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Marck, for 8000 Marks of Silver, and being never after redeemed, it fell, with the Duchy of Cleve, to the Houfe of Brandenburg, in whole Poffeffion it yet remains t. In the thirty Years War, on Account of Religion, in Germany, it was taken four Times, viz. in 1621 by the Spaniards, in 1622 by Duke Chriftian of Brunswick, in 1623 by the Imperialists, and in 1633 by the Heffians, who reftored it to Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, after the Treaty of Weftphalia. In 1656 it was almoft wholly burnt by Lightning; and in 1679 it was put into the Hands of the French, as a Security, for a fhort Time: Since when the new Fortifications feem to have been added.
IN our Way to Paderborn, and within a German Mile of that City, we met with a mix'd Multitude, which put me in Mind of Butler's Description of a Rabble going to a Bear-baiting, in Hudibras:
The numerous Rabble was drawn out
For fo they feem'd to me to be, a confus'd promifcuous Rabble of Men, Women and Children: But instead of being headed by Hudibras's Crowdero, they were led by feveral Priests, and instead of Staves and Clubs, every one carried a lighted
*A Mark of Silver, in Germany, is half a Pound Weight. + Here our Author has been misinform'd; for in 1445, Duke John of Cleve, Count of the Marck, came to an Agreement with the Houfe of Lippe, to remit them the Loan, and reftore one half of the City, upon their quitting all Pretenfions for ever to the other half.
Wax-Taper, of different Sizes; tho' the Sun fhone, at the fame Time, fo bright, that it almost extin guifh'd their Flames. The Priefts likewife were equipp❜d:
UPON Enquiry, I found, by my Companion, it was what our Saxon Ancestors call'da Bead-faring, or going out to pray to fome noted Saint, or fhew their Reverence to fome Holy Relick. "The
Germans (continued my Friend) call it a Wald"fahrung, or going into the Woods, becaufe the Images or facred Relicks they vifit, are fre"quently placed in Woods or Groves, in little Chapels, which are feldom or never open'd, but for this Purpose. The Inhabitants of whole Villages, and evenTowns and Diftricts, affemble, "and go out together, on thefe Occafions, in their Holiday-Cloaths, each carrying a lighted Taper, "of different Sizes, in proportion to their Cir"cumftances *, with their Priests marching at "the Head of them. Thefe we fee before us, "whom I have formerly met hereabouts, at this "Time of the Year, are the Inhabitants of a
litle Town near Paderborn, call'd Lippspring †,
With Croffes, Relicks, Crucifixes,
*This, among innumerable others, is one of the Tricks of the Popish Priests to gull the credulous Vulgar, and enrich themfelves with the Spoils of the Poor, not only by their Offerings, but by obliging them to purchase confecrated Tapers of them, at an extravagant Price; and I myself have heard the Priefts, in several Parts of Germany, denouncing their Curfes, from the Pulpit, on those who, out of Avarice, should not exert themselves, in buying the largest Tapers they could afford.
This Town, now of little Note, is however famous, not only for being the Place where Charlemaign oblig'd the Saxons to embrace the Chriftian Religion, but where he held three confiderable Councils.
"(or the Source of the Lippe, which has its Rife "there); and, by their Number, are without "Doubt accompanied by many of the Inhabitants "of Paderborn. They are going to vifit the
Chapel of a famous Saint, call'd Liborius, "who was wont to refort daily to an adjacent "Wood, to perform his Devotion, where fome "of his Relicks are yet preferv'd. As these mix'd "Multitudes of both Sexes, and all Ages, are gene
rally two or three Days on thefe Proceffions, and frequently ly promifcuously in the Woods, or (6 at beft in Barns or Cottages, it is very common
for them, amidst the Fervency of their Devo"tions, to contract fuch Alliances, that thofe who "go out as Maidens one Year, go out, the next, "as Mothers, with Children at their Breasts; of which it is fhrewdly fufpected, their fpiritual Fathers are often become temporal or natural
AT our Entrance into this City of Paderborn, we met a Proceffion of the Hoft, carrying probably to fome fick Perfon; upon which I was preparing to get out of the Chaife, and pay the feeming Devotion to it, which I had been formerly often obliged to do in other Parts of Germany: And had once, at Cologn, met with a very rough Salute, from the But-end of a Musket, for not being ready enough in complying: But I was stopp'd by my Companion, who told me, that in thefe Parts of Germany, where the Proteftants are fo intermix'd with the Catholics, the latter abated very much of their Superftition, in the Eye of the World, and it would be fufficient to ftand up uncovered. I was not a little glad of this Admonition; not that I think there is fo much in kneeling on fuch an Occafion; an ejaculative Prayer, to the ALMIGHTY, can never be amifs, and an humble Entreaty to preferve us, by his Grace,
Grace, from fuch blind Superftition, at no Time more proper; but it happen'd to be in a filthy dirty Place, where kneeling would not have been very agreable.
