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was sent me on Mr. Nelehorpe; but the surplus of it exceeding much the expense I have been at on this occasion, I desire you to make use of it, and of me, upon any other opportunity.'*

In one of his letters he makes the following declaration, which we have no doubt was perfectly sincere, and, what is still more strange, implicitly believed: I shall, God willing, maintain the same incorrupt mind and clear conscience, free from faction or any self-ends, which I have, by his grace, hitherto preserved.'t

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In such a state of things we can hardly wonder, that the attendance of members was not very prompt and punctual, or that great difficulty was often found in obtaining a full House. Severe penalties were threatened at various times against the absentees. In one letter we are told-The House was called yesterday, and gave defaulters a fortnight's time, by which, if they do not come up, they may expect the greatest severity.'* În another

bitious estimate so small, that they shrank from representing a borough, as much as the borough from the dignity of being represented; and expressed their aversion with as much sincerity as ever primitive Bishop, in times of hot persecution, cried Nolo Episcopari. Nay, there are authentic cases on record, in which the candidates fairly ran away from the proffered dignity, and even resisted it vi et armis. Strange revolutions ! we are ready to exclaim, that a man should now be willing to spend a fortune even in the unsuccessful pursuit of an honor which We have said that these letters are also his ancestors were reluctant to receive even interesting as incidentally illustrating parlia- when paid for it; and that constituencies mentary usage. Marvell was one of the last should resist, as the last insult and degrada-if not the very last-who received the tion, that disfranchisement which many of wages which members were entitled by law them in ancient times would have been but to demand of their constituents. To this too happy to accept as a privilege! subject he makes some curious references. On more than one occasion it appears, that members had sued their constituents for arrears of pay; while others had threatened to do so, unless the said constituents agreed to re-elect them at the next election. Today,' says he in a letter dated March 3, 1676-7, Sir Harbotle Grimstone, Master of the Rolls, moved for a bill to be brought in, to indemnify all counties, cities, and boroughs for the wages due to their members for the time past, which was introduced by him upon very good reasons, both because of the poverty of many people not able to supply so long an arrear, especially new taxes now coming upon them, and also because Sir John Shaw, the Recorder of Colchester, had sued the town for his wages; several other members also having, it seems, threatened their boroughs to do the same, unless they should choose them, upon another election, to Parliament.' The conditions of re-election are assuredly strangely altered now-it is no longer possible to drive so thrifty a bargain, or bribe after so ingenious a fashion. But these 'wages,' moderate as they were-only about two shillings a-day to a member of a borough, and to a county member four-were in some cases alleged to be so heavy a tax, that instances occur of unpatriotic boroughs begging to be disfranchised, to escape the burdensome honor of sending members to 'Built in the eclipse, and rigg'd with curses dark.’ Parliament! Nor was the reluctance always Though the law-makers of that age were on one side. At earlier periods of our history, we have accounts of members who, not-paid at little more than the rate of a journeywithstanding this liberal pay-about that of man tailor of modern times, their performa hedger and ditcher in these more luxurious days found the inconveniences of membership so great, and the honor in their unam

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The House of Commons was taken up for the most part yesterday in calling over their House, and have ordered a letter to be drawn up from the Speaker to every place for which there is any defaulter, to signify the absence of their member, and a solemn letter is accordingly preparing, to be signed by the Speaker. This is thought a sufficient punishment for any modest man; nevertheless, if they shall not come up hereupon, there is a further severity reserved.'t

More than once we find a proposition, that these absentees should be punished by being compelled to pay double proportions toward the never-ending subsidies. One member proposed that the mulcts thus extorted from negligent or idle senators, should be exclusively employed in building a ship, to be called The Sinner's Frigate-an ill-boding name, and applicable only to a vessel

ances, if estimated by their value, were greatly overpaid. When we see in Marvell's correspondence how the House was frequently employed-shamefully betraying the nation with whose intereststhey were in trusted-taxing * Marvell's Letters, p. 117. ↑ Ibid. p. 240.

