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Letter from Admiral Pocock at the Havannah.
but is there any reason to believe that
Great Britain can be deluded to fuch a degree as to murmur against their fovereign for having a British heart, and preferring the profperity of his native country, to the interefts and paffions of a foreign prince?
A political writer of the firft clafs has bequeathed to the world an obfervation that I hope will be verified by the conduct of Englishmen upon this great occafion. "There are, fays he, in every nation (whofe conftitution is not ruined) a number of perfons who love their country. Their voice in the beginning of troubles is not heard; it is fuppreffed by the clamour of the multitude; but this voice grows louder and louder, and becomes uppermoft at laft, or the state is un-. done."
I do not take upon me to fay, that it is impoffible to raife even the immenfe fums required for another year: but I affirm, and call upon the enemies of peace to contradict me, that there is no certainty, no likelihood of compelling France to fubmit to terms better for us than thofe now offered, by another campaign, and another after that and what will be the condition of this country if the prefent enormous expence continues? France already feels its full diftrefs; ours is not yet come: if the war continues, our
diftrefs is near at hand.
I have fuch confidence in the geneCral candour and good fenfe of my countrymen, as to be firmly perfuaded that the voice of truth and reason will foon be uppermoft in Britain; that the people, theuh neceffarily liable to delufion, will open their eyes, and judge fairly for themfelves; and they wilf firmnefs and integrity, in fpite of op. then applaud that miniftry, whofe pofition, concluded a peace which fecured to this nation immenfe acquifitions, and terminated the most expenfive and hazardous war we were ever engaged in, with dignity and with glory.
Wandsworth, Sept. 5.
I am, &c.
From the London Gazzette Extraordinary.
France fupports the expence of this war by an immediate and cruel taxation; we borrow immenfe fums, the burthen of which we fhall feel hereafter. Already the want of men and money is complained of in every county of this kingdom, Middlefex E excepted. As the capital derives peculiar advantages from the war, is it not reafonable to fuppofe that there are individuals who exclaim against a peace from motives very different from love to their country? the partifans of former minifters confpire with the felfish and the interested, to diftrefs the prefent minißry by oppofing a peace, which, however falutary to the public, would put an end to the gains of infatiable avarice, and cut off the hopes of criminal ambition: nay, a foreign prince who owes fo much to the bounty of this generous nation, pretends to be ewaged that Great Bri tain prefumes to take care of itself; and his infolent emiffaries join the cry against a miniftry who are so fingular in their politics, as to prefer the interefts of Britain to that of Germany.. This is the first ministry that ever did fo; and fhall they be rewarded with H reproach and defamation for doing what has been fo long paffionately wifhed for, and yet despaired of? is it poffible to imagine, that the people of
Capy of a Letter from Sir George Pococke, to
Grecable to my intention fignified to you by my letter, dated the 26th of May, by the Barbadoes floop (a copy of which is enclofed) I bore away with the fleet the next afternoon, having the day before fent the Boneta loop, Capt. Halmes, with a Pro,
vidence pilot on board him, to direct the veffels to their proper stations on the Cuba fide, and Babama banks; that we might be guided by their fignals in our paffage. Luckily the next day the Richmond joined us : She had been down the Old Streights to Cayo Sal; and Capt. Elphinfion had been very diligent and careful in his remarks going through and returning back, having taken fketches of the land and Cayos on both fides. He kept a-head of the fleet, and led us through very well. We paffed the narrowest part in the night between Cape Lobos and Gayo Comfito, keeping good fire light on each Cayo for our directions; and found
Letter from Admiral Pocock at the Havannah.
