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Difputes between the English and Dutch E. India Companies 5

pany has, from time immemorial, by virtue of Grants from the Mogul, "the right of free navigation and paf"fage, and of carrying up and down "men and goods, to and from their "factories in Bengal." A right which they have always exercifed, and by virtue of which they have conveyed to and maintained in their fettlementsas many men as they thought proper. Nor has the Nabob any power of fufpending this right, he being governor furd to fuppofe the governor of a proonly of a province, as it would be abvince to have a power of depriving the Company of privileges which had been granted by his matter. Befides, the English themfelves, when they declared war against the late Nabob, aftion, bis having infringed privileges figned, as the caufe of that Declarawhich had been granted to them by the Mogul, which he had no authority to do.

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As to any right which we may Ipretend, of stopping and visiting their veffels, in confequence of a treaty with the present Nabob, by which we have force the coming up of Dutch troops, engaged to affift him in obilructing by the Dutch infiit, that one European nation cannot be justified in falling upon another, in an hoftile manner, by any alliance offenfive and defenfiveth a native prince; becaufe this may terminate in the total ruin of all foreign fettlements; and, with respect to England and Holland, is totally inconfifteat with treaties fubfifting between the two states, which exprefsly and particularly ftipulate, that neither Company fhall do violence or wrong to the other; nor aid, counsel, or juffer any text whatfoever. And it was in comfuch violence, under any thow or prepliance with thofe treaties, that the Dutch, to their great lofs, refused to affift the late Nabob against the Englib; and the English then declared, that if they granted the Nabob fuch of thofe very treaties, and would be affiftance, it would be an infringement conftrued an open declaration of war. If it is true, therefore, that the Dutch Company could not grant the Nabob affittance against the English, it is alto true, that the English could not give the Nabob affiftance against the Dutch.

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fore the Dutch, having remonftrated in vain, had a right to oppose such stopping and vifiting by force, and to make reprisals; the English, in this cafe, being aggreffors by the first unjuftifiable and hoftile act.

Neither had the English any right to oppofe the landing the Dutch troops; the measures which they took, therefore, to effect fuch oppofition, particularly Colonel Ford's lining the ways along which the Dutch troops were to pafs, was an aggreffion, and juftified the Dutch in repelling force with force; B yet the first attack was made upon the Dutch by the English, in confequence of their perfifting, as they had a right to do, in marching troops as a reinrcement to their fettlements.

But it is abfurd to fuppofe_the Dutch had any defign against the Englib, in marching these troops; be cause it is well known that the late Nabob required them to affift him against the English, which they refused to do, tho' they incurred very great - loffes by fuch refufal, the Nabob extorting from them a large fum of moey, which they have never yet been able to recover; but if they had had any defign to fubvert the English, they could never have neglected an opportunity fo favourable, when they would appear to act under the compulsion of fuperior and irresistible force.

If, by this defence, the Dutch are E juftified, it follows that they received great injury from us; for if, what t'ey were about to do was lawfil, whatever we did to prevent their doing it, was unlawful: They have, therefore, drawn up a Counter-Charge against us, confifting of all that we did, forcibly, to prevent their fhips going up the river, and their troops from coming on thore; and they require fatisfaction and recompence from us.

The whole, indeed depends upon the determination of the question,whether we have, as principais, or auxiliaries of the Mogul a right to stop and vifit the Dutch veffels that pafs up the river Ganges?

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The Dutch, who deny fuch right, argue, that the Ganges is a neutral river, running through a country where no European has any right but what is derived from the Great Mogul, the H lord of the country; and they intift, that the English never obtained from him a right to treat the hips of other pations at their own difcretion: On the contrary, the Dutch Eaft India com

have taken advantage of the depend-
The Dutch alfo complain, that w
ance of the present Nabob upon us, to
engrofs the whole falt-petre trade;
which they infift we have no right to
do, becaufe they, at great expence.
procured from the Great Mogul arigi

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6 Difputes between the English and Dutch E. India Companies.

to purchase this commodity, which therefore cannot be taken from them by a Nabob; and because the treaties between England and Holland ftipulate, that each fhall promote the other's mutual advantage.

