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Deceit discovers a little mind, which stops at temporary expedients, without rising to comprehensive views of conduct. It betrays, at the same time, a dastardly spirit. It is the resource of one who wants courage to avow his designs, or to rest upon himself. Whereas, openness of character displays that generous boldness which ought to distinguish youth. To set out in the world with no other principle than a crafty attention to interest, betokens one who is destined for creeping through the inferior walks of life. But to give an early preference to honour above gain, when they stand in competition; to despise every advantage, which cannot be attained without dishonest arts; to brook no meanness, and to stoop to no dissimulation; are the indications of a great mind, the presages of future eminence and distinction in life. At the same time, this virtuous sincerity is perfectly consistent with the most prudent vigilance and caution. It is opposed to cunning, not to true wisdom. It is not the simplicity of a weak and improvident, but the candour of an enlarged and noble mind; of one who scorns deceit, because he accounts it both base and unprofitable; and who seeks no disguise, because he needs none to bide him.

Youth is the proper season of cultivating the benevolent and humane affections. As a great part of your happiness is to depend on the connections which you form with others, it is of high importance that you acquire, betimes, the temper and the manners which will render such connections comfortable. Let a sense of justice be the foundation of all your social qualities. In your most early intercourse with the world, and even in your youthful amusements, let no unfairness be found. Engrave on your mind that sacred rule, of doing all things to others, according as you wish that they should do unto you. For this end, impress yourselves with a deep sense of the original and natural equality of men. Whatever advantages of birth


or fortune you possess, never display them with an ostentatious superiority. Leave the subordinations of rank, to regulate the intercourse of more advanced years. At present, it becomes you to act among your companions, as man with man. Remember how unknown to you are the vicissitudes of the world; and how often they, on whom ignorant and contemptuous young men once looked down with scorn, have risen to be their superiors in future years. Compassion is an emotion of which you ought never to be ashamed. Graceful in youth is the tear of sympathy and the heart that melts at the tale of woe. ease and indulgence contract your affections, and wrap you up in selfish enjoyments. But go sometimes to the house of mourning, as well as to the house of feasting. Accustom yourselves to think of the distresses of human life; of the solitary cottage, the dying parent, and the weeping orphan. Never sport with pain and distress, in any of your amusements; nor treat even the meanest insect with wanton cruelty.

Let not


young minds there is commonly a strong propensity to particular intimacies and friendships. Youth indeed, is the season when friendships are sometimes formed, which not only continue through succeeding life, but which glow to the last, with a tenderness unknown to the connections begun in cooler years. The propensity therefore is not to be discouraged; though at the same time it must be regulated with much circumspection and care. Too many of the pretended friendships of youth, are mere combinations in pleasure. They are often founded on capricious likings; suddenly contracted, and as suddenly dissolved. Sometimes they are the effect of interested complaisance and flattery on the one side, and of credulous fondness on the other. Beware of such rash and dangerous connections, which may afterwards load you with dishonour. Remember that by the character of those whom you choose for your friends, your

own is likely to be formed, and will certainly be judged of by the world. Be slow, therefore, and cautious in contracting intimacy; but when a virtuous friendship is once established, consider it as a sacred engagement. Expose not yourselves to the reproach of lightness and inconstancy, which always bespeak, either a trifling, or a base mind. Reveal none of the secrets of your friend. Be faithful to his interests. Forsake him not in danger. Abhor the thought of acquiring any advantage by his prejudice or hurt.


order to render yourselves amiable in society, correct every appearance of harshness in behaviour. Let that courtesy distinguish your demeanor, which springs, not so much from studied politeness, as from a mild and gentle heart. Follow the customs of the world in matters indifferent; but stop when they become sinful. Let your manners be simple and natural; and of course they will be engaging. Affectation is certain deformity. By forming themselves on fantastic models, and vying with one another in every reigning folly, the young begin with being ridiculous, and end in being vicious and immoral.