found Lord Anson's Spanish chart of the Old The Providence Streights, a very just one. pilot, who was on board the Bonetta floop, placed the Trent, Capt. Lindsay, at the first ftation on the Cuba fide, 45 leagues to the Eastward of where the ought to have been. This occafioned fome of the others never to find the Cayos, where they were fent to lie on; but no ill confequence attended it; though we find the pilots in general ignorant of the paffage. On the 2d in the morning, the Afarm and Echo being ordered a-head to lie on the Cayo Sal Bank, the former made the fignal for feeing five fail in the N. W. quarter: They both chafed, with other fhips; and, about two in the afternoon, Capt. Alms in the Alarm came up with and engaged the Thetis, a Spanish frigate of 22 guns and 180 men; and the Phenix ftorefhip armed for war, of 18 guns and 75 men; and in three quarters of an hour both ftruck to her. The Thetis had ten men killed, and 14 wounded; the Alarm had 7 men killed, and 10 wounded. A C brigantine and two fchooners were at first in company with them, one of the latter escaped; they were bound to Sagoa, in the Streights, for timber for the ufe of the fhips at the Havannab, from whence they had failed 12 days before. During all the paffage through the Old Streights of Babama, we had fine weather, and little current; and, on the 5th D in the evening, got clear through, and faw the Metances. On the 6th in the morning brought to, about five leagues to the Eastward of the Havannab, to ifue out directions to the captains of the fleet, and mafters of the tranfports, with regard to landing the army; and having appointed the Hon. Comm. Keppel to conduct that part of the fervice, leaving with him fix fhips of the line, and fome fri-E where he conftantly keeps a number of fea
On the 12th, a third fhip being funk in the entrance of the harbour's mouth, which entirely blocked it up, I ordered four ships of the line to continue cruifing in the Offing, and anchored with the refi off Chorera River, about four miles from the Havannab, which affords us plenty of good water and wood,
Having found it neceffary to order Soo marines to be formed into two battalions, commanded by the Majors Campbell and Collins Ld Albermarle fignified his request they might be landed, and encamped on this fide: At the fame time his Lordship ordered a detachment of 1200 men over, under the command of Col. Howe; accordingly they were landed the 15th, and have proved very ferviceable.
Comm. Keppel remains on the Eaft fide, at anchor off Coximar River, with fuch fhips of war and transports as we find neceflary
gates, and having manned the flat bottomed boats from the fleet, bore away at two o'clock in the afternçon, with 13 fhips of the line, two frigates, the bomb-vetiels, and 36 fail of victuallers and ftorefhips, and run down off the harbour, where I faw 12 Spanish fhips of the line, and feveral merchant hips. Next morning I embarked the marines in the boats, and made a feint of landing about 4 miles to the Weftward of the Havannab. About the fame time the Earl of Albermarle landed with the whole army, without oppofition, between the rivers Boca-Nao and Coximar, about fix miles to the Eaftward of the Moro; but there appearing a body of men near the fhore, Mr Keppel ordered the Mercury and Bonetta floop in shore to fcower the beach and woods?
men on fhore, which the Earl of Albermarle
and a more confiderable body of men appearing afterwards, as if they intended to oppofe the Earl of Albermarle in paffing Coximar River, the Commodore ordered Captain Hervey in the Dragon to run in and batter the caftle, which, in a short time he filenced; and the army paffed over unmolested.
On the 20th, the bomb batteries began to play against the Moro; but the want of earth retarded our batteries of cannon from being ready till the 1t of this month, when it was thought three large fhips would prove fervice able to be placed against the N. E. part of the Moro. I therefore ordered for that fervice the Dragon, Marlborough, and Cambridge, Capt. Hervey having readily offered to command the attack, and made very judicious difpofitions in placing the three fhips. The Stirling Caftle was ordered to lead untill the first ship was properly placed, and then to have made fail off
of war in the entrance of the harbour, and another early next morning. The Earl of Albermarle having acquainted me that the Cava nies (or hill above the Moro) would be foon attacked, and, to facilitate the measure, defired me to make a diverfion on this fide; accordingly, the Loth in the evening, I ordered Capt. Knight in the Belleifle, to go in and batter the caftle of Chorea, and fent the Cerberus, Mercury, Bonetta, and Lurcher, with her, to keep firing in the woods in the night, and embarked all the marines in the boats. The next forenoon the enemy quitted the fort, and at one o'clock Col. Carleton (Quarter-Mafter General) attacked the Cavanios, and foon made the enemy retreat down the hill, with little lofs on our fide. I ordered three bomb veffels to anchor this night, to throw fhells into the town, which they accordingly performed, under cover of the Edgar, Stirling Castle, and Echo.