To this we anfwer, That the Dutch Company have admitted the Nabob's right of granting this trade exclufively, by a petition which they prefented to the late Nabob, for a grant of the falt-peare trade, exclufively, to themselves; and that the granting fuch privilege is no new thing, as the Jate Nabob actually granted it in 1756 to a native, one Choja Wazid.

The lofs of a small fhip called the Anne is alfo laid to our account, because our people prevented pilots from going off to her when in diftrefs, and The being obliged, by stress of weather, to run up the Ganges without affittance, ftruck on the fecond bar, and was loft with many of her hands.

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The defence and countercharge of the Dutch concludes with this remarkable paragraph, which we have inserted without abridgment or alteration.

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The Dutch reply, that their Petition was intended only to reprefent to the Nabob the prejudice which his Grant to Choja Wazid would be to them, and to procure only the liberty, according to the standing cuftom of making the neceffary purchases immediately of the falt-petre boilers, without the intervention of others: Nor was there one fingle word in that Petition from which it could be inferred, that the Dutch had a defign to ingrofs the trade, and exclude the Englißb.And as to the Grant to Choja Wazed, it was given in violation of the Mogul's Grants; and therefore, as it was without authority,it cannot be made a precedent.

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To our defence, High and Mighty Lords, we are also indispensably obliged to add our humble fuit for the particular protection of your High Mightineffes with the greater importu nity and ardour; as on the redress of our above-mentioned grievances de pends the fate of the fettlements and commerce of the Dutch company at many places in the Indies: For, if the English Eaft India company, fupported by the king's fhips and troops, continue to have in their hands the power, which for fome time paft they have had there: while, on the one hand, this power in Bengal, and who can tex, where elfe befides, is employed, in de fiance, and in the avowed violation of the most folemn treaties and engage ments, violently hindering the Dutch company from protecting their fettlements, and fecuring their commerce there: And on the other hand, the fervants of the faid company, under favour of that fuperiority, are enabled, to the entire exclufion of the Dutch company, wholly to engrofs this a other capital branches of trade; and with a view to farther branches of commerce, to traverse and obstruct the trade of the Dutch company, by every unwarrantable and oppreffive means; then will, then must, to our bitter regret, the fettlements of the Dutch company and their commerce very foon have a final period, not only in Bengal, but in other places befides.

They complain too, that we have obftructed them in the callico trade, by feizing all that is in the weaver's hands, and cutting the cloth out of E the loom as foon as it is finished, threatening the weavers, that if they made cloth for any other, especially for the Dutch, they fhould be feverely punished; which threats, in fome instances, have been executed; and tho', upon complaints, they have been promised F redrefs, the promise has never been fulfilled.

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There is an Appendix, containing vouchthe Dutch, as a defence against our charge, ers to prove the principal Facts alleged by and in fupport of their own.

Several other fubjects of complaint are added upon this occafion, of which no notice was before taken; particularly the feizing a grab, called the Charlotte, by Admiral Pocock, in 1757 which, with its lading, was condemned, upon pretence that the commander was a fubject of France, tho' the ship was hired by fome of the Company's fervants at Surat, who loaded her with cotton on their own private account, and was the property of one Benjaans, a merchant; the commander also, tho' a native of France, had been admitted as a freeman by the director and council of the Dutch Company at Surat, and had taken the oaths of fidelity to the States and Company.

