one nor the other have the Power of making any Alteration. Emperor Charlemaign having eftablifh'd a School here, for cultivating the Latin and Greek Tongues, the Jefuits, in the Time of their 57th Bishop, Francis William, who was elected in 1625, converted it to an Academy.

As our Stay here was but two Nights and one Day, I had little Time more than to inform myfelf of the above Circumftances, and to finish this Letter. The few Hours I had over, I spent in taking a curfory View of the Churches, in which I found nothing very remarkable: I likewife faw, at the Town-Houfe, the Rooms in which the Conferences for the famous Treaty of this Place were held, where they preferve the Pictures of the feveral Plenipotentiaries who affifted at it; which, however, have little but their Names and Titles to recommend them, being most of them done by very indifferent Hands. I fhall probably write you 10 more, till I come to Bremen, where I think to spend fome Time, if I like the Place and the Converfation of its Inhabitants. But, however that may prove, this I am fure of, I fhall heartily regret the Lofs of yours, and that of our Friends I am, &c.

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E arrived, the Thursday before Eafter, at Minden, a fmall City, the Metropolis of a Principality of that Name, formerly ரகும் Gea Bishopric, under the Archbishop of Cologn, once a free Imperial City, and one of the Hanfe, but now fubject to the King of Pruffia, as Elector of Brandenburg. The greater Part of the Inhabitants are Proteftants, but the Cathedral, a large and ftately Edifice, is in the Poffeffion of the Roman Catholics, as is likewife the Church of St. John, and that of St. Simeon, with a large Convent of Friars adjoining to it. After having dined at our Lodgings, which was the best Inn in the Town, oppofite to the Cathedral, the Bell ringing for Vefpers, Curiofity led me to fee the Infide of that and of the Churches of St. John and St. Simeon In the latter, I found very few attending the Service, but the Monks of the Convent, whofe Duty it was to officiate, and of those but a fmall Number. While they were performing Divine Service, I took the Opportunity to view the Paintings and Carvings in the Side-Ifles of the Church: But was fo intent on a Piece or two of Antiquity, that when I return'd towards the Altar, I found Service at an End, and all the Doors of the Church lock'd. I was looking about for a Convenience to come at one of the Windows, in Order to be feen or heard in the Street, when I efpy'd a little Door, which leading to a conti


guous Building, I rightly imagin'd must be the Way to the Cloifter. After fome knocking, a Perfon, in the Habit of the Order, opening the Door. I addrefs'd myfelf to him in Latin, not doubting but I must be understood in that univerfal Language of the Learned: But I might as well have fpoken the Ruffian Torgue, for any Thing he knew of the Matter: For, it feems, he was one of thofe Brethren of the Order, that are in almost all religious Houfes, who tho' generally of the best Families, and often bring large Eftates into the Community, for fome Deficiency of Education, or natural Parts, are, indeed, allowed to wear the Habit of the Order, but are otherwife little better than menial Servants, and perform the moft fervile Offices of the Houfe. This Brother immediately ran in, and return'd, in a few Moments, with a Father, of a reverend Afpect, and feeming great Age. I fpoke to him in the fame Language; but whether by my Habit, or the Manner of my pronouncing the Latin Tongue, in which we differ widely from all the Moderns, he perceived I was of the English Nation, and furprized me agreably by antwering me in my Mother-Tongue, which he, at the fame Time, told me was his own. He invited me with great Civility into the Cloifter, and hearing I had a Friend at the Inn, obliged me to fend for him, and spend the Evening with him: And tho' it was Lent, and the Vigil of Good Friday, we were entertain'd with an elegant Supper, and a Glafs of excellent OldHock; but the old Gentlemen would not partake of either, tho' he fuffer'd two junior Fathers, whom he had call'd to bear us Company, while he once retired for about an Hour, to do as we did. At Supper, he gave me to understand, that he was of the Family of the L-'s in Lancashire, that he had been fent very young into Flanders,


where he had his Education, and after having been admited into Friars Orders, he had fpent the greatest Part of his Life at Mentz, Frankfort, and other Places of that Fart of Germany, 'till he was appointed Sub-Prior of that Convent, about ten Years before: That he was 90 Years of Age, near 80 of which he had fpent on this Side the Ocean, and in all that Time had never been in England but once, in the laft Year of King James's Reign, when, upon the Encouragement given to the Roman Catholic Perfuafion, he obtained Leave of his Superior to vifit his Native Country. However, finding all his near Relations dead, and the RevoJution foon after enfuing, he return'd to Germany, and had never fince had the leaft Correfpondence with any one of this Kingdom: But that, as he had liv'd in continual Hopes, of the Reftoration of his lawful Sovereign (the Pretender I fuppofe he meant) at the Mention of whofe Name, the Tears trickled down his Cheeks, he had endeavour'd to retain the English Tongue, by conftant Reading, and what Converfation he could procure; and indeed he fpake it more readily than could be expected, tho' pretty much corrupted with the German Pronunciation and Idiom. I vifited the good old Father, the next Day, to take my Leave, when having given me his Bleffing, adding his hearty Prayers that my Eyes might be open'd, that I might fee my Errors, and return to the true Path, from which my Forefathers had deviated, he prefented me with a little wooden Crofs, with a very fmall one inlaid, which he affured me was of the real Crofs, on which our Saviour was crucified, and parted from me with Tears.


THIS City is fituate on the Wefer, and was known by this Name, in the Time of Charlemaign, in whofe Reign, Wittekind built a Caftle here, at the Foot of the Bridge laid from this Place over the Wefer, of which fome Remains, with feveral


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other Antiquities, are yet vifible. In 1529, the Reformation took Place here, with great Vehemence, infomuch, that the Chapter was obliged to retire, and leave the City. This, however, brought upon the Inhabitants the Bann of the Empire, in 1538, and, as a Confequence thereof, they were obliged, at Length, to furrender to Charles V, in 1547. They were ever after in almoft continual Troubles and Revolutions, on the Score of Religion; their 54th Bishop, George Duke of Brunfwick and Archbifhop of Bremen, who died in 1566, making open Profeffion of the Dectrine of Luther. During the 30 Years War, on that Account, in Germany, this City was taken, in 1626, by Count Tilly, and in 1634, by George Duke of Luncburg. In 1636, the Swedes undertook to protect the Proteftant Inhabitants against the Perfecution of the Chapter, and on that Account kept Poffeffion of it, 'till 1650, when, pursuant to the Treaties of Weftphalia, it was delivered into the Hands of Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, together with thew hole Principality. They fhew you a Succeffion of 59 Bishops, from Herimbertus, who died towards the Conclufion of the 8th, or Begining of the 9th Century; to Francis William, their laft, who was difpoffefs'd, by the Swedes, in 1629.

MINDEN is noted for a peculiar Sort of Beer, greatly efteemed in other Parts of Germany: I cannot however fay, it had very much my Approbation. It is a Sort of finall pale Beer, fomething like our Oat-Ale, not unpleafant in the Tafte; a Kind of dulce piccante (between Sweet and Sour;) But what difgufted me was, that being drawn and brought us in tranfparent Bottles, I foon discover'd a muddy Settlement, above an Inch thick, at the Bottom.

THIS City being a garrifon'd Place, is fadly pefter'd with Soldiers, as all are in the King of


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