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2d. We find also that olim is rendered everlasting. The covenant that God made with Noah and every living creature, is called, " the everlasting covenant, Gen. ix. 16. Also, that which he made with Abraham and his seed, is called “an everlasting covenant," Gen. xvii. 7, 13, 19. It is called the same when confirmed to Israel, 1 Chron. xvi. 17. Psalm cv. 10. and also when made to David, 2 Sam. xxiii. 5. And it is said of Israel, Isai. xxiv. 5. that they had “broken the everlasting covenant.” In the following places, an everlasting covenant is spoken of, and seems to refer to the new covenant, Isai. Iv. 3. and lxi. 8. Jer. xxxii. 40. Ezek. xvi. 60, and xxxvii. 28. But, however this may be decided, all will allow, that it must end when Christ delivers up the kingdom to God the father. The new dispensation, or age of the Messiah, is not called everlasting because it is endless in its duration, but because when it ends it is to be succeeded by no other. But fur. ther, we find the land of Canaan promised to Israel for “an everlasting possession," Gen. xvii. 8. and xlviii. 4. The priesthood given to Aaron and his sons, was to be “an everlasting priesthood.” But as an explanation of what is meant, it is added, "throughout your generations." See Exod. xl. 15. Numb. xxv. 13. Certain things under the Aaronical priesthood, and connected with that covenant, called everlasting, though temporary in its duration, were to be for an "everlasting statute," Levit. xxiv. 8, 16, 24. In Gen. xlix. 26. we read of the everlasting hills, and in Hab. iii. 6. of the everlasting mountains, and in Psalm xxiv. 7, 9. of the everlasting doors, probably referring to the doors of the temple.
Before adducing any more of the texts in which olim is rendered everlasting, I beg leave to make one or two remarks. It is easily perceived, by compar, ing these texts with those where olim is rendered
perpetual, that everlasting and perpetual express the same idea. Further, unless we can prove, that the land of Canaan, the statutes and ordinances of the Jewish dispensation, the hills and mountains, and the doors of the temple are to continue to endless duration, we ought not to say that the word everlasting expresses a proper eternity. We presume no one would contend that it does when applied to these things; but some perhaps would say, that it does express the endless duration of the new covenant, mentioned in some of the above passages. But why should it any more mean this when applied to it, than when applied to the old covenant, which was called everlasting, yet has long ago vanished? Is it then asked, What does everlasting mean in the above texts ? I answer; it expresses a period of time, long, indefinite, and limited. Do we read of the priesthood of Aaron being everlasting? We find this, in as many words limited, for it is added, "throughout your generations." In a word, any long period of time, either past, or to come, is called everlasting. Yea, we shall see before we are done, that it sometimes expresses even a short period of time. Nor are the sacred writers under any apprehension that they were liable to be misunderstood. But to return.
We find further, olim rendered everlasting, and applied as follows. In Isai. xlv. 17. it is said-But Ísrael shall be saved in the Lord with an everlasting salvation." This is explained by what follows: "ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded world without end." See this text noticed before. Daniel, ix. 24. speaks of an “everlasting righteousness,” and David, Psalm cxii. 6. says, “the righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance." In Prov. x. 25. they are also said to be, “an everlasting foundation.” Day prays, Psalm cxxxix. 24. “ lead me in the way ever. lasting.” And in Jer. xxxi. 3. God says, “I have
loved thee with an everlasting love." And in Isai. Ix. 19, 20. it is twice said that “God is their everlasting light.”. And in Isai. xxxv. 10. they shall come to Zion with everlasting joy.” This is repeated, li. 11. and lxi. 7. In Isai. lvi. 5. God is said to give them an “everlasting name,” and to have made to himself “an everlasting name," Isai. lxiii. 12. In Isai. Iv. 13. we read of an “everlasting sign,” and by way of explanation it is added, “which shall not be cut off." And in Isai. liv. 8. we read of God's 66 lasting kindness.” Speaking of the Jews, God threatened that he would bring upon them an everlasting reproach." Jer. xxiii. 40. And in Jer. 88. 11. it is added, "their everlasting confusion shall never be forgotten.” By consulting the context of these two last texts it may be seen that God is not speaking of
hment to the Jews in a future state, but of his temporal judgments in the present world. Notwithstanding this, their punishment is called everlasting. This we have shown, in the Inquiry into Sheol, &c. which see.