Mr URBAN,

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Jan. 28, 1762. HE feafon of the year is now approaching, when the lower forts of people throw at cocks, a custom which cannot be reflected upon by any humane perfon without horror. For as the treating all the animals that are in our power with kindnefs and good. neis, is a fign of an excellent and amiable difpofition; fo cruelty and bar

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The Plot of the Lyar, a Comedy of Three As,

barity to them, fhows a wicked and diabolical temper. Do not thefe creatures, when they are bruifed and wounded, fhew an equal fenfe of pain with ourselves? Are not their fhrieks and mournful cries, as fo many calls upon their tormentors for pity: and do not their dying pangs, and the painful convulfions of their tortured bodies, caufe uneafmefs in every humane fpectator? And to give eafe and happiness to them, and to relieve their miseries, would give pleasure to ourselves, provided we are fuch men as we ought to be. But if we take any delight in tormenting, or in feeing animals tormented, whom do we refemble, but that evil being, who takes pleasure in the mifery of men? And how eafily may that boy go on to delight in delight in wounding and murdering his fellow creatures, who has been trained up in his infancy and youth, to exercife cruelty upon the poor innocent animals?

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naming a lady, as the object of bis adoration, whom he had not even ever feen, alarms the jealousy of his friend Sir James Elliot, her real lover. On meeting Mifs Grantham in the street, however, (the very lady above mentioned) he at random addresses her with an affurance of having been her continual admirer and purfuer for a twelvemonth, tho' in reality he had been but one day in town.-On fending kis fervant to dog her, and find out her name, the intelligence bro't him back is, that the is called Mifs Godfrey; on which he writes an extravagant letter to her by that name, which being delivered to the real Mifs Godfrey, a young lady related to the former, and to whofe house Miss Grantham had been dogged, produces a rivalship between the two ladies, who each of them claim him as their fole admirer-In order to determine this difputed point, they agree to give him an audience from a window, in which the lover difplays fo much of his romantic difpofition, as fully convinces both ladies of his character.-On this, for the detection and confusion of his falfhood, they appoint him to meet them both at Mifs Grantham's house, which he promises to do. In the mean time, Wilding's father having an intention of marrying his fon to Mifs Grantham, throws him into the neceffity of telling a freth lie to avoid this match, which lie is the confeffion of a previous marriage, into which he had been forced with a girl, whom he had addreffed at Abingdon in Berkshire.-This impofes on old Wilding for a time, who readily acquiefces to the fuppofed mar!riage, and resents to the utmost a suf

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picion thrown on his fon's varacity F by Sir James Elliot; but being confirmed in the falfhood of the whole tale, by the teftimony of the young ladies, his refentment turns itself on his fon, who at length confeffes the whole à downright lie, but declares the intent of it to have been the escaping the propofed match with Mifs Grantham, in confequence of a violent paf fion he had conceived for Mifs Godfrey.---This, the father is not much difpleafed at, and immediately appoints him to meet him at Mifs Godfrey's, and at the fame time enters into a scheme with Mifs Grantham, to confound Hyoung Wilding, by introducing Mifs Grantham, as the invented Abingdon girl. This being put in execution, he meets the real Mifs Godfrey, whom he finds he has never seen before, is forced

into

Thefe thoughts were fuggefted to me, by the author of two fermons, preached on Shrove Sunday, entitled, Clemency to Brutes, (See Vol. xxx. p. 201.) which are well worthy the perufal of every one. And I hope that our king and houfes of parliament, will not think it below them, to put an intire ftop to this cruel and barbarous custom.

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Yours, &c.

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An Account of the LYAR, a Comedy of Three Als; written by Mr Foote, and performed at Covent-Garden Theatre.

DRAMATIS PERSONÆ.

MEN.

Old Wilding,
Mr Sparks.
Young Wilding, his Mr Foote.
Papillon, his confident, Mr Shuter.
Sir James Elliot, Mr Mattocks.

WOMEN.

Mifs Grantham. Mrs Bellamy
Mifs Godfrey,
'Mrs Bufden. "
Mifs Grantham's maid, Mrs Abegg.
TH
HE plot is as follows.-Wilding, a
young gentleman of fortune, on
his return from the university, deter-
mines to fet up for a man of fpirit and
gallantry; to carry on which design,
he refolves to indulge to its utmost
height his favourite foible, of telling
the moft extravagant untruths. In
confequence of which, he boafts of
having given an entermainent on the
water, which had been in reality gi-
ven by an unknown ftranger, and by