The love of pleasure, natural to man in every period of his life, glows at this age with excessive ardour. Novelty adds fresh charms, as yet, to every gratification. The world appears to spread a continual feast; and health, vigour, and high spirits, invite them to partake of it without restraint. In vain we

warn them of latent dangers. Religion is accused of insufferable severity, in prohibiting enjoyment, and the old, when they offer their admonitions, are upbraided with having forgot that they once were young. -And yet, my friends, to what do the restraints of religion, and the counsels of age, with respect to pleasure, amount? They may all be comprized in few words, not to hurt yourselves, and not to hurt others, by your pursuit of pleasure. Within these bounds pleasure is lawful; beyond them, it becomes criminal,

because it is ruinous. Are these restraints any other
that what a wise man would choose to impose on
himself? We call you not to renounce pleasure, but
to enjoy it in safety. Instead of abridging it, we ex-
hort you to pursue it on an extensive plan. We pro-
pose measures for securing its possession, and for pro-
longing its duration. Consult your whole nature.
Consider yourselves not only as sensitive, but as
rational beings; not only as rational, but social;
not only as social, but immortal. Whatever violates
your nature in any of these respects, cannot afford
true pleasure; any more than that which undermines
an essential part of the vital system can promote
health. For the truth of this conclusion, we ap-
peal not merely to the authority of religion, nor
to the testimony of the aged, but to yourselves and
your own experience. We ask, Whether you have not
found, that in a course of criminal excess, your plea-
sure was more than compensated by succeeding pain?
Whether, if not from every particular instance, yet
from every habit, at least, of unlawful gratification,
there did not spring some thorn to wound you, there
did not arise some consequence to make you repent of
it in the issue? If you have any consideration or any
firmness left, avoid temptations, for which you have
found yourselves unequal, with as much care, as you
would shun pestilential infection. Break off all con-
nections with the loose and profligate. When sinners
entice thee, consent thou not. Look not on the wine when it
is red, when it giveth its colour in the cup; for at the last,
it biteth like a serpent, and stingeth like an adder.
move thy way from the strange woman, and come not near
the door of her house. Let not thine heart decline to her


ways; for her house is the way to hell. Thou goest after

her as a bird hasteth to the snare; and know th not that it is for his life. By these unhappy excesses of irregular pleasure in youth, how many amiable dispositions are corrupted or destroyed! How many rising

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capacities and powers are suppressed! How many flattering hopes of parents and friends are totally extinguished! Who but must drop a tear over human nature, when he beholds that morning which arose so bright, overcast with such untimely darkness; that good humour which once captivated all hearts, that vivacity which sparkled in every company, those abilities which were fitted for adorning the highest station, all sacrificed at the shrine of low sensuality; and one who was formed for running the fair career of life in the midst of public esteem, cut off by his vices at the beginning of his course, or sunk, for the whole of it, into insignificancy and contempt!-These, O sinful Pleasure! are thy trophies. It is thus that, cooperating with the foe of God and man, thou degradest human honour and blastest the opening prospects of human felicity.


Diligence, industry, and proper improvement of time are material duties of the young. To no purpose are they endowed with the best abilities, if they want activity for exerting them. Unavailing, in this case, will be every direction that can be given them, either for their temporal or spiritual welfare. In youth the habits of industry are most easily acquired. youth, the incentives to it are strongest, from ambition and from duty, from emulation and hope, from all the prospects which the beginning of life affords. If, dead to these calls, you already languish in slothful inaction, what will be able to quicken the more sluggish current of advancing years? Industry

is not only the instrument of improvement, but the foundation of pleasure. Nothing is so opposite to the true enjoyment of life, as the relaxed and feeble state of an indolent mind. He who is a stranger to industry, may possess, but he cannot enjoy. For it is labour only which gives the relish to pleasure. It is the appointed vehicle of every good to man. the indispensable condition of our possessing a sound

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