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A Manual of Elementary Geology; Or, The Ancient Changes of the Earth and Its ...
Sir Charles Lyell
Volledige weergave - 1851
action alternate ancient animals appear become beds belong bones bottom calcareous called causes chalk changes CHAPTER character clay cliffs coast common composed consist containing continued corals covered denudation deposits depth derived described direction distinct drift earth England entire Eocene Europe example existing extinct feet formations formed fossils fragments freshwater genera geologists Geology granite gravel groups height hills horizontal inhabiting Italy lakes land layers less lime limestone living lower manner marine marl mass materials matter miles mineral mountains nature nearly observed occur ocean older once organic origin pebbles period plants Pleistocene points portion position present Principles recent reference region remains rise rivers rocks round sand sandstone seen shells side similar solid sometimes species stone strata stratified successive supposed surface term tertiary thickness upper usually valley various volcanic whole
Pagina 65 - Poets that lasting marble seek Must carve in Latin or in Greek; We write in sand, our language grows, And, like the tide, our work o'erflows.
Pagina 32 - We often said to ourselves, What clearer evidence could we have had of the different formation of these rocks, and of the long interval . which separated their formation, had we actually seen them emerging from the bosom of the deep ? We felt ourselves necessarily carried back to the time when the schistus on which we stood was yet at the bottom of out.
Pagina 220 - Here, accordingly, we find that it produces a corresponding influence on the scenery of the country ; for it runs out like a step beyond the foot of the chalk-hills, and constitutes a lower terrace, varying in breadth from a quarter of a mile to three miles, and following the sinuosities of the chalk escarpment.* Fig.
Pagina 107 - Secondly; a gradual submergence then took place, bringing down each part of the land successively to the level of the waters, and then to a moderate depth. below them. Large islands and bergs of floating ice came from the north, which, as they grounded on the coast and on shoals, pushed along all loose materials of sand and pebbles, broke off...
Pagina xvi - Principles of Geology; or, the Modern Changes of the Earth and its Inhabitants considered as illustrative of Geology. Ninth Edition. Woodcuts. 8vo. 18s. - Manual of Elementary Geology ; or, the Ancient Changes of the Earth and its Inhabitants illustrated by its Geological Monuments.
Pagina 206 - The regular and uniform preservation of this thin bed of black earth over a distance of many miles, shows that the change from dry land to the state of a freshwater lake or estuary, was not accompanied by any violent denudation, or rush of water, since the loose black earth, together with the trees which lay prostrate on its surface, must inevitably have been swept away had any such violent catastrophe then taken place.
Pagina 25 - ... the direction of the strata. Thus, in the above instance of strata dipping to the north, their strike must necessarily be east and west. We have borrowed the word from the German geologists, streichen signifying to extend, to have a certain direction. Dip and strike may be aptly illustrated by a row of houses running east and west, the long ridge of the roof representing the strike of the stratum of slates, which dip on one side to the north, and on the other to the south.
Pagina 32 - An epoch still more remote presented itself, when even the most ancient of these rocks, instead of standing upright in vertical beds, lay in horizontal planes at the bottom of the sea, and was not yet disturbed by that immeasurable force which has burst asunder the solid pavement of the globe. Revolutions still more remote appeared in the distance of this extraordinary perspective. The mind seemed to grow giddy by looking so far into the abyss of...