capto's. We rejoice at this decision, expected a bold and decisive measure. which will effectually stop the specu. We expected, that he would get rid lations in human flesh. “Wherever a entirely of his custom-house, and slave-ship is seen, our oppressed fel. custom-house officers, and make his low-creatures may be set free by an einpire, with the kingdoms dependent English ship, unless the slave ship is upon it, ope grand free port. This expressly authorised by the laws of would be a greater blow upon the the country, whose colours it bears, commercial system of other nations to carry on this iniquitous traffic. than any of his late puny efforts, and

Foreign politics afford ample field would produce a change in the worid for rellection. Bonaparte, the enemy as important almost as the conversion of commerce, relaxes. He has issued of monasteries to buildings for useful a new decree, and a new scale of duties industry. on the introduction of foreign com.. As Holland is now joined to France, modities. The rush of goods will of it is said that the Emperor is to pay course be immense towards France, a visit to his new acquisition, and io and the enormous duties will not pre, inspect, in person, the improvements vent their consumption. Bonaparte for its welfare. The chief object, seems to have taken a lesson from Mr. doubtless, will be his dock-yards, and Pitt upon this subject, and it is a kind probably these have occasioned his of instruction which insinuates itself measures on the duties. He must very easily into the mind of a mi. have money. This he expects from nister. What can be easier than to commerce. Froin' it he expects to say, port-wine shall pay twenty pound, build ships, and with them to destroy thirty pound, forty pound, fifty pound, our navy and our commerce. But &c. per pipe, on admission into the the fate of his brother Louis excites country; or sugar shall pay so niuch some commiseration: he has pubper hundred weight. Either the lished a manifesto of his conduct, people will buy or they will not. If wbich developes the tyranny of the they do not, the government is only great Emperor, and events in his fawhere it was before; if it dues, the mily, which must disquiet its peace. government must be a gainer; and The unfortunate king is retired into though it may not gain to the amount Germany, and is said to have taken of its wishes, it will find out, by de- up his abode in Saxony. There it is grees, the best mode of drajving the evident he cannot live without the pockeis of its subjects. But the poli consent of his brother; and, when a ticians on this side of the water form tyrant is offended, it is not safe to be very erroneous judgments on the within the reach of his arm. French new customs. They think, Germany is. tranquil. Denmark, that, because sugar will be somewhat it is said, proposes its king to the diet more than twice as much a pound in Sweden, to unite the north under than it is here, there will be no con- one liead. Such a union might be sumers: but they do not consideribat, useful, if the inveterate animosity be. if we take two fainiljes, one in France, tween the Danes and Swedes would the other in England, which consume permit it. But the papers announced ! the saire quantity of bread, meat, and the probability of another candidate, sugar; the French family will, nor and the journey of ihe deposed king, withstanding the high price of sugar, from Switzerland to the confines of live at less than two thirsis of the inte Prussia countenances it. He probably of the English family in these articles, looks for some partizans in the diet: and out of the rest of their income yet with what prospect of advantage will pay less to government, and be- to any one could be the restoration of sides procure the other comforts of such a sovereigu? The diet is sitting: life ai a much cheaper rate. That but we wait for an account of its proBonaparte should fix high duties is ceedings. We do not know sufficient. of milling import; every petty poli: ly the nature of its members, the price tician can do the same: but we con- of a seat in the diet, the prospects of fess we have for some time looked for the candidates, the influence of the a very diferent conduct from him, ministry, and those other minutiæ, and, from the greatness of his mind, which might be brought to an easy

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calculation to determine on the result every Englishman has been more peof their deliberations.

culiarly fixed on the army of Lord Russia, though apparently for some Wellington.

It could not for ever time quiet, has burst forth lately into remain in a state of inactivity. When great activity. Its armies, it appears, the French had taken a town, under are numerous to the south of the Da- their very noses as it were, it could nube, and they have advanced so far not be doubted that they would purstie as to occasion serious alarms to the their operations, and endeavour to Oitoman capital. By the first ac- overwhelm the British force. Was counts they were victorious to a very Lorrl Wellington to remain in his post, great degree, and there can be po or to quit it? If he remained, he doubt that the Turks had been re- subjected himself to the danger of peatedly defeated, and that the Vizier's being surrounded by a superior army; arıny was completely in danger. The if he quitted it, all the horrors of Sir itussians were within a hundred and John Moore's retreat came in view. wfty miles of Constantinople; but There was no great time for delay.. after this there has been also undoubt. The French would certainly come in edly a very great engagement, in contact with the English, and the first

which both armies fought in a most news we heard was, ihat a detachment ! desperate manner. It lasted part of of 10,000 men fell upon a corps of