at last the tellers for the ayes would have agreed the noes to be 142, the noes would needs say that they were 143; whereupon those for the ayes would tell once more, and then found the noes to be indeed but 129, and the ayes then coming in proved to be 138, whereas if the noes had been content with the first error of the tellers, Sir George had been quit upon that observation.'*

the groaning people to support the royal prof-tellers for the ayes chanced to be very ill ligacy-ingeniously contriving the most elab- reckoners, so that they were forced to tell orate and comprehensive methods of ruin, several times over in the House; and when and pursuing the worst ends by the worst means-diminishing, by their absurd enactments in relation to trade and commerce, that very revenue which was almost their sole object of solicitude-addressing the King, that he will be pleased to abstain from wearing one shred of foreign manufacture, and to discountenance the use of it in his subjects bringing in bills that all Nonconformists shall pay double taxes, and that all persons shall be buried in woollens for the next six or seven years' and other things of a similar nature, we cannot forbear lifting up our hands in astonishment at the vaunted wisdom of our

ancestors.

Some strange scenes appear now and then to have occurred in the Commons, and worthy rather of an Arkansas House of Assembly than of a British Parliament. The following is an example; though, as usual in such squabbles, the 'Pickwickian construction' of all offensive words seems to have prevailed at 'One day, upon a dispute of telling right upon division, both parties grew so hot that all order was lost; men came running up confusedly to the table, grievously affronted one by another; every man's hand on his hilt, quieted though at last, by the prudence of the Speaker; every man in his place being obliged to stand up and engage his honor, not to resent any thing of that day's proceed

ing.*

The following sounds odd-Yesterday, upon complaint of some violent arrests made in several churches, even during sermon time, nay, of one taken out betwixt the bread and the cup in receiving the sacrament, the House ordered that a bill be brought in for better observing the Lord's Day.'t

'To William Ramsden, Esq.-I think I have not told you that, on our bill of subsidy, the Lord Lucas made a fervent bold speech against our prodigality in giving, and the weak looseness of the government, the King being present; and the lord Clare another to persuade the King that he ought not to be present. But all this had little encouragement, not being seconded. Copies going about every where, one of them was brought into the Lords' house, and Lord Lucas was asked whether it was his. He said, part was and part was not. Thereupon they took advantage, and said it was a libel even against Lucas himself. On this they voted it a libel, and to be burned by the hangman, which was done; but the sport was, the hangman burned the Lords' order with it. I take the last quarrel betwixt us and the Lords to be as the ashes of that speech.'‡

Not seldom, to the very moderate 'wages' of a legislator, was added some homely expression of good-will on the part of the constituents. That of the Hull people generally appeared in the shape of a stout cask of ale, for which Marvell repeatedly returns thanks. In one letter he says-'We must first give you thanks for the kind present you have pleased to send us, which will give occasion to us to remember you often; but the quantity is so great that it might make sober men forgetful.'S

The disputes with the Lords were frequent, and difficult of adjustment. The following is a droll complication of their relations, and almost as hopeless as the 'dead-lock' in the Critic. I have no more time than to tell you, that the Lords having judged and fined the East India Company, as we think illegally, upon the petition of one Skyner, a merchant, and they petitioning us for redress, we have imprisoned him that petitioned them, and they have imprisoned several of those that petitioned us. It is a business of very high and dangerous consequence.'t One or two other brief extracts from these letters seem not unworthy of insertion. The following is a curious example of the odd accidents on which the most important events Marvell's correspondence extends through depend. Sir G. Carteret had been charged nearly twenty years. From June 1661, there with embezzlement of public money. The is, however, a considerable break, owing to House dividing upon the question, the ayes his absence for an unknown period-probawent out, and wondered why they were bly about two years-in Holland. He showed kept out so extraordinary a time; the ayes little disposition to return till Lord Bellasis, proved 138, and the noes 129; and the rea- then high steward of Hull, proposed to that son of the long stay then appeared :-The

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*Marvell's Letters, p. 426. Ibid. p. 106

*Marvell's Letters, p. 125, 126.
+ Ibid. p. 416.

t Ibid. p. 189.
§ Ibid. p. 14, 15.

