domestic life, his lot, though humble, was a happy placed under the care of a village school-master, te one. He is the village pastor of the "Deserted be instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic. Village," so exemplary in his character, and "pass-This pedagogue, whom his scholar afterwards so ing rich with forty pounds a year." It is to this happily describes in the "Deserted Village," had brother, who was the guide and protector of Gold-been a quarter-master in the army during the wars smith during his childhood, and to whom he was of Queen Anne, and, in his own estimation, a man tenderly attached, that he addresses those beautiful of no small pith and moment. Having passed lines in his poem of the Traveller:

through various parts of Europe, and being of an eccentric turn of mind, he acquired habits of romancing that bordered on the marvellous, and, like many other travellers, was possessed with a prodigious itch for detailing his adventures. He himself was most commonly the redoubted hero of his own story, and his pupils were always the amazed and willing auditory:

Where'er I roam, whatever realms to see,
My heart untravell'd fondly turns to thee;
Still to my brother turns with ceaseless pain,
And drags at each remove a length'ning chain.

His family also form the ruddy and joyous group, and exercise the simple but generous rites of hospitality, which the poet so charmingly de


Bless'd be those feasts with simple plenty crown'd,
Where all the ruddy family around
Laugh at the jests or pranks that never fail,
Or sigh with pity at some mournful tale;
Or press the bashful stranger to his food,
And learn the luxury of doing good.

And still they gazed, and still the wonder grew,
That one small head could carry all he knew.

The tales of wonder recounted by this second effects on his Pinto are said to have had surp youthful hearers; and it has been plausibly conjectured that to the vivid impressions thus made on the young imagination of our author, may be as

The whimsical character of the Man in Black,

in the "Citizen of the World," so rich in eccen-cribed those wandering propensities which influ

enced his after life.

tricities and in amiable failings, is said to have After he had been for some time with this inbeen likewise drawn partly from his brother, partly from his father, but in a great measure from the different preceptor, his mother, with whom he was author himself. It is difficult, however, to assign always a favourite, exerted her influence to perwith precision the originals of a writer's characters. suade his father to give him an education that would They are generally composed of scattered, though qualify him for a liberal profession. Her solicitaaccordant traits, observed in various individuals, tions, together with the passionate attachment which which have been seized upon with the discriminat-the boy evinced for books and learning, and his ing tact of genius and combined into one harmoni- early indications of talent, prevailed over all scruous whole. Stil., it is a fact, as evident as it is de-ples of economy, and he was placed under the care lightful, that Goldsmith has poured out the genu- of the Rev. Mr. Griffin, schoolmaster of Elphin. ine feelings of his heart in his works; and has had He was boarded in the house of his uncle, John continually before him, in his delineations of simple Goldsmith, Esq., of Ballyoughter, in the vicinity. worth and domestic virtue, the objects of his filial Here the amiableness of his disposition and the amusing eccentricity of his humour rendered him a and fraternal affection. Goldsmith is said, in his earlier years, to have universal favourite. A little anecdote, preserved been whimsical in his humours and eccentric in his by the family of his uncle evinces the precocity of habits. This was remarked in his infancy. Some- his wit. At an entertainment given by this gentleman to times he assumed the gravity and reserve of riper years, at other times would give free scope to the a party of young people in the neighbourhood, a wild frolic and exuberant vivacity suited to his age. fiddler was sent for, and dancing introduced. OliThe singularity of his moods and manners, and ver, although only nine years of age, was permitted the evidences he gave of a precocity of talent, caus-to share in the festivities of the evening, and was ed him to be talked of in the neighbourhood as a called on to dance a hornpipe. His figure was little prodigy. It is said that, even before he was never good, but at this time it was peculiarly short eight years old he evinced a natural turn for poet-and clumsy, and having but recently recovered from ry, and made many attempts at rhymes, to the the small-pox, his features were greatly disfigured. amusement of his father and friends; and when The scraper of catgut, struck with the oddity of the somewhat older, after he had learned to write, his boy's appearance, thought to display his waggery, chief pleasure was to scribble rude verses on small by likening him to Æsop dancing. This compariscraps of paper, and then commit them to the son, according to his notions, being uncommonly happy, he continued to harp on it for a considerable flames. His father had strained his slender means in time, when suddenly the laugh of the company was giving a liberal education to his eldest son, and had turned against himself, by Oliver sarcastically redetermined to bring up Oliver to trade. He was marking,

Our herald hath proclaim'd this saying,
See Æsop dancing, and his monkey playing.

