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felf chiefly to the Palace; and other public Buildings. What pleas'd me most in the Palace was a Volary for Phafants only, the most beautiful Building of the Kind I ever faw, containing a vaft Number of thefe Birds, of the most beautiful Kinds and Colours; the Library is likewife magnificent, and very well worth feing, as are alfo the Aftronomical Obfervatory and the Anatomical Chamber, with feveral Appartments adjoining, in which are a great Number of curious Mathematical, Optical, Mechanical, and other Inftruments and Rarities. The Machine and Model-Houfes, in the latter of which are preferv'd the Models of all the Palaces, and public Buildings, erected by the Princes of this Houfe, gave me great Satisfaction, nor were the Arfenal and Stables lefs worthy my Obfervation: But Time would not allow me to take fuch Notice of the fe Things as would have been neceffary in Order togive you a Defcription of them. Let it therefore fuffice, that I found every Thing far exceed what could be expected at the Court and Refidence of a Prince of the Rank of a Landgrave, and whofe mountainous and barren Country, at least that Part of it I faw, does not feem to promife a Revenue anfwerable to it. I regreted in nothing more the Want of Time, than that it deprived me of a Sight of the famous Water-works of Weiffenftein, a Pleafure-houfe belonging to the Landgrave, at the Top of a high Hill, about half a German Mile
The Germans have a Saying, Hohe Berge uud fauer Wein, der Teufel mochte in Heffen feyn. (High Hills, and fourWine, the Devil may live in Heffen.) The Landgrave of Heffe-Caffel is, however, the moft powerful Prince in Germany under the Dignity of an Elector, which is probably in a great Measure owing to his Country (his Subjects being Proteftants) not being over-run by a worthiefs Crew of Priefts, whe breath Poverty and abject Slavery, where-ever they are suffer'd to rear their Heads.
from Caffel, where there is fil to be the finest Cafcade in Europe.
BEING return'd from Caffel to Paderborn, and my Friend having finifh'd his Concerns there, we prepar'd not to fet forward, but rather almoft to turn back again, to come to this Place: For, as I told you in my firft Letter, we were fo far from taking the readieft Road from Amfterdam to Bremen, that we cross'd the Country backwards and forwards, from Place to Place, as his Bulinefs directed him. In our Way hither, we pafs'd thro' two pretty large Towns or Citics, Bielfeldt and Hervoden, remarkable only for having pretty confiderable Manufactures of Linen. Bielfeldt is in the County of Ravensberg, about feven German Miles fom Ofnabrug, and was formerly one of the HanfeTowns But it retains little of its ancient Grandeur, except the ftrong Caftle of Sparrenberg, which is without the City, on a Hill. We came into the Neighbourhood of Bielfeldt late at Night, when, on a fudden, we were furprized with a moft hideous Howl, which I could compare to nothing but that of Lions, Bears and Tigers, in the uninhabited Woods of Africa. It was natural for me to afk, whether this Country afforded any of thofe voracious Animals; but my Companion affuring me of the contrary, we were the more furpriz'd, 'till coming to the Gate of the Town, we were told, it was nothing but a Parcel of roguifh Boys, who watched the Bleaches on the adjacent Hills, and upon the Approach of Travellers, in the Night-time, had accultom'd themfelves to this frightful Howl, which run like Wild-fire, from Hill to Hill. Hervoden, or Hervorden, which is two German Miles from Bielfeldt, five from Ofnabrug, and the fame Distance from Minden, is likewife in the County of Ravensberg, and fince 1647, fubject to the King of Pruffia. It is a pretty large Place, and divided
into three Parts, call'd the Old Town, the New Town, and Radewich, by the Rivers Elfa, Aa, and Werne. It is chiefly noted in Hiftory, for a famous Nunnery, the Abbefs of which is a Princefs of the Empire, and formerly held this City in Subjection, 'till Ann, Countess of Limburg, and Abbess of this Nunnery, gave up the City to William Duke of Juliers, in the Year 1547. The Eltate belonging to it was formerly a County, and afterwards converted to the Ufe of a Monaftery of Friars, in the Year 790; but how long it has been a Nunnery is not recorded. As well the Abbefs, as the Nuns, are now Lutheran, and have confiderable Eftates in the Neighbourhood of this City, as likewife another Lutheran Nunnery, on a Hill, near the Town, which was founded in the Year 1101, and is under the immediate Direction of a Deaconefs, but otherwife fubject to the Abbefs of Hervoden. We ftaid only Part of a Day and a Night in Bielfeldt, and only a Night in Hervoden, fo that if there had been any Thing worth my feing, as I could not find there was, I thould have wanted Time.
