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Engineer's Journal of the Siege.
gineers, and a proportion of intrenching
7th. The former works on the east fide were going on, and fascine parties ordered to work on the weft fide.
the enemy running off from the Punta, as if they had abandoned it. About two o'clock there were flags of truce hung out all round the garrison, and on board the admiral's fhip: Soon after, there arrived a flag of truce at our head quarters, which A proved to be with proposals for a capitu
8th. The former works in hand on the east fide, but fafcine making was retarded confiderably on the weft fide for want of tools. This afternoon the ships arrived on the weft fide with the intrenching tools, g but the hips being fickly, there was none landed. In the evening Lord Albermarle -went himself to reconnoitre the road and ground between the Lazaro and the Punta, and ordered fome posts to be taken up farther advanced.
Toth. At day-break this morning the enemy having discovered the covering party,and fufpecting our having been at work, began to cannonade along the road pretty warmly, but with little execution. About 10 in the morning, our batteries being ready to open on the eaft, and we to open ground on the weft fide, Lord Albermarle fent a flag of truce by an aid de camp, to acquaint the governor with the ruin that F threatened the place, and fummoned him to capitulate: The governor, after keeping the flag from that time till between 3 and 4 in the afternoon, in the open fields, at fome hundred yards diftance from the. works, fent him back, and before he had got two thirds of the way, began to fire; we at the fame time faw many people leaving the town with loads; in the evening there was a party fent to carry on the works as before.
9th. The intrenching tools were landed this day, by the affiftance of the men of war, in the afternoon. The enemy having discovered our reconnoitring towards the Punta for fome days paft, fet fome houfes near the road on fire, to prevent their being a fhelter for us. In the evening there was a party of 100 men ordered to make a redoubt to the road to Punta, with a covering party of the fame number: the place intended for the redoubt, which was partly upon the road, being much incumbered, as mentioned before, all they could do was to clear off the trees, and form an abbetes in the front and flank for present defence.
14th. About 10 this morning, Gen. Képpel took poffeffion of Fort la Punta, and about noon of the Punta gate and bastion, at both which places there were British colours hoifted, having been evacuated by the enemy. Brig. Howe took poffeffion of the Land Gate, with two battalions of grena diers, much about the fame time.
Sir George Pocock was then fent for, and the bufinefs entered upon as foon as he The works were ftopped for this night, and the flag rerurned about dusk. 12th. The truce continued.---This day the flag was fem in, and returned; and fent in again in the evening. The works were ordered to be carried on as be fore, which gave room to expect the hoftilities were to be renewed in the morning; but the capitulation was fettled before that time.
11th. At day-break this morning all our batteries opened, confifting of 45 pieces of cannon and 8 mortars. The advantage of pofition, as well as fuperior fire, became vifible very foon. Fort Punta was filenced between 9 and 10. The north baftion almoft, in about an hour afterwards; but now and then fired a shot. Between one and two we discovered a great nu
13th. This day the capitulation was figned and fealed; the long time it took to be fettled, is faid to be owing to an unreafonable earneftness in the enemy to fave their fhipping, which they at length gave
Copy of a Letter from Sir George Pocock to
Mr Clevland, dated off Cherora River, near the Havannah, the 19th of August. SIR,
Defire you will acquaint their lordships that it is with the greatest pleasure I now congratulate them on the great fuccefs of his majefty's arms, in the reduction of the Havannah, with all its dependencies.
The Moro Fort was taken by storm the 30th of laft month, after a fiege of twenty-nine days; during which time the enemy loft above a thousand men, and a brave officer in Don Lervis de Valafco, captain of one of their men of war, and governor in the More, mortally wounded in defending the colours, fword in hand, in the storm: And, on the rith instant, the governor of the Havannab defired to capitulate for the town, which was granted, the articles agreed to, and figned (a copy of which I inclofe) and we were put in poffeffion of the Punta and Land Gate the 14th, With this great and important acquifition to his majefty, have alfo fallen twelve large men of the line, as per lift, three of which were funk, with a company's thip, in the entrance of the harbour; nine are fit for fea, and two upon the Rocks; a blow that I hope will prove the more capital to the e. nemy, as they receive it fo early in the war,
Ships taken at the Havannah. and, I may venture to fay, will leave all their fettlements, in this part of the world, exposed to any attempts that may be tho't proper to be made on them. But however trivial, with the poffeffion of the Hauannab, it may appear, yet I cannot help mentioning the difcovery and poffeffing the A harbour of Mariel, about feven leagues to the leeward, of this, and which we had made ourselves mafters of, though the enemy had endeavoured to hinder it, by finking hips in the entrance; and we had lately fent near 100 tranfports, with fome men of war there, for fecurity against the fealon, in which we are already advanced,
It will be as needlefs, as almost impoffible, for me to exprefs or describe that perfect harmony that has uninterruptedly fubfifted between the fleet and army, from our first fetting out. Indeed it is doing injuftice to both, to mention them as two corps, fince each has endeavoured, with the most conftant and chearful emulation, to render it but one; uniting in the fame principles of honour and glory for their king and country's fervice. I am glad, on this occafion, to do justice to the diftinguished merit of Comm. Kepple, who executed the fervice, under his direction, on the Coxemar fide, with the greatest spirit, activity, and diligence; and I muft repeat, that the zeal his majesty's fea-officers and feamen exerted, in carrying on the services allotted to them, is highly to be commended.