The 8th, fent two frigates in fhore, to found from as near the Punta fort as they could, down along the Weft fhore: They found anchoring ground for three leagues down the coaft, from 20 to 5 fathom water, and eafy Janding for any number of men. This afternoon the enemy funk one of their Targe Chips
Letter from Admiral Pocock at the Havannah.
off; but Capt. Campbell not having performed that fervice agreeable to the orders he received from Capt. Herwey, he has complained of him, and defired his conduct may be enquired into, which fhall be done as foon as the present affairs will permit.
As the fhips were to move from the Eaftward, where Mr Keppel is ftationed (who in juftice to him, I am glad to fay, executes the duty entrusted to him with an activity, judgment, and diligence, no man can surpass) I directed him to fuperintend the attack, and to give Capt. Hervey his orders to proceed when he faw it convenient: Accordingly, the fhips were ordered to weigh the evening of the 30th of June, and next morning went down (Capt. Hervey having the fignal out for the line) the Cambridge, Dragon, and Marlborough, and were placed as well and as near as their ftations would admit of, against a fortrefs fo high as the Moro, with an intention to difmount the guns, as well as beat down the wall, They began to cannonade about 8 o'clock; and after keeping conftant C fire until two in the afternoon, the Cambridge was fo much damaged in her hull, mafts, yards, fails and rigging, with the lofs of many men killed and wounded, that it was thought proper to order her off; and foon after the Dragon, which had likewife fuffered in lofs of men, and damage in her hull; and it being found that the Marlborough, Capt. Burnett, could be of no longer fervice, fshe was ordered off likewife: The number of the killed and Wounded are as follows, viz.
The Earl of Albermarle fignified to me the thips had done incomparably well, having drawn much fire from our batteries, by which means they had an opportunity of difmounting fome of the Moro's guns which played against them.
had been out on a cruize. I fent the Suther land, Cerberus, and Lurcher, to cruize off the Matances, and reconnoitre the Bay; and the Richmond and Alarm to cruize off the Capes St Antonio and Coriantes. They took a schooner on the 22d of last month off the Weft end of
Cuba, loaded with coffee from Hifpaniola,
bound to New Orleans. The cruizers are now all returned without any particular intelligence.
The Alcide, Sutherland, Cerberus, and Ferret floop, have joined the fleet fince we have been here. The Centaur fprung her main mast in heaving down; but Sir James Douglas (who arrived here on the 12th with the Jamaica fleet) informs me she will foon be here also.
The Defiance and Hampton Court being ordered to cruize between Port Mariel and the Bay of Honda, in going down faw two fail at anchor off Port Mariel harbour, which Capt. Mackenzie of the Defiance brought out after fome firing had parted: All but 20 men had left them: They were the Venganza frigate of 26 guns, and the Martz of 18 guns, which
The Penzance brings the next convoy from Jamaica, which will fail the 25th inftant, and will be reinforced with a fhip of the line hence, to proceed with them to England.
On the 13th of last month, Capt. Walker of the Lurcher cutter, in going up Chorea River out of mere curiofity, was killed by the enemy.
Journal of the Siege of Havannah, 1762.
Dragon Cambridge Marlborough The Dragon, on the water's falling, had touched a-ground, and was forced to stave her water cafks to lighten her, but has received no damage as can be perceived from it. The captains behaved becoming gallant officers, as they expreffed great fatisfaction in the behaviour of the officers and men under their com mand: And we have to regret the lofs of Capt. Geoffrey, who, though foon killed after the Cambridge brought up, carried her down, with the greatest calmnets and fpirit. Capt. Lindsay, of the Trent, fupplied his place during the remainder of the action, and approved himself a brave man. I offered him the command of that fhip, or of the Temple, or Devenfbire, the former being vacant by the death of Capt. Legge, and the latter by Capt. Marshall's going into the Cambridge.
June 6. A
Fter a very fortunate paffage through the Old Straits of Babama, the feet arrived within fight of two fmall forts to the Eaftward of the Havannah, fituated upon two rivers about three miles diftant from each other. The whole fleet brought to, and Sir George Pocock, with 12 fail of the line, some frigates, and all the ftorefhips, bore away for the mouth of the harbour, to block up the Spanish men of war that were there, and to make a feint on the other fide, in order to facilitate our landing on this. Comm. Keppel, with feveral fail of the line, and feveral fmall frigates, was ordered to remain with the tranfports, to protect and conduct the debarkation of the troops, which was deferred till the next day. There was too much wind, and too great a furf from the shore to effect it at that time.