worthy corporation to choose a substitute for | royal dignity. On the morning after the their absent member. They replied that he above-mentioned interview, he sent Lord was not far off, and would be ready at their Danby to wait on the patriot with a special summons. He was then at Frankfort, and at message of regard. His lordship had some the solicitation of his constituents immedi- difficulty in ferreting out Marvell's residence ; ately returned, April 1663. but at last found him on a second floor, in a But he had not been more than three dark court leading out of the Strand. It is months at home, when he intimates to his said, that groping up the narrow staircase, he correspondents his intention to accept an in- stumbled against the door of Marvell's humvitation to accompany Lord Carlisle, who ble apartment, which, flying open, discovered had been appointed ambassador-extraordinary him writing. A little surprised, he asked his to Russia, Sweden, and Denmark. He for- lordship with a smile if he had not mistaken mally solicits the assent of his constituents his way. The latter replied in courtly to this step, urges the precedents for it, and phrase 'No; not since I have found Mr. assures them that during his watchful col- Marvell.' He proceeded to inform him that league's attendance, his own services may be he came with a message from the King, who easily dispensed with. His constituents consented; he sailed in July, and appears to have been absent rather more than a year. We find him in his place in the Parliament that assembled at Oxford, 1665.

In 1671, for some unknown reason, there is another hiatus in his correspondence. It extends over three years. From 1674, the letters are regularly continued till his death. There is no proof that he ever spoke in Parliament; but it appears that he made copious notes of all the debates.

The strong views which Marvell took on public affairs-the severe, satirical things which he had said and written from time to time and the conviction of his enemies, that it was impossible to silence him by the usual methods of a place or a bribe, must have rendered a wary and circumspect conduct very necessary. In fact, we are informed that on more than one occasion he was menaced with assassination. But, though hated by the Court party generally, he was as generally feared, and in some few instances respected. Prince Rupert continued to honor him with his friendship long after the rest of his party had honored him by their hatred, and occasionally visited the patriot at his lodgings. When he voted on the side of Marvell, which was not infrequently the case, it used to be said that he had been with his tutor.'

Inaccessible as Marvell was to flattery and offers of preferment, it certainly was not for want of temptations. The account of his memorable interview with the Lord Treasurer Danby has been often repeated, and yet it would be unpardonable to omit it here. Marvell, it appears, once spent an evening at Court, and fairly charmed the merry monarch by his accomplishments and wit. At this we need not wonder: Charles loved wit above all things-except sensual pleasure. To his admiration of it, especially the humorous species, he was continually sacrificing his MAY, 1844.

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was impressed with a deep sense of his me-
rits, and was anxious to serve him. Marvell
replied with somewhat of the spirit of the
founder of the Cynics, but with a very dif-
ferent manner, that his Majesty had it not
in his power to serve him." Becoming
more serious, however, he told his lordship
that he well knew that he who accepts court
favor is expected to vote in its interest.
his lordship's saying, that his Majesty only
desired to know whether there was any place
at court he would accept;' the patriot replied,
that he could accept nothing with honor,
for either he must treat the King with ingrat-
itude, by refusing compliance with court
measures, or be a traitor to his country by
yielding to them.' The only favor, therefore,
he begged of his Majesty, was to esteem him
as a loyal subject, and truer to his interests
in refusing his offers than he could be by ac-
cepting them. His lordship having exhausted
this species of logic, tried the argumentum
ad crumenam, and told him that his Majesty
requested his acceptance of £1,000. But
this, too, was rejected with firmness;
though,' says his biographer, 'soon after
the departure of his lordship, Marvell was
compelled to borrow a guinea from a friend.'

In 1672 commenced Marvell's memorable controversy with Samuel Parker, afterwards Bishop of Oxford, of which we shall give a

* Another and less authentic version of this anec

dote has been given, much more circumstantial indeed, but on that very account, in our judgment, more apocryphal. But if the main additions to the story be fictions, they are amongst those fictions which have gained extensive circulation only because they are felt to be not intrinsically improbable. We have been at some pains to investigate the origin of this version; but can trace it no further than to a pamphlet printed in Ireland about the middle of the last century. Of this we have not been able to get a perusal. Suffice it to say, that the version it contains of the above interview, and which has been extensively circulated, is not borne out by the early biographies; for example, that of Cooke, 1726.