On the 11th of June, 1744, Goldsmith, then fifteen years of age, was admitted a sizer in Trinity College, Dublin, under the Rev. Theaker Wilder, one of the fellows, a man of violent temper, from

So smart a repartee, from so young a boy, was the subject of much conversation, and perhaps of itself was decisive of his fortune. His friends im- whose overbearing disposition he suffered much mediately determined that he should be sent to the vexation. The young student was giddy and university; and some of his relations, who belonged thoughtless, and on one occasion invited a number to the church, and possessed the necessary means, of young persons of both sexes to a supper and generously offered to contribute towards the ex-dance in his apartments, in direct violation of the pense. The Rev. Mr. Green, and the Rev. Mr. college rules. The vigilant Wilder became apContarine, both men of distinguished worth and prised of the circumstance, and rushed like a tiger learning, stood forward on this occasion as the to the festive scene. He burst into the apartment, youth's patrons. put the gay assembly to the rout, but previous to To qualify him for the university, he was now their dispersion, seized on the unfortunate delinsent to Athlone school, and placed under the tui- quent, and inflicted corporal chastisement on him, tion of the Rev. Mr. Campbell. There he re- in presence of the party. mained two years; but the ill health of the master The youthful poet could not brook this outrage having obliged him to resign his situation, Oliver and indignity. He could not look his acquaintances was consigned to the care of the Rev. Patrick in the face without the deepest feeling of shame and Hughes, at Edgeworthstown, in the county of mortification. He determined, therefore, to escape Longford, under whom he continued his studies till altogether from his terrible tutor, by abandoning his finally fitted for the university. Under this re-studies, and flying to some distant part of the globe. spectable teacher and excellent man, he is said to With this view he disposed of his books and clothes, have made much greater progress than under any and resolved to embark at Cork: but here his usual of the rest of his instructors. thoughtless and improvident turn was again displayed, for he lingered so long in Dublin after his resolution had been taken, that his finances were reduced to a single shilling when he set out on the journey.

A short time before leaving the school of Mr. Hughes, our poet had an adventure which is believed to have suggested the plot of his comedy of "She Stoops to Conquer, or the Mistakes of a Night."

He was accustomed afterwards to give a ludiHis father's house was distant about twenty crous account of his adventures in this expedition, miles from Edgeworthstown, and when on his jour- although it was attended by many distressful cirney thither for the last time, he had devoted so cumstances. Having contrived to subsist three much time to amusement on the road, that it was whole days on the shilling he set out with, he was almost dark when he reached the little town of Ar- then compelled by necessity to sell the clothes off Jagh. Some friend had given him a guinea, and his back, and at last was so reduced by famine, that Oliver, who was never niggard of his purse, re- he was only saved from sinking under it by the solved to put up here for the night, and treat him- compassion of a young girl at a wake, from whom self to a good supper and a bed. Having asked he got a handful of gray peas. This he used to say for the best house in the village, he was conducted was the most delicious repast he had ever made. to the best house, instead of the best inn. The While in this state of hunger and wretchedness, owner, immediately discovered the mistake, but be-without money and without friends, the rashness ing a man of humour, resolved to carry on the joke. and folly of his undertaking became every moment Oliver was therefore permitted to order his horse more apparent, and, in spite of his lacerated feelto the stable, while he himself walked into the par- ings, and the dread of Wilder, he resolved to prolour, and took his seat familiarly by the fire-side. pose a reconciliation with his friends, and once The servants were then called about him to receive more to return to the college. Before he had his orders as to supper. The supper was soon reached the place of embarkation, therefore, he conproduced; the gentleman, with his wife and daugh- trived to get notice conveyed to his brother of his ters, were generously invited to partake; a bottle miserable condition, and hinted that if a promise of wine was called for to crown the feast, and at of milder treatment were obtained from his tutor, going to bed, a hot cake was ordered to be prepared he should be inclined to return. His affectionate for his breakfast. The laugh, to be sure, was ra- brother instantly hastened to relieve his distress, ther against our hero in the morning, when he equipped him with new clothing, and carried hins called for his bill, and found he had been hospitably back to college. A reconciliation was also in some entertained in a private family. But finding that degree effected with Wilder, but there was never his host was an acquaintance of his father's, he en- afterwards between them any interchange of friendtered into the humour of the scene, and laughed as ship or regard. reartily as the rest.