THE City of Paderborn is the Capital of a Bifhopric of that Name, under the Archbishop of Mentz, fituate near the River Lippe; but has its Name from the Pader (a little River which has it Rife juft under the high Altar of its Cathedral) and Born, a Spring or Fountain. In the Time of Charlemaign, it was a large Village, and was commonly honour'd with the Refidence of that Emperor, when he vifited this Part of ancient Saxony. In the Year 777, that Prince held a general Convention of the Franks and Saxons at this Place, whither three Kings of the Saracens reforted from Spain, and a great Number of Saxons and Weftphalians, were baptized. About the fame Time, he built a Church there, and call'd it St. Salvator; but it was afterwards destroyed by the Saxons. In 780, Charlemaign propos'd to erect a Bishop's See here; but the Place not being then fortified, nor the Saxons totally fubdued, it was placed at the Fortress of Heriftell, five German Miles from Paderborn, where it remain'd 'till 795, when Wittekind, the Great, Duke of the Saxons, having been baptiz'd, and the Church being rebuilt, it was tranfferr'd thither. Pope Leo III, coming himself to this Place in 799, confirm'd this Bishopric, and confecrated the Altar in Honour to St. Stephen, whose Relicks he had brought with him from Rome, and depofited here. Emperor Otto II, is faid to have offer'd at this Altar a Crofs of Gold, of the Value of 60,000 Guilders *: But in 999 the Cathedral, together with the Library, Privileges,
(*) A Guilder in this Part of Germany, is a French half Crown, which are as current as in France, and indeed the only good Mony they have.
and indeed, the best Part of the City, was deftroyed by Fire. However, the Year following, Emperor Otto III, renew'd the Privileges of this City, which has given Occafion to fome Writers to call it yet a free Imperial City; tho' without Grounds; at leaft, at this Time, it is not included. in the Matricula Imperii, but is fubject to the Bifhop of this Name. It was likewife formerly in the Hanfeatick League. In 1002, Emperor Henry II, caufed his Emprefs Cunegunda to be crown'd in this City. Meinwercus, the tenth Bishop of Paderborn, who liv'd in the Begining of the eleventh Century, firft furrounded this City with Walls. Befides what I have already mentioned, this City has had the Misfortune, four feveral Times, to be almost wholly destroy'd by Fire, viz. in 1058, in 1133, in 1165, and in 1340. In 1530, the Inhabitants attempted to introduce the Lutheran Religion, and procur'd the Affiftance of three Lutheran Divines, but in vain; and feveral fuffer'd on that Account. In 1604, Theodoric, the 44th Bifhop of Paderborn, with the Affiftance of John, Earl of Eaft-Frifeland, oblig'd the Inhabitants to deliver the City into his Hands, by Agreement: But having inferted fome Articles, which had not been ftipulated, when it came to be read, at the Town-house, the Burgher-mafter, Liberius Wichard tore it; whereupon a Tumult immediately enfued. The Inhabitants depended on the Af fiftance of Landgrave Morice of Heffe Caffel, who, indeed, came with a fufficient Body of Troops, but too late, Earl John having been before-hand with him, and taken Poffeffion; upon which the Ring-leaders of the oppofite Party being taken up, the Burgher-mafter was quarter'd, feveral of his Adherents put to Death, and others fin'd; the City divefted of all its Franchifes, and the Form of Government alter'd. And, in 1615, this fame Bi