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and brought on an univerfal torpidity, which lafted above nine hours. Some of the fame liquor being applied to the cavity of the abdomen and the ifchiatic nerves of another frog, its hindermoft extremities became altogether paralytic and infenfible in the space of half an hour; and in about an hour afterwards the frog died. On repeating both thefe experiments on other frogs, with fome of the liquor remaining after diftillation, and likewife with the fame liquor evaporated to the confiftence of an extract, and rediffolved in water, no fenfible effects whatever were produced on the animals to which they were applied.
Though thefe experiments, in which the diftilled liquor was applied in immediate contact with the wounded abdomen and the bare nerves of the animal, are far from juftifying any conclufions that may be drawn from them to the prejudice of tea, as containing a deleterious principle, capable of doing mischief when fimply received into the ftomach; yet they prove that its activity chiefly refides in its fragrant and volatile parts; and that if the use of tea be beneficial or injurious to any particular conftitution, it becomes fo principally by means of this odorous fragrant principle. It fhould follow likewife that thofe who really fuffer, or who apprehend that they do or may suffer, by the use of it, and yet are loath to deprive themfelves of this grateful, refreshing, fober, and amufing habitual regale, may continue that indulgence with perfect tafety, though not perhaps with equal gratification, if they will be conten: to fip the infufion of the more ordinary kinds of this plant, which abound lefs with this fragrant principle. Or they may boil their tea a few minutes, in order to diffipate this volatile part, which ftands charged as the caufe of those nervous affections that are faid to be produced, or aggravated, by the ufe of this liquor. By this process they will likewife extract more copiously the more fixed, bitter, and ftomachic parts of this vegetable.
The Author, who fecins to be thoroughly perioaded of the occafionally noxious effects of this volatile principle, in the finer teas especially, recommends this laft-mentioned mode of making tea, or the fubftituting the extract instead of the leaves; by the ufe of which the nervous relaxing effects, which follow the drinking of tea in the ufual manner, would be in great measure avoided.' This extract has been imported hither from China, in the form of fmall cakes not exceeding a quarter of an ounce each in weight, ten grains of which might fuffice one perfon for breakfaft; but it might eafily be made here by simple decoction and evaporation, by thofe who experience the noxious qualities of the volatile principles of this plant; to afcertain which the Author produces fome inftances that have fallen under his own obfervation.-But for thefe and the other articles here difcuffed, we muft refer to the work itfelf, which is exeK 3
cuted with accuracy and judgment; though from the nature and circumstances of the fubject, many defiderata yet remain to be cleared up relating to it.
ART. X. An Effay on the Nature, Caufe, and Cure of a Difeafe incident to the Liver, hitherto but little known, though very frequent and fatal in bot Climates. By John Crawford, late Surgeon of the Earl of Middlefex Eaft-Indiaman. 8vo. 2 s. Kearily.
E think this pamphlet deserving of particular confideration, as it contains the hiftory of a very dreadful diforder, attended with fymptoms fo fallacious, as naturally to produce the most fatal mistakes concerning its nature, and thereby fuggeft indications of cure totally oppofite to thofe which would be purfued by one who was acquainted with its real feat and origin Through the too greit neglect, or almoft total difufe of that ufeful auxiliary to the healing art, the diffection of morbid bodies, .this diftemper has probably often paffed unnoticed or undiftinguished, though there is great reafon to believe that it frequently occurs, and is mistaken for very different difeafes, to which fome of its fymptoms appear to have a near affinity, particularly to those of the fcorbutical and dropfical kind and yet, as is evident from the contents of this publication, the most dangerous confequences muft enfue, whenever it is mistaken for any of these maladies, as it undoubtedly requires a very different, nay almoft totally oppofite method of
We fhall not tranfcribe, or enter into a minute detail of the Author's account of the progrefs and fymptoms of this difeafe, the entire perufal of which, in the original, we recommend to the faculty. We cannot however refilt the defire of relating fome of the most effential particulars refpecting its hiftory; with a view, among other reafons, of exemplifying the utility, and recommending the practice, of frequent infections of dead bodies; by which fo much light was, in the present inftance, at once thrown upon a very obfcure complaint.