From the despondency resulting from his tutor's

ill treatment, Goldsmith is said to have sunk into | Week after week passed away, and no tidings habitual indolence; yet his genius sometimes dawn- of the fugitive. At last, when all hope of his reed through the gloom, and translations from the turn had been given up, and when they concluded classics made by him at this period were long re- he must have left the country altogether, the famimembered by his cotemporaries with applause. He ly were astonished by his sudden reappearance at was not, however, admitted to the degree of Bache- his mother's house; safe and sound, to be sure, but lor of Arts till February 27, 1749, O. S. two years not exactly in such good trim as when he had left after the regular time. them. His horse was metamorphosed into a The chagrin and vexation attending his unlucky shabby little pony, not worth twenty shillings; disputes with his tutor, were soon after succeeded and instead of thirty pounds in his pocket, he was by a calamity of deeper moment, and more lasting without a penny. On this occasion the indignation consequences to our poet. This was the death of of his mother was strongly expressed; but his his worthy and amiable father. He had now lost brothers and sisters, who were all tenderly attachhis natural guardian and best friend, and founded to him, interfered, and soon effected a reconhimself young in the world, without either protector ciliation. or guide. His uncle Contarine, however, in this Once more reinstated in the good graces of his emergency kindly interfered, and, with almost pa- family, our poet amused them with a detail of rental anxiety, took the charge of advising and di- his adventures in this last expedition. He prerecting his future progress. When he had com- mised that he had long felt a strong inclination to pleted his studies at the university, Mr. Contarine visit the New World, but knowing that his friends advised him to prepare for holy orders; but this was would throw obstacles in the way of his departure, a measure always repugnant to his inclinations. he had determined to set out unknown to any of An unsettled turn of mind, an unquenchable de- them. Intending to embark at Cork, he had gone sire of visiting other countries, and perhaps an in- directly thither, and immediately after he arrived genuous sense of his unfitness for the clerical pro- disposed of his horse, and struck a bargain with a fession, conspired to disincline him to the church; captain of a ship bound for North America. For and though at length he yielded to the pressing so- three weeks after his arrival, the wind continued licitations of his uncle and friends, by applying to unfavorable for putting to sea; and the vessel rethe bishop for ordination, it is thought he was more mained wind-bound in the harbour. In the mean pleased than disappointed when rejected by his time, he amused himself by sauntering about the lordship, on account of his youth. He was now city and its environs, satisfying his curiosity, and anxious, however, to be employed in some way or examining every object worthy of notice. Havother, and when the office of private tutor in the ing formed some acquaintances by means of the family of a neighbouring gentleman was offered to captain, he accompanied a party on an excursion him, he willingly accepted it. In this situation he into the country. The idea never occurred to him, remained about a year; but finding the employment that the wind, which had blown so perversely much more disagreeable than he had been taught a-head during there weeks, might change in a sinto believe it, and the necessary confinement pain-gle day; he was not less surprised than chagrined, fully irksome, he suddenly gave up his charge, pro- therefore, on his return next morning, to find the cured a good horse, and, with about thirty pounds vessel gone. This was a death-blow to his scheme which he had saved, quitted his friends, and set of emigration, as his passage-money was already out nobody knew whither. in the pocket of the captain.

As this singular unpremeditated step had been Mortified and disappointed, he lingered about taken without consulting any of his friends, and Cork, irresolute what to do, until the languishing as no intelligence could be obtained either of him- state of his purse, which was reduced to two guiself or the motives which had prompted his de- neas, admonished him to make the best of his way parture, his family became much alarmed for his home. He accordingly bought a poor little pony, safety, and were justly offended at his conduct. which he called Fiddleback, and found that he had just five shillings left to defray the travelling expen*During his studies at the university, he was a contempo ses of himself and his steed. This pittance, howrary with Burke; and it has been said that neither of them ever, was rather too scanty for a journey of a hungave much promise of future celebrity. Goldsmith, however, dred and twenty miles, and he was at a loss how got a premium at a Christmas examination; and a premium to procure a further supply. He at last bethought

obtained at such examination is more honourable than any

other, because it ascertains the person who receives it to be himself of an old college friend, who lived on the the first in literary merit. At the other examinations, the road, not far from Cork, and determined to apply person thus distinguished may be only the second in merit; to him for assistance. Having been often pressed he who has previously obtained the same honorary reward, by this person to spend a summer at his house, he

sometimes receiving a written certificate that he was the best

answerer; i being a rule, that not more than one premium had the less hesitation in paying him a visit under "nould be adjudged to the same person in one year. This present circumstances, and doubted not that he