OSNABRUG is the Capital of a Bishopric of the fame Name, under the Archbishop of Cologn, founded by Charlemaign, in the Year 776, he having four Years before, erected a Church for the Converfion of the Saxons he had conquer'd, and dedicated it to St. Peter, and the holy Martyrs Crif pin and Crifpinian. It was formerly Imperial, and one of Hanfe; but is now fubject to its own Bishop. It is but eight German Miles from Munster, by which you will conceive what a Tour I have taken. Some pretend this City was built by Julius Cæfar; but others, with a greater Shew of Reafon, fay it was founded by Herman, an Earl of Engar. Opinions differ as much with Regard to the Derivation of the Name, which fome will have to be from the Haje
or Hofa, on which it is feated, and Burg a Caftle; Others from Offen or Ochfen (Oxen) and Brug or Brucke (a Bridge) from fome Bridge which was a common Paffage for Cattle. This City formerly enjoy'd great Privileges, which were beftow'd upon it by different Emperors; but loft them in the Begining of the 16th Century, when feveral Members of the Chapter, having opprefs'd the Inhabitants, they rais'd an Infurrection againft their 49th Bishop, Erick II, of the Houfe of Brunswick, who thereupon impos'd a great Fine upon them, which, however, was at length reduc'd to 6,000 Guilders of Gold *. In 1525, he reduced the City to the Obedience of the Bishop's See, under which it has ever fince remain'd. After this the Citadel of Petersburg, adjoining to it, was added, for the Security of the Bishops, and their ufual Refidence. Erneftus Auguftus, Duke, and firft Elector of Brunfwick-Luneburg, the 59th in the Succeffion of their Bishops, brought it entirely under their Yoke. Under Francis, Earl of Waldeck, their 50th Bishop, the Reformation firft took footing in this City, and the Lutheran Religion was publicly tolerated : And Henry III, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, Archbishop of Bremen, and Bishop of Paderborn, the ad in Succeffion after him, himfelf embrac'd the Doctrine of Luther. In 1634, Gustavus Guftavfon, natural Son of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, was made the 58th Bishop, by the Intrigues of his Sifter, Queen Chriftina, in Prejudice to Francis William, Earl of Wartenberg, his Predeceffor, and, upon his Refignation, at the Conclufion of the famous Treaty, at this Place, in 1648, his Succeffor. By this Treaty, it was, among other Things, ftipulated, that, after the Deceafe of Francis William, a
* A Guilder of Gold is not an imaginary, but a real GoldCoin, of about 7 s. Sterling in Value; tho' now rarely feen, or mentioned, but in Cafes of Fines. D 4
Proteftant Bishop, of the House of Brunf fwickLuneburg, fhould fucceed, and that, for the future, this See fhould devolve alternatively to a RomanCatholic and a Proteftant Succeffor; but, that the Proteftant Bishops fhould always be of the illuftrious Houle of Brunfwick-Luneburg. Accordingly, in 1662, he was fucceeded by Erneftus-Augustus, Father of our most gracious Sovereign, King George; at whofe Death, in 1698, the Choice fell on Charles Jofeph Ignatius, Duke of Lorrain, and Bishop of Olmutz, afterwards Archbishop and Elector of Triers. He enjoy'd this Dignity, 'till the Year 1715, when, upon his Deceafe, he was fucceeded by Erneftus Anguftus II, Brother to his prefent Majefty of GreatBritain, and Duke of York, who is yet living †, a Prince of that Affability and Goodnefs, that a long Continuance of his Life is even with'd by the Roman Catholics themfelves. The Lutheran Religion is not only tolerated, but thofe of that Perfuafion have likewife their Share of the Parish Churches. They have alfo three Prebendaries in the Chapter, and an active Voice in the Choice of Dignitaries. To prevent all Disorder, it was provided by the Treaty above-mentioned, that when the Bifhop is a Proteftant, the Archbishop of Cologn fhould exercife the Jus Metropolitanum over the Roman Catholic Subjects of this See, but upon the Succeffion of a Catholic Bishop, that Right entirely ceafes, with Refpect to the Proteftants: All other Regalia and Prerogatives are poffefs'd equally by the Bishops of either Religion; in which neither
On the Death of this illuftrious and worthy Prince, who was equally lamented by his Subjects of every Perfuafion and Condition, he was fucceeded, in 1728, by Clemens Auguftus, Elector of Cologn, and Bishop of Munster, Paderborn and Hilde. heim, who may probably be fucceeded by his Royal Highness, Prince William, Duke of Cumberland.