The fhip's company with which the Author failed, and who had lived for fome time on bad provifions and putrid water, were attacked with this diforder in their return to England, not long after their leaving the island of St. Helena, where they had met with very few refreshments. Its moft diftinguishable and fa lacious fymptoms were, a confiderable fwelling and hardness of the abdomen, not attended with any fenfible fluctuation; œdematous fwellings of the legs, which retained the impreffion of the finger; a vertigo and fainting on the least motion; and the moft diftreisful difficulty of breathing, which continually increased; fo that those who fell victims to this difcafe, after a courfe of the moft horrible agonies, at length died abfolutely
abfolutely fuffocated. From thefe and fome other appearances, the Author was naturally enough induced to confider this fingular difeafe, as a particular anomalous fpecies of fcorbutical complaint, and to treat it accordingly; although he obferved that fome of the moft diftinguishable fymptoms of the genuine difeafe did not appear in any of his patien's: none of them complaining of fore gums, or having spots on any part of their bodies.
It attacked perfons of different ages, conftitutions, and degrees of health indifcriminately, and nearly in the fame manner. In a short time the fcene which prefented itself on board the veffel was exceedingly diftrefsful. On each fide of the ship there was nothing to be heard but the melancholy founds occafioned by the obftructed refpiration of upwards of thirty men,' labouring under different degrees of oppreffion in the præcordia, and the other fymptoms of this difeafe: while thofe who yet continued well, were conftantly apprehenfive of being foon reduced to the fame horrid fituation.
The alarming ftate of the crew, and the bad fuccefs which had attended the Author's endeavours to remove a diforder, with the nature of which he was unacquainted, induced him (after having taken proper meatures to conquer the natural repugnance of the feamen to enquiries of that kind) to open and infpect the body of the fecond perfon who had died of it. By doing this the nature and feat of the diforder were clearly afcertained. The ftomach, the inteftines, and, in fhort, all the vifcera of the abdomen, were found in a perfectly found state, except the liver. That organ indeed prefented a very extraor dinary appearance. It was enlarged almoft beyond imagination; and weighed, by eftimation, not lefs probably than thirteen or fourteen pounds; occupying the whole of both hypochondria, and defcending a confiderable way into the hypogaftrium. Its convex part had rifen upwards into the thorax, whither it had thruft the diaphragm, and where it had violently compreffed the lungs; particularly the right lobe, which was entirely collapfed, covered with tubercles and white fpots, and reduced to a fize less than that of a common tennis ball. The agonizing difficulty of breathing attending this difeafe was thus clearly traced to its hitherto unfufpected caufe. This enormous liver however did not fhew the leaft fymptom of difeafe, except the fingular enlargement of its fubftance; nor did there appear in it any thing like adhesion, or the marks of any previous inflammation.
Enlightened by thefe obfervations the Author immediately made a total change in his method of treating the fick. He now with confidence took away blood in quantities proportioned to the circumftances of the patient (an operation on which he durft not venture, while he confidered them as labouring under
a fcorbutic or putrid diforder) and found them confiderably relieved by the evacuation. He likewife put them under a course of deobftruent, opening pills, made of aloes, foap, and calomel; by the use of which they were all either cured or fenfibly relieved. In fome cafes a fpitting was accidentally brought on, and even feemed to produce falutary effects, particularly in relieving the difficulty of breathing.
