pedantic jargon, nor academical trifling, can persuade the poor: writing a discourse coolly in the closet, then getting it by memory, and delivering it on Sundays, even that will not do. What then is to be done? I know of no expedient to speak, to speak at once intelligibly, and feelingly except to understand the language. To be convinced of the truth of the object, to be perfectly acquainted with the subject in view, to prepossess yourself with a low opinion of your audience, and to do the rest extempore: by this means strong expressions, new thoughts, rising passions, and the tiue declamatory style, will naturally ensue.

From eloquence, therefore, the morals of our people are to expect emendation; but how little can they be improved by men, who get into the pulpit rather to show their parts than convince us of the truth of what they deliver; who are painfully cor rect in their style, musical in their tones; where every sentiment, every expression seems the result of meditation and deep study?

Tillotson has been commended as the model of pulpit eloquence; thus far he should be imitated, where he generally strives to convince rather than to please; but to adopt his long, dry, and sometimes tedious discussions, which serve to amuse only divines, and are utterly neglected by the geneFine declamation does not consist in flowery rality of mankind; to praise the intricacy of his periods, delicate allusions, or musical cadences; but periods, which are too long to be spoken; to conin a plain,-open, louse style, where the periods are tinue his cool phlegmatic manner of enforcing

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