7. By break of day this morning, the army landed without oppofition between the two forts Bacarans and Coxemar. The one was filenced, and taken poffeffion of by the Mercury and another frigate; the other was taken by the Dragon, of 74 guns. They were defended by a confiderable number of peasants and negroes in arms, who very foon abandoned them, and fed into the woods. The Earl of Albermarle, with the light infantry and grenadiers of the army, paffed the ri ver Coxemar, where his lordship took his quarters that night. The rest of the army lay upon their arms along the thore, with the picquets advanced into the woods. 8. Lor
Journal of the Siege of the Havanna.
and it was therefore judged advifeable to erect a battery againft it, as near as the cover of the woods would admit of; there was accordingly a plan fixed upon, at about 250 yards distance, and preparations were accordingly made, and parties ordered out for fafcines, and collecting earth, which was a work of great labour, the foil being exceedingly thin and fcarce. The landing of the ftores was, at the fame time, carried on with great diligence by the fleet.
8th. Lord Albemarle marched the main body of the army early in the morning to a village called Guannamacoa, about fix miles from the landing place, and fent Col. Carleton through the Coxemar wood, with a small corps of troops, to the fame village, to endeavour to cut off the retreat of a corps of the enemy, faid to be affembled there, and which his lord hip determined to attack. The enemy were drawn up to receive us, and very advantageously pofted upon a rifing ground between us and the village. Their cavalry marched down in a large body to the light infantry, who were upon the right of Col. Carleton's corps. They were very foon repulfed, and the whole body difperfed before the army got up. They were about 6000 in number, chiefly militia mounted, with the regiments of Edinburgh dragoons, two companies of grenadiers, and many Spanish officers. This morning Col. Howe, with two battalions of grenadiers, was fent through the woods to the Moro, to reconnoître, and fecure the communication to that fort from the Coxemar.
13th. The battery mentioned yesterday was begun, as alfo a howitzer battery, beyond the Spanish redoubt, to remove the thipping further off up the river. They threw a great deal of random fire into the woods, and annoyed us very much.
Col, Howe, with 300 light infantry, and two battalions of grenadiers, was detached to land at Chorera, about 7 miles to the Weftward of the town, to fecure a footing, and engage fome part of the enemy's attention upon that fide.
19th. There was a mortar battery begun upon the right near the fea, for one 13 inch, two 10 inch, and fourteen royal mortars.
gth. Lord Albemarle marched the army from Guanamacor, and encamped in the woods between the Coxemar and the Moro, leaving a corps at Guanamacoa, under the command of Lieut. Gen. Elliot, to fecure the avenues on that fide, and a large tract of country, which could fupply the army with water, cattle, and vegetables.
We now difcovered the enemy difmantling their fhips in the harbour, at the entrance of which they laid á bodik.
10th. The Moro hill, called the Cavannos, where the enemy were faid to have a poft well fortified, was retonnoitered; and in the evening Colonel Carleton, with the light infantry and grenadiers from Coxemar, went and Invelted that hill and the Moró fort.
tith. Col. Carleton attacked the redoubt about one o'clock in the afternoon, and carried it with very little lofs, and little refiftance on the fide of the enemy. Here was a post establifhed, and the work called by the name of the Spanish redenbt.
iith. The Moro Fort was farther reconnoitred by his lordfhip's order. It was difficult to reconnoître it with much accuracy, it being furrounded with thick bruhy woods, which could not be feen through, and were mostly impaffable. It was obferved the parapet was thin, and all of masonryj (Gent. Mag. Sept. 1762.)
zoth. Parallels cut in the woods to the right and left of the battery, and a fafcine line begun, to fecure the guards from the enemy's fire.
23d. Another battery made upon the beach, to advance the royals in the battery on the 19th nearer the fort.
24th. A battery for two howitzers begun near the lime kiln; likewise against the shipping, to remove them farther up the harbour, which had its F effect.
25tb. A battery for a 13 inch mortar begun near the lime kiln against the fhipping.