We scarce need to hint of what importance it is that this disease should be known, and diftinguished from the fcurvy, which it resembles in fome of its appearances; particularly in the dematous fwellins of the legs, difficulty of breathing upon motion, languor,, ftiff efs of the joints, &c. It is equally évident that the practice appropriated to the cure of the one, may be fatal when applied to the other. Bleeding and mercurial purgatives would undoubtedly precipitate the fate of the fcorbutic: whereas, on the contrary, if this liver complaint fhould be mistaken for the fcurvy, and thefe evacuations thould not be made, death muft enfue from the immenfe enlargement of the liver and its diftrefstul confequences above-mentioned; as happened to three, of the crew, previous to the Author's difcovery of the true nature of this diforder.
ART. XI. A Differtation on Oriental Gardening. By Sir William Chambers, Knt. Comptroller General of his Majesty's Works, 4to. 5 s. fewed., Griffin, &c. 1772.
E had lately the pleafure of perufing an agreeable poem in praise of our improved national tafte in ornamental gardening; but now we have the mortification to learn, on the authority of Sir William Chambers, that we are yet in a ftate of ignorance and barbarifm, with regard to this pleafing art of which the Chinefe, alone, are mafters. This, however, is a propofition which, we think, the ingenious Writer has by no means demonftrated. The Chinese, indeed, feem to have arrived at the most enormous profufion of expence in gardening; but luxury and voluptuoufnefs appear to be the objects which they have generally in view; rather than that artful dif play, and improvement, of the beauties of nature, in which confifls (according to our European ideas) all that is required in this innocent, rational, and moral fpecies of amufement.
But, in truth, independent of the point of tafte, which will ever remain a difputable subject,-it is not for even the richest monarchs in this part of the world, to think of emulating the royal gardens of China; formed, as they are, with more than imperial magnificence, and requiring not only an immenfe extent of ground (of which the public must be robbed) but a treasury which
English Garden, a poem. By Mafon. See Review for March. would
would call for the wealth of almoft half the globe for fupplies. The idea is rather monftrous than pleafing; and the extravagance is more than even fovereigns have a right to be indulged in. It is impoffible for them to fupport the expence without injury to their fubjects, by wantonly wafting their lands, and needlefsly draining their purfes; and all for what? for a mere article of amusement,-in which, too, they can never hope to partake! In a word, the great gardens of the Eaft cannot, in any view, be propofed as models for the princes' of Europe to follow: thofe who have land enough to lavish, for this purpose, have not revenues adequate to fuch enormous fuperfluities; and others who, perhaps, could fomewhat better afford the expence, have not the ground; nor could the public spare fo many thoufand acres from the neceflary demands of agriculture and hufbandry.
We have heard it fuggefted, that, 'poffibly, one part of our Author's view, in thus depreciating the defigns of English gardeners, might be, to divert his royal master's attachment from the plan on which his garden at Richmond has been improved. Whether or not there is any real foundation for a suggestion of this fort, it is not for us to determine; but this we may obferve, that thould his book (which is inferibed to his Majefty) happen to produce that effect, we fhould much question whether he will, thereby, render any great fervice to the King; who has, at a vaft expence, and with much good tafte, made that princely pleafure-ground the delight of every beholder, whofe imagination is not dazzled and mifled by the glare and gaudinefs of Chinese embellishments.
This Author fets out with obferving, that gardening poffeffes a more extenfive influence than the other decorative arts; and that it ftrikes and pleafes its obfervers, without any previous information or skill. This is, perhaps, true, but we must be cautious of allowing it too much latitude; for, as in painting, and architecture, there are beauties which none can admire, or difcover, but thofe who have made these arts their study; fo, in ornamental gardening, there are productions fo artificial, and delicate, that they never reveal their charms to vulgar eyes. To be delighted, in thefe cafes, it is neceffary to be informed and the man whofe taste has not been cultivated by nice obfervation, and judicious reflections, will neither difcern the proportion and beauty of the feparate parts, or the fkill with which they are brought to form an harmonious whole.-Accordingly, Our Differtator himself, when he comes to characterize our English defigners and gardeners, acknowledges, that a capacity of enjoying, and judging of, the difpofition of a pleasureground, appears to him a difficult matter; and he declares, that it cannot be expected, that men uneducated, and doomed