Extract of a Letter from Sir George Pocock to Mr Cleveland, dated off Chorera River," the 16th of Auguft, 1762, inclosed in the foregoing of the 19th.
The 2d inft. the Ecko and Bomb returned with the fecond divifion of transports, which failed from New York the 30th of June. The Richmond, Lizard, Enterprize, Cygnet, and Porcupine floop, arrived the 8th, bringing with them all the foldiers and failors from the fhips that were wrecked, Capt, Banks informed me, that on the 21st of July, at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, be ing near the paffage between Maya Guaona and the North Caicos, he difcovered two French fhips of the line, 3 frigates, and 6 fail of brigantines and floops; that the men of war and frigates gave chace to the convoy ; and that five of the tranfports were taken, with 150 Regulars of Anftruther's regiment, and 150 Provincial troops on board of them. All the rest of the troops arrived and landed in perfect health,
I have thought it neceffary to order the Sutherland and Dever to be fitted as flags of truce, taking out their lower tier of guns in order to accommodate the late Spanish commodore, the governor of the Havannah, the vice-roy of Peru, and the governor of Cartbegena, to Old Spain, and then return to England. Tranfports are getting ready for the Spanish foldiers and failors, agreeable to G the terms of capitulation, which, I hope, we shall be able to dispatch in a few days.
I fhall now beg leave to refer their lord. hips to Capt. Hervey for all further particulars, who I fend with this letter, and who has approved himself a brave and deferving officer in this expedition, and therefore think myself obliged to recommend him to his majesty. I am, Sir, &c, G, POCOCK,
A Lift of Ships that were in the Harbour of
70 Tiger, (El
60 Europa, funk.
60 SanGenaro, furr.
24 guns, Vinganza, taken by the Defiance in Mariel Harbour, June 28, 1762.
(Gent. Mag, October 1762.)
24 guns, Thetis, taken by the Alarm in the Old Straits of Bahama, June 2, 1761.
18 guns, Marte taken by the Defiance in H Woyal fubjects, the Lord Mayor,
'E your majesty's ever dutiful and
Aldermen, and Commons of your city of London, in common council affembled, humbly beg leave to congratulate your
N.B. There are two fhips of war on the stocks, and feveral merchant ships in the Darbour.
The Addrefs of the Rt Hon. the Lord Mayor,
Aldermen, and Commons, of the City of London, to his Majefty, on the Conquest of the Havannah, prejented October 4.
Moft gracious Sovereign,
London Addrefs on the Conqueft of the Havannah.
majefty upon the late fignal fuccefs with which it has pleafed the Almighty to blefs your majesty's arms, in the reduction of the Havannab and its dependencies (moft properly ftyled the key of the Spanish West Indies, and long deemed impregnable, under a capitulation that does honour to the fpirit and humanity of the British nation.
It is with the highest pleasure we reflect upon the value and importance of this conqueft, attended with the acquifition of immenfe riches, and an irreparable blow to the trade and naval power of Spain. A conqueft, that gives additional lustre to an already glorious and fuccefsful war; and which cannot but ftrike terror into an enemy, not only unprovoked, but infenfible to the repeated inftances of your majesty's good-will, friendship, and moderation; and convince him, that there is no attempt how arduous foever, but what, planned
HE first king, therefore, appears to have been elected by the voice of people; and the choice was little more than a reform in the manner of adminiftering a Theocracy; for this reafon, they did not think of propofing conditions, or forming a mutual compact with the man who thus became the matter of all other men. They did not fee, that in making choice of a Mortal for a reprefentative of the Divinity, without fubjecting him to the public reafon, and the common laws of fociety, they erected a tyranny, and gave away their natural rights.
and directed by the wifdom of your majorty's councils, may, under the Divine Providence, be effected by the harmony, activity, and ability of fuch commanders, and the valour, zeal, and emulation of your fleets and armies, regardless of any fatigues or dangers, were-ever the glory of their king and country is concerned,
It is eafy to conceive, that the first election of a king could not be made without producing much tumult and agitation among the priests, who faw themselves dethroned, and confidered the depofing them as an act of rebellion and idolatry. The priests therefore were the first enemies of the new inftitution, and priests and kings have been ever since itruggling for the foperiority.