8 Attempt to Fire the Engih Navy in Bafque Road.-Hemp.

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leaft on our guard: Add to this, that they attacked us from a quarter were we should leaft have expected it; viz. from the N. W, end of the ifle of Oleron, for we lie within four or five miles of the ifle of Aix, and from thence I fhould have thought they would have formed the attempt. They had three veffels chained head and stern to each other, at the distance of one third of a cable the one from the other. This would occafion, you know, a large compafs in their fweep; and indeed if they had approached our fquadron as near as poffibly they might have done (confidering the darknets of the night) the confequence might have been fatal to some of us. As it happened, the tide drove them to the S. w. of the fleet. The alarm, which was occafioned by the first explohon (and that was very audible) was very foon over, for we foon perceived that there was no danger. The next morning we towed the harmless remains of thefe veffels, having extinguished the flames, into the fleet, and cut them up for our ufe. The longing to the French men of war,which Trident's barge picked up a boat behad attended the enterprize : This boat (when double banked) could row with ten oars; the was quite clean for the purpose of rowing, but had only four oars when the was taken. L'Ori ent is graved on her ftern; she had one match in, unlighted, and the remains of one that had been lately extinguished by lying in the run of the boat. We fuppofe that the men, who defigned to efcape in this boat, were blown up; and we have fince been informed, that three of their men were killed on the fpot, and three others much fcorched. I am, Yours, &c.

SIR,

South Carolina, Nev. 4.

of producing better Hemp than this province, the much famed Ancona not excepted. I bought, a few days ago, about fixplanter, who, tho' unfkilled in the culture, teen hundred pounds weight of hemp from a had raifed a ton weight, from two acres and an half of land in one crop, by the labour of one man only; and he declared, any number of men might raife it in the like proportion. I myself have known as much raifed from two acres only. Any fingle fibre of the hemp now mentioned, will lift a weight from thirty, forty, to fifty pounds, I mean the fibres of a proper confiftence, because they may be fplit fo as to equal the fineft filk.

The attention, therefore, of the British lea giflature, added to the attention already given by this province, would certainly be a homefiroke to a certain northern power, no friend to Britain of her allies. REGULUS.

into the figning a contract with her, after which he his claimed by his Abingdon wife, which throws him into a confufion, in which he quits the stage, and with fome obfervations on the pernicioufnefs of a liar, the piece concludes.

The fubftance of this comedy, the author declare, to be founded on fome Spanib piece. The whole plan is the fame with that of the Menteur of P. Corneille, which has been also once be fore borrowed and cloathed in an En

glib habit by Sir Sichard Steele, in whofe comedy of the Lying Lover, or the La-" dy's Friendship, may be seen almost all the principal lies of this piece.

Bafque Road, Dec. 17. UR fquadron here are in excel0% lent order, health, and fpirits, and wanting for nothing but action. The enemy made the following attempt to burn us, but without effect.

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Three fire boats of 50 tons each, were fet on float, under the command of the captain of the port's fon, affifted by 4 men of war's boats, but thro' precipitation, mistake, or accident, two of them blew up, and every foul perished. The explosion was terrible; they continued burning with great fury from one till day light. As the wind blew when they took fire, they were in the ftream of the Princefs Amelia, Captain Montagu, an 80 gun fhip, but providentially the vind fhifted from W. to E

N. W. and arove them clear off the
whole fquadron. They were chained
together, and if they had been mana-
ged with that coolness and intrepidity,
which fuch an enterprize requires,
they might have done fatal execution.
The Bref fquadron, which has
3 bat
talions on board, are ready to fail,and
four large transports are gone from
Bourdeaux full of troops, but this small
force will raise no apprehenfion of
danger at Plymouth.

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Bafque Road, Dec. 27. Ya OU will doubtlefs have heard of a late attempt the French made, to fet fome of our fquadron on fire: Their plan was very well laid,but most miferably executed: Whether the failure was owing to their fear, or whether the effect of an accident, I know not; but the veffels took fire when they were above two miles a head of our H feet. The night was very dark; the tides at their height, being two days after the change of the moon; the wind was very favourable; and the bour was at half paft one in the morning; when it is to be fupposed) if ever, we are

Fingal, an Epic Poem, tranflated from the Erfe.