somewhat copious account. To this it is en- | conscience, they might have forborne to entitled from the important influence which it force, they remorselessly urged on those who had on Marvell's reputation and fortunes; solemnly declared that without such a violaand as having led to the composition of that tion they could not comply. More tolerant work on which his literary fame, so far as he of acknowledged vice than of supposed error, has any, principally depends-we mean the drunkenness and debauchery were venial, Rehearsal Transprosed. compared with doubts about the propriety of Parker was one of the worst specimens of making the sign of the cross in baptism, or the highest of the high churchmen of the using the ring in marriage; and it would reign of Charles II. It is difficult in such have been better for a man to break half the times as these to conceive of such a charac- commands in the decalogue, than admit a ter as, by universal testimony, Parker is doubt of the most frivolous of the church's proved to have been. Even Addison's Tory rites. Equally truculent and servile, they Fox-hunter-who thought there had been no displayed to all above them a meanness pro' good weather since the revolution,' and who portioned to the insolence they evinced to all proceeded to descant on the fine days they below them. While holding the same high used to have in King Charles II.'s reign;' church extravagances with their modern sucwhose dog was chiefly endeared to him be- cessors, they were far from participating in cause he had once like to have worried a the same jealousy of the state, which they dissenting teacher;' and who had no other were ready to arm with the most despotic aunotion of religion but that it consisted in thority. They formally invested the monarch hating Presbyterians'-does not truly repre- with absolute power over the consciences of sent him. Such men could not well flourish his subjects; and, with a practice in harmoin any other age than that of Charles II. ny with their principles, were ready at any Only in such a period of unblushing profli- moment, (if they had had any,) to surrender gacy of public corruption, happily unex- their own. As far as appears, they would ampled in the history of England-could we have been willing to embrace the faith of expect to find a Bishop Parker, and his pa- Mahometans or Hindoos at the bidding of tron and parallel, Archbishop Sheldon. The his Majesty; and to believe and disbelieve high churchmen of that day managed to com- as he commanded them. Extravagant as all bine the most hideous bigotry, with an utter this may appear, we shall shortly see it absence of seriousness-a zeal worthy of a gravely propounded by Parker himself. It 'Pharisee' with a character which would was fit that those who were willing to offer have disgraced a 'Publican.' Apparently as such vile adulation, should be suffered to preattached to the veriest minutiae of their high sent it to such an object as Charles II.-that church orthodoxy as any of the sincere big- so grotesque an idolatry should have as groots of the present Oxford School-they tesque an idol. As it was, the god was every gave reason to their very friends to doubt way worthy of the worshippers. In a word, whether they did not secretly despise even these men seemed to reconcile the most opthe cardinal doctrines of Christianity.* posite vices and the widest contrarieties; Scarcely Christians in creed, and any thing bigotry and laxity-pride and meanness-rerather than Christians in practice, they yet ligious scrupulosity and mocking skepticism insisted on the most scrupulous compliance-a persecuting zeal against conscience, and with the most trivial points of ceremonial; an indulgent latitudinarianism towards vice and persisted in persecuting thousands of de--the truculence of tyrants, and the sycovout and honest men, because they hesitated phancy of parasites.

to obey. Things which they admitted to be Happily the state of things which generatindifferent, and which, without violation of ed such men has long since passed away. But examples of this sort of high churchman* Of Sheldon, Bishop Burnet says, that he seems not to have had any clear sense of religion, if any ship were not infrequent in the age of at all.' Of Parker he speaks yet more strongly. Charles II.; and perhaps Bishop Parker But perhaps the most striking testimony is that of a may be considered the most perfect specimen Jesuit, Father Edward Petre, cited by Mr. Dove. of them. His father was one of Oliver CromHe says, the Bishop of Oxford has not yet de-well's most obsequious committee-men; his clared himself openly; the great obstacle is his wife, whom he cannot rid himself of: though I do not see how he can be further useful to us in the religion he is in, because he is suspected, and of no esteem among the heretics of the English Church

If he had believed my counsel, which was to temporize for some longer time, he would have done better. Surely this Jesuit and his pupil were well matched for honesty.

son, who was born in 1640, was brought up in the principles of the Puritans, and was sent to Oxford in 1659. He was just twenty at the Restoration, and immediately commenced and soon completed his transformation into one of the most arrogant and timeserving of high churchmen.