The ancient fymbols of the Deity, in metal and stone, for which the people still preferved an habitual reverence, continued under the direction of the priests, who had now nothing to do but to keep up and cultivate this veneration, and draw over to their fide, by a religious worship, the people, whom a political worship pow erfully drew to another object. The diforders committed by the prince foon diminished the people's affection to the throne; they therefore foon reGturned to altars and oracles, they acknowledged a fupreme authority in the priefts, who maintained their afcendancy over the kings them felves; and the fymbols of wood and stone got the better of thofe of flesh and blood: The conftitution of the ftate became double and uncertain; a facred Theocracy was joined with a civil, and mankind multiplied their tyrants by their prejudices.
May the poffeffion of this very valuable conqueft, together with other happy confequences of your majesty's measures, thus wifely and vigorously purfued, prove the means of effectually defeating the ambitious views of your majefty's enemies, and of for ever diffolving the late alarming compact of the Houfe of Bourbon, calculated to deftroy the commerce of your fubjects, and replete with danger to the existence of your majefty's ancient and natural álly, and to the independance of the reft of the powers of Europe.
And we beg leave humbly to affure your majefty, that your faithful citizens of Lon. don, animated by the warmeft fenfe of duty to your majesty, and their country, will, with unwearied chearfulness, contribute their urmoft efforts to ftrengthen your majefty's hands, until your enemies, moved by their own repeated loffes and diftreffes, fhall be difpofed to listen to fuch terms of accommodation,as your royal wisdom shall think adequate to our gloricus fucceffes; and fuch as may effectually fecure the trade and navigation of your fubjects; and prevent the calamities of a future war.
The fteady affections of my people, and their, zeal for the bonour of my crown, will, I truft, under the bleffing of God, enable me to terminate this juft war by an equitable, glorious, and lafting
The profperity of the city of London, and the extenfive trade and navigation of my faithful fubjects, are, and cuer quill be, the conftant objects of my unwearied care and attention.
The Enquiry into the Defpotifm of Eaftern
His Majesty's most gracious Arfever. Return you my cordial thanks for this very du” tiful and loyal address, and for the continued proofs you give me of your attachment to my perfon and government.
The able conduct, unwearied activity, and exemplary barmony, of my commanders by fea and land, and the intrepid valour of my fleets and ar mies, bave never been more confpicuous than on the present occafion, and baue acquired addisignal glory to the British armis,
Thofe prejudices which gave rife to defpotifm ftill fubfift throughout all Afia; and we shall find in the ceremo
Enquiry into the Origin of Defpotifm concluded.
mes and customs relative to the defpotic fovereigns of that country, all the customs and principles of the ancient Theocracy.
The fovereigns of the Eaft call to mind the Supreme Judge, whom the A people in the first ages confidered as their King, by their invisibility, or by the custom common to almost all of them, of fhewing themfelves to their fubjects at certain regular and stated periods.
The Mogul prefents himself twice a day at a window, which opens to the B Eaft. This apparition is made in the evening and the morning, and the nobility and other great perfons repair to the court of the palace, and while their idol is visible, continue proftrate upon the ground; and the people, who run in crowds to look at him, are fo accustomed to this regular appearance, that, in fpight of the de fpotifm of the fovereign, he would fall the victim of a popular infurrection, if it should be omitted.
and all other worshippers of fire, faluting the rifing fun, and judging from its appearance what will be the fortune of the day, and what future events will take place.
The tyrants of antiquity being, as we have feen, fubftitutes of the deity, took it into their heads that they were lords not only of mankind, but of nature. Every body is acquainted with the famous paffage of Xerxes into Greece, and the imperious letter which he wrote to mount Athos, commanding it to give paffage to his troops, and threatening, in cafe of difobedience,to throw it into the fea. He caused allo chains to be thrown into the Hellefpont for having thip-wrecked his fleets, and having caufed 300 lashes to be given it, as to one of his faves that had offended, he cried out, It is thus unfortunate eles ment that thy mafter punishes thee. CA horfe, in the army of Cyrus the great, which had been confecrated to the fun, being drowned in paffing a river, Cyrus caused 360 channels to be cut, that the river being spent by fuch a diffusion might flow no more.