would at once obtain all the aid his situation re- "return home immediately. You can never do withquired. When on the road to the house of his out the assistance of your friends; and if you keep friend, a poor woman with eight children, whose them longer in suspense and alarm by remaining husband had been thrown into jail for rent, threw away, you will only widen the breach which your herself in his way and implored for relief. The rashness must have already occasioned, and perhaps Teelings of humanity being ever most easily awak-induce them to throw you off altogether." "But," ened in Oliver's bosom, he gave her all that re- rejoined Oliver, "how am I to get on without momained in his purse, and trusted his own wants to ney? I told you I had not a shilling left, and it is the expected liberality of his old fellow-collegian. quite impossible for me to proceed on the journey,

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This dear friend, whose promised hospitalities unless you should be so obliging as to lend me a were so securely relied on, received him with much guinea for the purpose." Here again his friend's apparent satisfaction, and only appeared anxious countenance fell. He pleaded his inability to lend, to learn the motive which could have prompted in consequence of having spent all his ready cash this chance visit. Charmed with this seeming cor- during his late illness, interlarding this apology diality with which he was received, Oliver gave with many sage aphorisms on the disadvantages of him an artless and honest account of his whole ex-borrowing, and the sin of running into debt. "But pedition; and did not even conceal the offence my dear fellow," resumed he, "I'll tell you how which his departure must have given to his friends. you may get over the difficulty. May you not His good host listened with profound attention, sell the little horse you brought with you last and appeared to take so much interest in the detail night? The price of it will be sufficient for all of our poet's adventures, that he was at length in- your expenses till you arrive among your friends, duced to disclose the immediate object of his visit, and, in the mean time, I think I can furnish you This chanced to be the true touch-stone for try- with another to help you forward on the jouring the liberality of so honest a friend. A profound ney." Oliver could discover no objection to a plan sigh, and querulous declamation on his own in- so feasible, and therefore agreed to it at once; but firm state of health, was the only return to his hint when he asked for a sight of the steed which was for assistance. When pressed a little further, this to carry him home, his host, with solemn gravity, kind friend drily remarked, that for his part he drew from under the bed a stout oaken staff, which could not understand how some people got them-he presented to him with a grin of self-approbaselves into scrapes; that on any other occasion he tion. Our poor poet now lost all patience, and was would have been happy to accommodate an old just about to snatch it from him, and apply it to comrade, but really he had been lately so very ill, his pate, when a loud rap announced a visiter. A and was, even now, in such a sickly condition, person of interesting appearance was immediately that it was very inconvenient to entertain compa- afterwards ushered into the room, and, when the usny of any kind. Besides, he could not well ask a ual compliments were over, Oliver was presented to person in health to share in his slops and milk him by his host, as if nothing had happened, and diet. If, however, Mr. Goldsmith could think of described as the learned and ingenious young man putting up with the family fare, such as it was, he of whom he had heard so much while at college. would be made welcome; at the same time he The agreeable manners of this gentleman soon must apprise him that it might not soon be got ready. The astonishment and dismay of our poet at the conclusion of this speech was sufficiently visible in his lengthened visage. Nothing but the both to dine with him the following day. This utter emptiness of his purse, and his great distance was not acceded to on the part of the poet, withfrom home, could have induced him to pocket the out considerable reluctance; but the gentleman's insult, or accept so inhospitable an invitation. No pressing solicitations prevailed on him to consent. better, however, could be made of it in his present The hospitality and kindness displayed at this percircumstances; so without showing his chagrin, he son's table was a striking contrast to the penury good-humouredly partook of a miserable supper of and meanness exhibited by his fellow-collegian, brown bread and butter milk, served up at a late and Oliver could hardly refrain from making some hour by a miserable looking old woman, the fit sarcastic remarks on the difference. The hints on handmaid of so miserable a master. this subject which were occasionally hazarded by the poet, led the gentleman to suspect that the two friends were not on the most cordial terms. He was therefore induced to invite our poet to spend a

gave an interesting turn to the conversation. Harmony appeared to be once more restored between Oliver and his host, and the stranger invited them