26th. A battery begun against the fort for four guns and two mortars, upon the left of the first battery.
29th. The enemy, at day-break, G landed two detachments of 500 men each, of grenadiers and chofen men, with a detachment of armed Negroes and Mulattoes, with each corps, one upon the right under the Moro, the other upon the left of the lime kiln. The picquets, and advanced pofts, prevented the fuccefs of these detachments, by repulfing them, killing, and taking near 200, befides wounding a great number. who moftly got off by the favour of the woods. Our lofs was only tén men killed and wounded, 30th. This
30th. This day was chiefly taken up in carrying ammunition and carriages to the feveral batteries to provide for their opening next morning, which was done by the foldiers, and 500 Blacks purchafed by Lord marle, at Martinico and Antigua, for that purpofe.
JULY 1. This morning we opened two batteries of cannon, which, with our mortars, made up a fire as follows, viz.
Journal of the Siege of the Havanna.
Battery on the left,
called Williams's Battery.
morning it broke out again with great violence. Both water and people were fent as faft as poffible, but unhappily too late; the fire had infinuated itself where water could not reach it, nor Alhe-earth flife it. Thus 17 days labour of 5 or 600 men, & which must have let us into the fort i a few days, was now baffled, and to do over again. There was another embrazure added this night to Williams's battery.
4th and 5th. These two nights our endeavours ftill continued to extinguish, and, with much difficulty, there were two embrazures faved upon the right, and the epaulinent for mortars upon the left. The fire of these two embrazures was continued until the guns was difabled, and two more served en barbette, until the enemy's fire obliged the men to give it up.
It was now determined to convert the mortar battery in, the left parallel, into a battery for cannon, which was accordingly begun, with fome improvements to the other works, which the enemy's fire from the town, Fort la Punta, thips of war, and floating batteries, bad rendered neceffary..
6th. Two more embrazures were added this night to Williams's battery, and a place fixed upon near the stone redoubt for another battery of four guns.
9th. This morning we had 12 guns in battery, viz. Williams's battery of feven guns, and the left parallel of five guns, befides our mortars.
The enemy fired with about 8 or 9. 10th. At night a battery of four guns begun in the right parallel.
Total 12 6
The enemy's fire exceeded ours upon the front attacked, in the number of guns, which amounted to 16 or 17, from 6 to 12 pounders. They played one mortar of 8 inches, and that very feldom. Upon the whole, we reckoned our fire fuperior to theirs confiderably, befides the difference of D the fecurity of our works, theirs being only a parapet of thin mafonry.
About ten o'clock, the Cambridge of So guns, the Dragon of 74 guns, and the Marlborough of 66, went in and lay against the fort; the Cambridge lay within grape shot. They continued firing for above three hours, which E the fort received and returned with great steadiness: At length the hips were ordered off. The Cambridge and Dragon fuffered much, particularly the former. The attacked front of the fort did not feem to fuffer much from their fire, it was fo much above them; but they still did us a confider- F able fervice in taking up the enemy's attention for that time, which gained us a fuperiority in the number of guns.
2d. Our batteries continued their fire with great fuccefs, and beat down the front, attacked as fast as could be wished or expected, particularly the eight gun battery; but unhappily, about noon, we were obliged to flacken, that battery being in danger of catching fire, from the constant fire kept up, and the drynefs of the fafcines, having had no rain for 14 days; however, before the evening, the enemy's fire was reduced to two guns, which fired but feldom.
11th. This morning the four gun battery near the ftone redoubt, and two guns upon the faved part of the grand battery newly repaired, opened, and played with fuccefs. We now had 18 guns in play to 8 or 9, which the enemy ftill kept up; for, by their uninterrupted communication with the town, and the great affiftance of their failors, who ferve their guns, they always made the lofies of the day good at night.
This forenoon two guns in the left parallel battery failed, one by unning, the other by cracking; the carriage of a third was difabled upon Williams's battery.
In the afternoon the merlons of the grand battery again caught fire, and extended from right to left, and the whole was irreparably confumed.
3. We flattered ourfelves the fire was quite out, but about two in the
ath. The difabled guns in the left parallel, and in Williams's battery were.