One of the antient kings of Egypt threw his javelin against the Nile, for Dhaving done mifchief by fwelling too high, when it overflowed its banks.
It was the fame in Japan, when the fovereign Pontiffs enjoyed the whole power of the Theocracy, from which the temporal authority has been fince feparated. This Pontiff, which they name Duiri, calls himself the Son of Heaven, and pretends to be defcended in a direct line from the Gods who formerly reigned in Japan; and when he was both Mufti and King, he was obliged to appear every morning, fitting upon his throne, before the people, who confidered him with great attention, and remarked every motion and gefture, from which they prognofticated whether the day would be fortunate or unfortunate; his motions alfo, according to the feafons and circumstances of the time, were fuppofed to predict abundance, or fcarcity, peace or war; they difcovered alfo in thefe motions, figns of plagues, con- F flagrations and earthquakes; and, as if this wretched mortal had been another Jupiter, they were afraid left the moving his eye-brows should throw the univerfe into convulfions.
The kings of Siam affumed a power over the elements, evil genii, and dæ mons, and, by public ordinance, forbad them to hurt the fruits of the earth.
The people of the great empire of Monomotapa in Africa, and of the neigh bouring kingdoms, have recourfe to their princes when they want rain, or when they fuffer by peftilence or famine.
But there are ftill more remarkable vestiges of the antient theocrafies in America; for the examples given above may, perhaps, be fuppofed to have arifen merely from the pride and vanity of weak and capricious tyrants; but we fhall find by an examination of the customs of America, that they are part of the conftitution of government.One of the most remarkable particulars related in the hiftory of Mexico is, the folemn oath which the emperor takes at his inauguration, that, during his government, the rain fhall defcend at proper feafons, the rivers shall be neither dry nor overflow, the earth fball produce her fore in abundance, and no malignant influences fball defcend from above*.
The travellers who have related thefe ceremonies faw nothing in them but the ridicule; on the contrary, I fee the traces of antiquity; I fee the people of the first ages under a theocratical government, prefenting themfelves before the emblems of the divine fovereign, and paying their homage in the morning and evening. I fee Egyp- H tians, Greeks, and Romans, faluting the gods at the dawn of day, and the magi
This custom contradicts a fuppofition of our author, advanced above, that men exacted ho condition, nor formed any compact with their kings,
Account of the 13th and 14th Volumes of Swift's Works:
defpotic tyrants, because they were the molt fenfible. of the abuse, but what rendered Europeans more fenfible of the abuse than Afiatics this author has not thought fit to tells us but concludes his performance with an Effay on Re-publican and Monarchial Go
The fame things were expected, if not promifed, by folemn engagement from all the governments which had the primitive theocracy for their foundation; and the tyrants of Afia, whose excefies ftrike us with horror, were
guilty of that only which was the ne. A
vernment, in which he endeavours to thew, that a Monarchy only can fecure the Rights of Mankind, and establish the Power of a State.
J. 11. 17
Some Account of the XIIIth and XIVtb Folumes of the Works of Dr Swift, D. S. P. D. lately publifbed.
Hefe volumes were first published
They contain four fermons ; remarks
The opinion that kings can cure. certain difeafes with a touch, which is not yet quite eradicated in Europe, feems to have fprung from the fame fource.
If it be asked, how Defpotifm was driven out of Europe, and re-publican and monarchial governments fubftituted in its ftead, I answer the Europeans were first difgufted by the enormities of
Thefe memoirs contain a most striG king picture of the fpirit and calamities of thofe times; fuch a one as is not to be found in more general hiftories where private diftrefs is abforbed in the fate of nations. Perhaps the reader will not think very honourably of the government, or of Creichton's enployment under it, when he reads the following particular as related by Swift himself in Creichton's name.
The Laird of Cappagh in the reign of Charles II, had many years poffeffed an eftate,which feme fuppofed of right
kings, while they confidered them as fubftitutes, or organs of the deity; yet, upon this fuppofition, his whole hypothefis feems to depend, for if the king was made to promile what, as an organ of the divinity only, he could perm, his being confidered as an organ of the divinity, did not preclude a compact, and, if not, it will be very difficult to affign H a reafon why the compact did not include a prefervation of the rights of mankind, and a regard to their happineís, as other particulars ually neceffary, but lefs difficult,
Here again he implies a compa.