three days, and it is said that the 4,000 of our men under General Crau. Turks were victorious in the two first, furd, who bravely defended tleir post but that on the third the Russians ral- for a time, made great slaughter of'the lied, and drove them completely out enemy, but were compelled to retrea!. of the field. The battle must have The banks of the Coa bear testimony becp furious, with little maneuvring; to British bravery; but still the regret but'the papers give littie information arose, that the post was gone, and unon the relative strength of the two ar- happy forebodings would arise, that mies before and after the engagement, similar acts of bravery would be atBy one account the retreat of the Vi, tended with similar results. zier's army is cut off, but then it may be The accounts of Lord Wellington contrasted with another, that says the have, considering his situation and Russians are in full retreat, or rather the state of the enemy, been very little flight. At any rate the battle is deci- satisfactory. It was said, that his posive of the campaigo: if the Turks are sition was most excellent, actually victorious, the Russians must recross impregnable: but then the reports the Danube; if the latter bave ob. became so strong as scarcely to admit tained a decisive superiority, the pro. of contradiction, that he had quitted vinces to the south of the Danube will this post, and was on full retreat to become the property of the victor, and Lisbon. He has then a most skilful the Turks will find it difficult to pre. antagonist in his rear. Massena know's serve Adrianople as the frontier of the strength and bravery of the Britheir empire.' What a melancholy tish army, but he has been inured to thing for human nature, that so fine a war, which is a different thing from portion of the globe should be the the fighting of a battle, and he will prey of such barbarians. Whichever bring into play all the resources of his conquers, the earth will gain but little; mind to overcome his antagonist, with yet the slavery to a Russian despot is the least loss to himself. Though this not so bad as that to the Turk: for the campaign is of little consequence, former, however he may controul his compared withibe great battles fought subjects in every thing relative to po- on the continent, yet it will afford litics, and whatever may be the mean, great scope for military tactics. The ness of his encouragernent to the so. skill of a general may be shewn on his cial arts, yet he leaves religion e: retreat, and the talents of Lord Welhe has no iest laws, nor does he doom lington will be appreciated, not by the one part of his subjects to iz nomini- prematıne peerage, but by the tour he ous abasement, because they do not has made into Spain and back again. believe as another part does,

It is not improbable, that on the re, Spain is approaching nearer and treat Massena may leave the British Acarer to its crisis: but the mind of force to its own juactivity, and destroy

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the hopes of the Spanish nation at the real good and benefit of the peoCadiz.

ple, which has not already been antiThe Junta at Cadiz has published a cipated by the French? Will they spirited proclamation on the election have the courage to declare the press of members to the Cortez. They free; to abolish useless monasteries; speak truths, which it is jacobinical protest against the inquisition; reto utter in England. The oppressor store the injured rights of conscience of human nature, say they, would not If they do these things, whit support have advanced so far in his attempt will they have from that body which at universal despotism, if the na- resists the French, and yet hugs the tions under his irou sway had known chains of ecclesiastical domination? how to maintain the dignity of men We are fearful that the day is past for and citizens, a knowledge which con- Spain to act for itself. The power of stitutes the vigour and strength of the Cortez will spend itself in Cadiz; empire. Let not intrigue and seduc- we hope that it ma" not excite discoution surprise you in the very asylum tent. To deliver a country great of your liberty, dictating to you the minds are wanted; and the old Spaselection, which ought to be the un- nishevstem was efficacious in destroybiassed exercise of your wiil and plea- ing that energy which is requisite sure. Favour, friendship, rank, and when a kingdom is in danger.' This property, give no title; and it is not is a good lessou to all cortopt governby men possessing these that the coun- menis, but, like many other lessons, try is to be saved. Patriotism, talent, will be thrown away. merit, proved by experience, claim But, if old Spain now suffers the your attention. He who solicits your effects of its pernicious policy, and votes, and employs artifices to attract the abominable wickedness of its inpublic approbation, estimates at a low quisition, great hopes are excited that rate the independence of a generous its new world will be emancipated people, and ought to be marked by from its chains. The Caraccas bave you as a suspicious character. Suci set a noble example; and, if tliey pursentiments as these will be derided in sue the system laid down, they may England. We understand election defy every opposition to ileir inderepresentation much better. We pendence. The representative system know the value of a seat in parliament, is the basis of their new government, and can calculate precisely the qua- and the arming of the people is to be lities of voters. And Englishmen its defence. Lach district is to have love that it should be so. They can its regiment or company, and each see, with pleasure, a few stones or ini- company is to elect its own officers. serable cottages qualified to send They are to exercise frequently, and members to their assembly. To such to learn the use of weapons, agreeably men bow can the language of the Spa- to the old Saxon law, which supposed nish proclamation be addressed? Pre- that every Englishman should have vent all corrupt interfeience in the arnis in his house, and be expert in choice of your members, and recollect the use of them. W ben this was the case, that, if ye are unfaithful, ye will do it was apprehended tbat there would all in your power to promote the eter- be no danger from a foreign enemy, nal disgrace of your posterity. and the disturbers of the public peace

This fine language would have been would be cliecked with ease. of use when each district could as. cannot doubt that the new experisemble to choose its representatives, ments to be made in government in But fiom what quarters are they now these parts of ihe world will be of use, to come? Two-thirds of ibe country and that at any rate they will not are in possession of the French, and long be the dupes of European poof the rest few places have the oppor- litics. tunity of acting as the case requires. At Buenos Aires, the other extreWhen the Cortez is assen,bled on the mity of South America, similar mea. isle of Leon, how will the Junta like sures have been adopted. The old the restraints upon its authority?- authorities have been deposed, and What measures can be agitated; the representatives are summoned to What places will be obedient to their deliberate on the measures resolves ? What can they diciate for adopted in this imporiant crisis. The


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flame will run through the whole of The results on the trade and politics the Spanish colonies; and, after they of the old cannot be estimated. If it have established their governments, tends to the improvement of man. it will not be easy for the mother kind, we shall rejoice; and if Europe country, whether under a Bourbon or is doomed to sink, like Minor Asia, a Napoleon, to bring them back to into obscurity and barbarity, we shall their former state of ignorance, su- rejoice in the hope that civilisation perstition, and dependence A new and liberty may create new benefits scene is opening in the new world. in another hemisphere.


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