the massacring of his former comrades. These are businesses that can only be expected from a renegade of Algiers and Tunis;-to overdo in expiation, and gain better credence of being a sincere Mussulman.*

Some few propositions, for which he came ly uncharitable even to his own previous erearnestly to contend as for the faith once de-rors, and maligning and abusing all who still livered to the Saints, may give an idea of the retain them, it is impossible to doubt the principles and the temper of this worthy suc-motives which have animated him. On this cessor of the Apostles. He affirms, That subject Marvell himself well observes— unless Princes have power to bind their sub-Though a man be obliged to change a hunjects to that religion they apprehend most dred times backward and forward, if his judgadvantageous to public peace and tranquillity, ment be so weak and variable, yet there are and restrain those religious mistakes that tend some drudgeries that no man of honor would to its subversion, they are no better than put himself upon, and but few submit to it if statues and images of authority-That in they were imposed; as, suppose one had thought cases and disputes of public concernment, fit to pass over from one persuasion of the private men are not properly sui juris; they Christian religion into another, he would not have no power over their own actions; they choose to spit thrice at every article that he are not to be directed by their own judgments, relinquished, to curse solemnly his father and or determined by their own wills, but by the mother for having educated him in those opicommands and the determinations of the pub-nions, to animate his new acquaintances to lic conscience and that if there be any sin in the command, he that imposed it shall answer for it, and not I, whose whole duty it is to obey. The commands of authority will warrant my obedience; my obedience will hallow, or at least excuse my action, and so se- Marvell gives an amusing account of the cure me from sin, if not from error; and in progress of Parker's conversion of the transall doubtful and disputable cases 'tis better formation by which the maggot became a carto err with authority, than to be in the right | rion-fly. In the second part of the Rehearsal, against it: That it is absolutely necessary to after a humorous description of his parentage the peace and happiness of kingdoms, that and youth, he tells us that at the Restoration there be set up a more severe government he came to London, where he spent a conover men's consciences and religious persua- siderable time in creeping into all corners and sions than over their vices and immoralities; companies, horoscoping up and down' ('asand that princes may with less hazard give trologizing' as he elsewhere expresses it) liberty to men's vices and debaucheries than concerning the duration of the government; their consciences.'* -not considering any thing as best, but as He must have a very narrow mind or un-most lasting, and most profitable. And after charitable heart, who cannot give poor human nature credit for the sincere adoption of the most opposite opinions. Still there are limits to this exercise of charity; there may be such a concurrence of suspicious symptoms, that our charity can be exercised only at the expense of common sense. We can easily conceive, under ordinary circumstances, Dissenters becoming Churchmen, and Churchmen becoming Dissenters; Tories and Whigs changing sides; Protestants and Romanists, like those two brothers mentioned in Locke's second 'Letter on Toleration,' t so expert in logic as to convert one another, and then, unhappily, not expert enough to convert one another back again—and all without any suspicion of insincerity. But when we find very great revolutions of opinion, at the same time very sudden, and exquisitely well-timed in relation to private interest;— when we find these changes, let them be what they may, always, like those of the heliotrope, towards the sun;-when we find a man utterThe Rehearsal Transprosed.-Vol. I. pp. 97, 98, 99, 100, 101. Locke's Works-Vol. V. p. 79.

having many times cast a figure, he at last satisfied himself that the Episcopal government would endure as long as this King lived, and from thenceforward cast about how to be admitted into the Church of England, and find the highway to her preferments. In order to this, he daily enlarged not only his conversation but his conscience, and was made free of some of the town vices; imagining, like Muleasses, King of Tunis, (for I take witness that on all occasions I treat him rather above his quality than otherwise,) that, by hiding himself among the onions, he should escape being traced by his perfumes.'+ Marvell sketches the early history and character of Parker in both parts of the Rehearsal-though, as might be expected, with greater severity in the second than in the first. A few ludicrous sentences may not displease the reader. He says:

had read Don Quixote and the Bible, besides 'This gentleman, as I have heard, after he such school-books as were necessary for his age,

* Rehearsal Trasprosed.-Vol. I. pp. 91, 92.
+ Ibid. vol II. pp. 77, 7
,78.

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