Notwithstanding the base colours in which our poet's host had exhibited himself, the former had too much good-nature to harbour resentment. When they met in the morning, therefore, he entered fa- few days at his house. An invitation of this kind, miliarly into conversation, and even condescended so opportunely and handsomely given, was a forto ask what he would advise him to do in his pre-tunate circumstance for Oliver. He did not hesi sent difficulty. "My dear fellow," said his host, tate a moment to accept it, and at parting with his


dear fellow-collegian, archly recommended to him deposited his trunk in lodgings than he sallied out to take good care of the steed kept at so much ex- to see the town. He rainbled about until a late pense for the use of his friends; and, of all things, hour, and when he felt disposed to turn his face to beware of surfeiting them with a milk diet. To homeward, recollected for the first time that he this sarcasm the other only replied by a sneer at knew neither the name nor address of his landlady. the poet's poverty and improvident disposition. In this dilemma, as he was wandering at random, Their host being well acquainted with the charac-he fortunately met with the porter who had carried ter of his neighbour, seemed, when Oliver after- his baggage, and who now served him as a guide. wards recounted to him all the circumstances that had taken place, to be more amused than surprised at the detail.

In the University of Edinburgh, at that time be coming famous as a school of medicine, he attended the lectures of the celebrated Monro, and the In the house of this new friend Goldsmith expe- other professors in medical science. What prorienced the most hospitable entertainment for seve-gress he made in this study, however, is not parral days. Two beautiful daughters, as well as the ticularly ascertained. Riotous conviviality, and host himself, were einulous in finding amusement tavern adjournments, whether for business or pleafor their guest during his stay; and when about to sure, were at that time characteristic of Edinburgh depart, he was offered money to defray the expense society; and it does not appear that our poet was of his journey, and a servant to attend him on able to resist the general contagion. His attention horseback. The servant and horse he declined, to his studies was far from being regular. Dissibut accepted of a loan of three half-guineas; and pation and play allured him from the class-room, with sentiments of the deepest respect and grati- and his health and his purse suffered in consequence. About this period, his contemporaries have tude, took leave of his benevolent host.

He now pursued his journey without any fur-reported, that he sometimes also sacrificed to the ther interruption, and arrived at his mother's house Muses, but of these early effusions no specimen in the sudden and unexpected manner already nar-seems to have been preserved.

rated. Once more reconciled to his friends, he did

The social and good-humoured qualities of our not fail to transmit to his kind benefactor suitable poet appear to have made him a general favourite acknowledgments expressive of the grateful sense with his fellow-students. He was a keen particihe entertained of such unlooked-for and generous pator in all their wild pranks and humorous frolics. He was also a prime table companion: always reahospitality. dy with story, anecdote, or song, though it must be confessed that in such exhibitions he was far from

It was now considered essential that he should fix on a profession, the pursuit of which might divert him from idle and expensive habits. After being successful. His narrations were too frequentvarious consultations, it was determined that he ly accompanied by grimace or buffoonery; nor was should begin the study of the law, and his uncle his wit of that chaste and classical kind that might Contarine agreed to advance the necessary funds. have been expected from his education. On the Provided with money for the expenses of his jour-contrary, it was generally forced, coarse, and unney, and to enable him to enter on his studies at natural. All his oral communications partook of the Temple, Oliver set out for London, but his these defects; and it is a fact not less true than sincustomary imprudence again interfered. He fell gular, that even in after life he was never exempt by accident into the company of a sharper in Dub-from them, although accustomed to the politest lilin, and being tempted to engage in play, was soon terary society. plundered of all his money, and again left to find his way home without a shilling in his pocket.

When conversing on this feature in our poet's character, his friend Dr. Johnson many years after

His friends now almost despaired of him. Not-wards, justly, but perhaps rather severely, remarkwithstanding the brilliancy of his natural talents, ed, "The misfortune of Goldsmith in conversation it was feared that his habitual carelessness and im- is this: he goes on without knowing how he is to get providence would form a bar to his success in any off. His genius is great, but his knowledge is small. profession whatever. That it would be vain for As they say of a generous man, it is a pity he is him to pursue the study of the law with such dis- not rich, we may say of Goldsmith, it is a pity he is positions was obvious; and, of course, it was neces- not knowing: he would not keep his knowledge to sary once more to cast about for a profession. Af-himself." On another occasion, Johnson being called on for ter various consultations, therefore, it was finally determined that physic should be his future pur- his opinion on the same subject, took a similar view "Goldsmith," said he, suit; and his kind uncle, who had been prevailed of it, with much critical acumen, and all his usual on to pardon him once more, took him again under power of amplification. his protection, and at last fixed him at Edinburgh "should not be for ever attempting to shine in con. as a student of medicine, about the end of the year versation; he has not temper for it, he is so much 1752. On his arrival in that city, he had no soonernortified when he fails. A game of jokes is com

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