1. 36. dressed, adorned, decked.

P. 34, 11. 18-20. barbarous Europeans... metal, alluding to expeditions such as those of Raleigh to Guiana and of Cortez and Pizarro to Mexico and Peru.

1. 22. measure, limits allowed me.


P. 35, 1. 22. the Royal Exchange, in the City at the end of the Poultry, originally built by Sir Thomas Gresham, the great merchant-prince of the sixteenth century, and opened by Elizabeth in 1571; destroyed by the Great Fire of London in 1666 and again by fire in 1838. The present building was erected in 1844. 1. 26. emporium, market; Gk. éμπópios, commercial.

1. 27. high-change, the full assemblage of the principal merchants at the busiest time of the day.

1. 29. Factors, agents, brokers.

1. 31. correspondence, intercourse.

P. 36, 1. 6. ministers of commerce, who manage the affairs of commerce as ministers of State manage those of a nation.

1. 7. walks, manners of walking.

1. 17. connives at my presence, wink at my presence, pretends not to see me, the Spectator not having any official position there, being only an amateur among professional men.

1. 21. Coptic, the language of the ancient Egyptians, or Cophti. 1. 31. the public stock, the general store of wealth.

P. 37, 1. 3. every degree, i.e. of latitude.

1. 5. the sauce, that is thought appropriate as a seasoning, as helping to bring out the taste of the particular food.

1. 6. are corrected... Barbadoes, their acidity neutralized by sugar from the West India Islands.

1. 7. China plant, tea: Indian cane, the sugar cane.

1. 8. The Philippic Islands, or as we now call them "Philippine Islands," named after Philip the Second of Spain, by which country they were first conquered; their chief produce is the sugar cane.

1. 10. The muff, a sort of bag into which ladies thrust their hands in cold weather, often made of fur lined with silk.

1. 12. the tippet, the cape of a cloak; ultimately from Gk. Táπηs, a carpet, woollen rug, from which also the word 'tapestry.'

1. 13. brocade petticoat, petticoat made of brocade, a variegated silk stuff; from "Span. brocado, sb. brocade; also pp.

brocaded, embroidered with gold; which explains the use of brocade as an adjective"... (Skeat, Ety. Dict.).

1. 15. in its natural prospect, as seen in its natural state.

1. 18. originally, as indigenous.

1. 19. hips and haws, berries of the dog-rose and the hawthorn respectively. pig-nuts, an edible tuberous root, so called from the notion that pigs root it up and eat it; so the truffle, another root of similar character, is scented out by dogs trained for the purpose.

1. 20. delicacies, used ironically.

11. 21-3. can make... crab, in the endeavour to produce a plum gets no further than to produce a sloe, and in the way of an apple produces nothing better than a crab; the sloe is a small sour wild plum, the crab, a wild apple.

1. 27. trash, worthless stuff; the original sense is clippings of trees, or the bits of broken sticks found under trees in a wood and collected for fire-wood.

1. 34. our morning's draught, tea or coffee.

1. 36. drugs of America, such as quinine, etc.

P. 38, 1. 1. Indian canopies, curtains of muslin, chintz, etc. For canopies, see note p. 20, 1. 30.

1. 2. the spice-islands, the Moluccas.

1. 15. good offices, friendly acts.

1. 22. Change," Since 1800, erroneously treated as an abbreviation of Exchange, and written 'Change" (Murray, Eng. Dict.). 1. 29. vassals, subjects.


P. 39, 1. 25. party, person; a word no longer thus used by educated persons.

1. 26. are in course... them, whose turn it is to fill their places. 1. 27. wants, is without, lacks.

1. 29. to take a whet, to sharpen his appetite by some stimulant or other, such as sherry and bitters; A.S. hwdt, keen.

1. 30. a nooning, a draught at noon; what Shakespeare, i. H. IV. iii. 3. 84, calls a 'by-drinking,' i.e. a drinking between meals. So we speak of a 'night-cap,' something drunk at night to provoke sleep.

P. 40, ll. 1, 2. to his mind, suited to his inclinations.

1. 3. the steward never dies, a parody of the constitutional maxim that "the King never dies," i.e. that though the occupant of the throne dies, the succession is unbroken.

1. 5. elbow chair, arm-chair, a chair with supports for the elbows.

1. 7. a sede vacante, a meeting of the Club without some one to take the chair, to preside.

1. 11. the great fire, of London, in 1666.

1. 13. had like, was likely, was in danger of.

