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placed on pottery stands, wooden racks or altars. On the top of the offerings was set one or more bowls containing burning incense. In the enclosure, on either side of the main temple, altars with offerings were arranged, according to most representations, in a double line (see fig. 5)(1), according to that in the tomb-chapel of Panehsi, in a single line (see fig. 6) (2). Beside each altar was placed a large bouquet of flowers (see fig. 5)(3); or else a pottery or stone pedestal supporting either a burning lamp (perhaps rather a cup of burning incense) or bowl

( (see fig. 6) ("), or else a libation vessel (5). Such a pedestal with accompanying lamp or cup was often placed beside the altars in the inner courts and chambers of both temples (see fig. 1, 2, 3, 6) m). According to the scenes in the tomb-chapels of Merire and Ahmose, there were two of these stands beside the high altar in the smaller temple, one at either end (see figs. 1, 2) (7). So too in the case of the principal altar in either of the two inmost courts of the larger temple (8).

As has been stated above, music played a prominent part in the worship of the Aton, as it did, of course also, in the worship of the old Egyptiau divinities.

The various ritual acts were clearly as of yore performed to the accompaniment of the rattling of sistra, the royal daughters, according to the El-Amarna reliefs standing behind their parents and shaking these ceremonial rattles, while they 'Okhnaton and his


burned incense (see fig. 6), presented bouquets of flowers or food- and drink-offerings, raised their hands in adoration before the altar, or performed the ceremony of consecra


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() Also ibid., 1, pls. XA , XI., XXVII f., XXXIII: VI, pl. XX: see also III, pl. XXX.

(2) Also ibid., II, pls. XVIII f.
(3) Also ibid. , 1, pls. XXVU f.
(4) Also ibid., I, pls. XI f.; II, pls. XVIII.
(5) E. g., ibid. , II, pl: V.
(6) Also ibid., I, pls. XIf , XXVIII; II, pls. XVIII I.
(1) Also ibid., I, pl. XI.
(8) Ibid., 1, pl. XXVIII.


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tion with outstretched hrp-baton (1). Very occasionally the queen herself is depicted rattling a sistrum, while the king officiates alone as offerer(2).

Possibly a large number of sistrum-shaking musicianpriestesses functioned in the temple of the Aton, as in the ordinary Egyptian temples of the preceding and subsequents periods, the royal daughters schematically representing them (3) in the, what are after all in most respects, highly conventional reliefs.

A company of blind vocalists accompanied by a blind harpist, and sometimes by a blind lute-player as well,

all of them men - was attached to the inner or smaller temple, their performances taking place in the enclosure or outer court (see figs. 1, 2) (4). An inscription in the tomb-chapel of Merirē' speaks of the singers and musicians ... in the court of the House of the Benben . . . in Ikhtalon (5). Judging from the representations we possess of them, these musicians performed off and on throughout the whole day in honour of the Aton, while at the same time their music and singing, like the rattling of the sistra, provided an accompaniment also to episodes in the temple liturgy“).

The El-Amarna reliefs likewise inform us that four male chanters played a special role in the liturgical worship of the Aton. They are twice shewn singing and rythmically clapping their hands together, while the king and queen burn incense in the pans set on top of the offerings. This performance is depicted in the one case as taking place in the great court of the larger temple (see above p. 519, fig. 6), and in the other case in the outer court of the smaller temple, where they stand close to the blind vocalists and harpist, who simultaneously make

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(1) Ibid., I, pls. XXVI f.; II, pls. V, VII., XVIII; IV, pl. XV. V, pls. III, XXVIII.

(2) Ibid., VI, pl. XIV.
(3) Cf. Blackman, Journal of Egyptian Archaeoty, VII, p. 9.
(4) Also Davies, op. cit., 1, pls. XI, XXII.
(5) Ibid., II, p. 26.
(6) Ibid., I, pl. XXII.


music (1). No doubt these four men chanted the formula ordained to be recited while such and such a ritual act was being performed by the royal officiants. The chanters also ran in front of the royal procession to the temple 2), thus, perhaps, performing the same function as the lector of the old religion, who walked in front of the king when he proceeded in state to a temple, and by his recitations dispelled inimical powers

those hostile to the

king (3)

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According to the relief in the tomb-chapel of Panehsi, just referred to above and discussed at length on p. 518f.

. (see also fig. 6), along with those of the royal retinue who are depicted as remaining outside the entrance to the outer court of the larger temple, while the king and queen

officiate at the high altar, is a party of female musicians, who, as they sing, clap their hands together, wave palm-branches, beat single-membrane drums, or lift their hands in worship. Like the great noble ladies of the temple of Ptaḥ (at Memphis) and the Hathors of the temple of Atum (at Heliopolis), or the Mrt at Abydos and elsewhere (), these female musicians also greeted the king on his arrival at the temple (5). It is apparently also these same female musicians who assisted in the rejoicings at the decoration of a courtier (6). They are never, be it noted, represented as performing inside the sacred precincts. Accordingly they must be regarded as standing in quite a different category to the musician-priestessess, — if there were any such attached to the temple of the Aton beside the royal daughters who rattled their sistra during the celebration of the liturgy(),

The El-Amarna tomb-chapel reliefs not only throw light on the conduct of the Aton-temple liturgy by the

(1) Loc. cit.
19 Ibid., I, pls. XA, XIV.
(3) Schäfer, Urkunden, III, 38.
( BLACKMAN, ibid., p. 88., 1l.

16 (6) Davies, op. cit., 1, pls. XA, XIII. 19. Ibid., I, pl. VI: II, pls. XI, XXXII. (7) See BLACKMAN, ibid., p. 8, il f., 20 f.







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Parmi les manuscrits coptes du Musée d'Antiquités à Leide se trouve un manuscrit en forme de livre. La reliure est formée par plusieurs feuilles de papyrus, collées l'une sur l'autre, et recouvertes de cuir, orné de petites bandes de parchemin. Ce manuscrit, publié dans l'ouvrage intitulé : Manuscrits coptes du Musée d'Antiquités des Pays-Bas à Leide (Leide, 1897), contient deux textes, qui me paraissent avoir un certain intérêt


l'histoire du Christianisme en Égypte. Autant que je sache, ils n'ont pas

été traduits; aussi vais-je en présenter une traduction. Sans doute un commentaire théologique aurait de la valeur; mais cela est hors de ma compétence, et, de plus, un tel travail demanderait plus de place. L'auteur de ces deux textes s'appelle : Grégoire, le serviteur du Dieu vivant (p. 1, 1. 3; p. 7, 1. 27), ou : Grégoire, le serviteur de Jésus (p. 4. 1. 2l), ou : saint Grégoire (p. 14, 1. 13). Il n'est pas possible de savoir quel est ce personnage, mais on a l'impression que les textes ont été composés par un moine copte, qui les a mis en circulation sous le nom et le patronage de Grégoire, afin de donner une certaine

, autorité à son cuvre. En voici la traduction.

Ceci est une prière et un exorcisme écrit par moi, Grégoire, le serviteur du Dieu vivant, pour qu'elle serve de phylactère à tous ceux qui la prendront et la réciteront, afin d'anéantir toutes éner

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