See also on 2 Thess. 2. below. We come
to a part of this Inquiry where olim is rendered everlasting, and is applied to God himself. Such texts, then, demand the closest attention. I find it then said, Gen. xxi. 33. that Abraham “called upon the name of the Lord, the everlasting God.” In Isai. I. 28. he is again called the “everlasting God.” And in Deut. xxxiii. 27. we read of his “everlasting arnis." In Psalm xc. 2. it is said "even from everlasting to everlasting thou art God." And in Jer. x. 10. he is called “an everlasting king.' In Psalm c. 5. it is said “his mercy is everlasting," and ciii. 17. it is added, "the mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting." But by way of explanation it is said “his righteousness unto childrens'children.” In xli. 13. it is said, “ blessed be the Lord God of Israel from everlasting, and to everlasting.”. This is
repeated, Psalm cvi. 48. Again it is said Psalm xciii. 2. " thou art from everlasting," hut in the first part of the verse it was said as an equivalent expression
“thy throne is established of old.” In Isai. lxiii. 16. it is said-—" thy name is from everlasting,” and Psalm cxlv. 13. David says, “thy kingdom is an ev. erlasting kingdom;" but observe it is added by way of explanation, and thy dominion endureth throughout all generations.” In the margin our translators have put, “ of all ages.” And in Isai. xxvi. 4. it is said, " in the Lord Jehovah is everlasting strength,” but in the margin they have put, “rock of ages."
These are all the passages, where olim is rendered everlasting and applied to God. There are two passages where it is so rendered and applied to the Messiah. The first is. Mic. v. 2. “ whose goings forth hath been from of old, from everlasting.”. See on this text professor Stuart's remarks, quoted, Sect. 1. Here, from of old and everlasting are used as synonimous expressions for the same thing. This is similar to Psalm xciii. 2. noticed above. The other text is Prov, viii. 23. “I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was." Here what is called everlasting in the first part is explained in the second to be," from the beginning.” Has everlasting or a proper eternity a beginning ?
3d. We find olim rendered for evermore in the following places. Thus it is said Psalm xcii. 8. but thou, Lord, art most high for evermore.” And cxiii. 2. “ blessed be the name of the Lord from this time forth and for evermore." And cxv, 18. 6 but we will bless the Lord from this time forth and for evermore." Again it is said, 2 Sam. xxii. 51. the Lord "showeth mercy to his anointed, unto David, and to his seed for evermore.” This is repeated, Psalm xviii. 50. In 1 Chron. xvii. 14. God promised that Solomon's throne 6 should be established for ever
more." And Psalm cxxi. 8. he promised to preserve Israel, " for evermore." And cxxxiii. 3. to conimand - the blessing for evermore.” In Ezek. xxvii. 26, 28. he also promised to set his sanctuary in the midst of Israel - for evermore." And in Psalm xxxvii. 27. David says, “ depart from evil and do good, and dwell for evermore." And in lxxxvi. 12. says, 61 will glorify thy name for evermore.” The only other text in which olim rendered for evermore, is Psalm cvi. 31. and is thus explained. Speaking of Phineas it is said, that what he did was counied unto him for righteousness, unto all generations for evermore.” Here all generations and for evermore are used as equivalent expressions for the same thing. On the whole of these texts we would remark, that evermore is applied to things which never were intended to continue to endless duration. Such were Solomon's throne, and God's sanctuary among the children of Israel. A long period may be meant, but not surely à proper eternity. Even when evermore is applied to God, we cannot conclude that it signifies endless duration ; for it is explained to mean “all generations.” In none of these texts is evermore applied to punishment. No further notice need then be taken of them here, as any further remarks will be more in place afterwards.
4th. Olim is rendered forever, in the following places, and expresses the duration of a man's lifetime, or even a shorter period. Thus it is said, Deut. xv. 17. 6thou shalt take an awl and thrust it through his ear unto the door, and he shall be thy servant forever.” Now this could only be all the servant's life-time, or perhaps to the year of jubilee. It could not be beyond his life, for at death ihe servant is free from his master. The same thing is said Exod. xxi. 6. But again, we find Samuel's mother saying, 1 Sam. i. 22. “I will not go up until the