Some Account of Fingal, an Epic Poem in fix Books, and feveral other Poems, compofed by Offian the fon of Fingal, tranflated from the Gallic or Erle Language, by James M'Pherson.

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the friendship of fome gentlemen of the country, compleated the Epic Poem. Ofan is fuppofed to have lived in the beginning of the fourth century, about the time when Christianity was first introduced into Britain, a religion of which he is fuppofed to have been totally ignorant when he wrote his poem, though in his extreme old age, he is faid to have difputed on that fub ject with one of the miffionaries who fucceeded to the deferted cells of the Druids, and who weer therefore called culdees, or fequeftered persons.

It feenis at firft incredible that poems fhould be handed down through fo many barbarous ages by tradition, without fuch mutilation and corruption as would render them not only inelegant, but unintelligible. It mult, however, be confidered, that the def cendants of the heroes, celebrated by Offian and other antient bards, or thofe who pretended to be his defcendants, have always heard with pleafure their eulogiums as a kind of hereditary praife inherited by themselves; inferior bards, therefore, have been kept in the retinue of the great till very lately, whofe whole bufinefs was to reDpeat these poems, and commemorate the connection of their patrons with the renowned chiefs of antiquity: from the frequent repetition of these poems by the bards, especially on publick occafions, they were learnt by many perfons in every clan, and were retained with great facility as they were adapted to mufic, and each verfe fo connected with thofe that preceded and followed it, that if one line of a stanza was remembered, it was almoft impoffible not to recollect the rest. The crdences alfo followed in so natural a gradation, and the words fo adapted to the common turn of the voice after it is raised to a certain key, that it was almost impoffible from a fimiliarity of found to fubftitute one word for another, an excellence peculiar to the Celtic tongue,

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It may alfo, perhaps, feem strange, that poems which have been admired fo many ages in one part of the kingdom, fhould have been hitherto totally unknown in the other; but those who have understood both languages, have been comparitively few; of thofe few a small proportion only were fufficiently acquainted with literary la bour to attempt a tranflation, and even these were difcouraged by the great difparity which the peculiar advantages of the Celtic language mult

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endure

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T might reafonably be expected, that to put the authenticity of these poems out of queftion, they fhould have been printed in the original language with the tranflation, at least, that fome part of them fhould have been fo printed, as a fpecimen and pledge of the rest: But we are told in an advertisement prefixed by the tranflator to his work, that having publifhed propofals for printing the originals by fubfcription, no fubfcriber appeared; and, it was therefore, very improbable that a number would be fold if published without a fubfcription fufficient to defray the expence of fetting the prefs: the originals, therefore, cannot be printed till fome other expedient fhall be found: this we are told is in profpect, and that if it does not take place, copies of the MS shall be deposited in fome of the public libraries. The Scots, in general, affirm thefe poems to be genuine remains of antiquity, & there are many gentlemen of that kingdom now in England, some known to the author of this account, who can repeat great part of the poems, and fome parts which Mr M'Pherfon has not included in this collection. The following hiftory of these poems, and their publication, is extracted from the translator's preface and differtation.

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About two years ago, he tranflated a few fhort imperfect pieces of the poems now collected, which were handed about in MS and by being often transcribed, were become fo corrupt, that he thought himself under the neceffity of printing the genuine copies, and fome other pieces were added to fwell the publication into a pamphlet, which was entitled, Frag-. ments of antient Poetry. These fragments were so well received, that feveral perfons, of whofe judgment and G tafte he had a high opinion, prevailed upon him to make a journey into the Highlands and Western Iles, to recover what remained of the works of the old bards, particularly thofe of Offhan the fon of Fingal, a king of Scotland, celebrated for his prowefs, which according to tradition, were fuperior to all others both for antiquity and genius.

This journey he undertook, and by

Gent Max Fon raba)

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