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HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. CHAP. VIII. Thus far of the first of the Gregories; it will not be saying enough in his praise, though it be a truth, that it would have been to the advantage of the reputation of the Roman Church, if he had been the last of that name.

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ULGENTIUS adorned the beginning, and
Gregory the close



produced no other authors of equal merit. And the decay in learning and knowledge was so great, that I shall detain the reader a very little time on this article.

Ennodius, bishop of Pavia, wrote against thosema who affirmned, that man could only chuse evil. With gross ignorance of the connection and scope of St. Paul's argument, he quotes his words in the Epistle to the Romans, C. vii. as favourable to his views. “For to will is present with me, but how to perform that which is good I find not;" thus ascribing to man as such, what the apostle evidently speaks of as descriptive of the regenerate. He maintains that man by nature has power to turn himself to God, and deduces from the contrary doctrine the consequences which the advocates for the doctrine of free-will in all ages have done from the days of Cicero, who, it is remarkable, reasons exactly in the same manner.

On the other hand, John Maxentius, a Scythian monk, in company with a number of monks, his brethren, strenuously defended the doctrines of grace. In a confeffion of their faith is this sentence: “ that free-will, since the entrance of sin, has of itself no other power but that of choosing some carnal good and pleasure*, and that it can neither

desire * Du Pin. Cent. 6th,

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desire nor will, nor do any thing for eternal life, but by the operation of the Holy Spirit.”

So remarkable a confession would seeni to shew some distinct knowledge of the depravity of the heart. Maxentius and his brethren were ill treated by Hormisdas, bishop of Rome, a bold and dexterous politician, of whose theological knowledge and practical piety I find no proofs. He accused them of turbulence and self-conceit, and after a year's attendance at Rome they were expelled thence by his order. I cannot find that Hormifdas gave any decided opinion on the subject himself; probably he had never studied it; but he acted imperiously and decisively. Maxentius wrote with vigour in defence of the doctrines of grace, and I wish I could gratify the reader with a larger account of a man, who was counted worthy to suffer shame for the faith of Christ. The controversy between the defenders of grace and of human powers was still alive, and the Western Church continued still divided upon it.

Facundus, bishop of Hermiana in Africa, will deserve to be mentioned for the sake of one fentence. “ The faithful, in receiving the Sacrament of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, receive his body and his blood; not that the bread is properly his body, and the cup his blood; but because they contain in them the mystery of the body and blood of Jesus Chrift*.” Though it makes no part of our system to confute the particular points of popery, I could not omit so clear a testimony against transubstantiation.

The Western Church is indebted for historical information to Gregory of Tours, the Eastern to Evagrius. It must be confessed that they are inelegant and injudicious writers: they had the literary taste of this century.

Du Pin Facundus.

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The truly evangélical second council of Orange has been already reviewed. The second council of A.D. Mascon held in 585 will deserve to be mentioned. 585. They were very zealous for the observation of Sunday. Let none follow any business on this day, say they: let none yoke oxen, or prosecute suits of law; but let all the world apply themselves to sing the praises of God. They decree penalties against sabbath-breakers. An advocate, who was guilty of the crime, was to be driven from the bar; a peasant or a slave to receive some stripes. They exhort Christians also to spend the evening of Sunday in pray, ers. They forbid bishops to keep birds and dogs for game. They ordain the celebration of a Synod every three

years in a place appointed by the bishop of Lyons and king Ġontranus. A proof may be drawn from hence that some spirit of genuine religion was still preserved in France,

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HE diversity of circumstances in different ages

of the Church constantly admonishes an histo-
rian, who loves method and perspicuity, to vary
the arrangement of his materials. No abstract
rules, but the circumstances of each period should
direct him in this matter. In the century before
us, barren and unpromising as it is for the most
pari, Great Britain shone with distinguished lustre.

- As she was a world within herself, her ecclefiafti-
cal affairs were little connected with thofe of the
continent. Hence the propriety of reviewing them

by themselves.- In this subject I shall closely follow A.D. the venerable Bede, whose narration extends to the 731. year 731.-Though much of his history be fabulous

and superstitious, it is still of the greatest value,
because it is the only light which we have con-
cerning the progress of the Gospel in our own
country for several generations: and some rays of
truth, piety, and good sense now and then break
out in the historian amidst the clouds of legendary

After the death of Augustine, the first archbishop
of Canterbury, Laurentius, whom he had ordained,
fueceeded to that See. He trode* in the steps of
his predeceffor, and laboured to promote the best

interests * Bede, B. II. C. 4.

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