The First America: The Spanish Monarchy, Creole Patriots and the Liberal State 1492-1866

Voorkant
Cambridge University Press, 24 sep. 1993 - 761 pagina's
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The Spanish conquest of America generated a profusion of chronicles, tracts and poetry, among which are figured several classics of the Renaissance. It also provoked a fierce debate between Bartolome de las Casas, who defended the Indians, and the humanist historians who glorified the conquerors. Thereafter, imperial jurists and churchmen acclaimed the Spanish monarchy as chosen by Divine Providence to establish a Catholic empire in the New World. Within the bounds of this universal monarchy, American Spaniards sought to define their social identity by installing Aztec and Inca civilisation as the historical foundations of their countries and by accepting Our Lady of Guadalupe and St Rosa of Lima as their patrons. When the voice of the Enlightenment re-stated the imperial critique of the New World's inhabitants, Creole patriots vigorously responded; and if in South America Simon Bolivar cited classical republicanism to justify independence, in Mexico Creole patriotism was transmuted into an insurgent nationalism that did not succumb to liberal ideas until the incursion of the reform movement led by Benito Juarez. This book is about the quest of Spaniards born in the New World to define their American identity. It demonstrates that across the three centuries of colonial rule, Creole patriots succeeded in creating an intellectual and political tradition that by reason of its engagement with native history and American reality was idiosyncratic, regionally diverse, and distinct from any European model.
 

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Inhoudsopgave

List of illustrations
xiii
Preface
xvii
Prologue
1
CONQUEST AND EMPIRE
7
A new world
9
Conquerors and chronicles
25
The unarmed prophet
58
The great debate
79
Mexican phoenix
343
Western paradise
362
Peruvian eclipse
391
History and philosophy
422
Jesuit patriots
447
RECONQUEST AND REVOLUTION
465
The new state
467
Erastian church
492

Franciscan millenium
102
The proconsul
128
Andean pilgrim
147
Jesuit triumphs
166
History and myth
184
The Catholic monarchy
213
Tridentine prelate
228
STRANGERS IN THEIR OWN LAND
253
Inca humanist
255
The Two Cities
273
Creole patriots
293
Annals of Ophir
314
Scientific traveller
514
The great rebellion
535
Liberals and patriots
561
Insurgent creole
583
Republican hero
603
Civilisation and barbarism
621
Mexican Leviathan
648
Notes
675
Bibliography
723
Index
744
Copyright

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