1. 20. the famous ... Clarendon. Addison seems to be referring to Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, xv. 26, where in the account of Blake's defeat of the Spanish Plate Fleet, September 8th, 9th, 1656, it is stated that "the Vice-Admiral, in which was the vice-King of Mexico, was fired by themselves to prevent being taken; in which the poor gentleman himself, his wife and eldest daughter perished."

1. 23. the great year of jubilee, the great year of rejoicing. The word jubilee comes ultimately from the Hebrew yóbel, a blast of a trumpet, a shout of joy Addison is here apparently referring to the Roman Catholic jubilee in honour of the accession to the Papal throne of Clement XI. in November, 1700. Such jubilees were first ordained by the Bull of Boniface VIII., in 1300, to be celebrated every hundred years by plenary indulgences obtainable on confession of sins and visits to certain churches. Later Popes reduced the intervals between the celebrations until they were fixed by Paul II. at every twenty-five years.

1. 27. a general club, a general meeting of the members of the club: nemine contradicente, without a single dissentient voice. 11. 31, 2, the best lights, the fullest information.

1. 33. their books in general, the official records of the club's affairs.

11. 35, 6. red port, the ordinary port wine, though there is a variety called 'white port,' made from a white variety of the same grape.


1. 36. kilderkin, a liquid measure of eighteen gallons. name was obviously given because it is only a small measure as compared with barrels, vats, or tuns. The literal sense is 'little child (Skeat, Ety. Dict.). Here the intention is to show that the members seldom contented themselves with the " poor creature, small beer," as Prince Hal calls it, ii. H. IV. ii. 2. Î3.

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P. 41, ll. 2, 3. Ben Jonson's Club, the Mermaid Tavern, on the south of Cheapside, between Bread Street and Friday Street, established by Ben Jonson in 1603, and numbering among its members Shakespeare, Beaumont, Fletcher, Selden, etc., etc.

1. 6. a vestal, the Vestal Virgins at Rome were maidens sacred to Vesta, the goddess of the hearth, and employed to keep the fire ever burning in the Temple, a sanctuary in the Forum, between the Capitoline and Palatine hills.


11. 8, 9. has seen... times, has continued burning while the furnaces of the glass-house have been lighted and extinguished a hundred times. Addison speaks as if at the time there was only one glass-house, i.e. glass manufactory, in London.

1. 11. Kit-Cat, in Shire Lane, off Fleet Street, a Club which first met in Westminster in the house of a pastry-cook called Christopher Cat or Catt (whence the name, ‘Kit' being the short or nick-name for Christopher'). The Club consisted of thirtynine of the leading men of the Whig party, and Addison was elected a member of it soon after his return from the Continent. October, another club, the resort especially of Tory squires and country gentlemen, and so called from the October ale, their favourite drink.

Il. 15, 6. taken the glass... together, have spent a week at a time in the clubhouse regularly drinking their share of the wine, etc., as it went round, never shirking their turn.

1. 19. a run of ale, a tun of ale; more common in the diminutive, 'runlet,' a measure of wine containing eighteen gallons and a half.

1. 21. whisk, the older spelling of whist, a game at cards played by four persons, two against two as partners.

1. 22. recovered, saved.

11. 22, 3. in all... desperate, as far as one could judge there was no hope of saving it.

1. 24. catches, "originally a short composition for three or more voices, which sing the same melody, the second singer beginning the first line as the first goes on to the second line, and so with each successive singer... Subsequently specially applied to rounds in which the words are so arranged as to produce ludicrous effects, one singer catching at the words of another" (Murray, Eng. Dict.).

1. 25. to moisten their clay, to refresh themselves with drink, for want of which they would be parched to dust; as though by constant drinking they might save their bodies from returning to the clay from which they were originally made, and thus become immortal. In moisten their clay there is probably also an allusion to the clay pipes they smoked.

11. 29, 30. confirm... fire-maker, confirm in her office of firemaker the old woman mentioned above. contributions, the shares to be paid by members.

1. 32. outlived... over, lived to see the election and resignation, or death, of all the members twice over; survived all those who became members at the same time with himself and all those elected when these had passed away.

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P. 42, 1. 5. an opera, of a drama in which the words are sung to the accompaniment of music instead of being spoken.

1. 6. Haymarket, see note p. 3, 1. 25.

1. 8. side boxes, boxes at an opera or theatre are compartments holding several persons and hired for a night or a series of nights by those who do not care to sit in the part of the building occupied by the general public; the side boxes are those on either side of the stage.

1. 10. patched differently, wore their patches in a different way. These patches, which came into fashion in Elizabeth's time, owed their origin either to the wish to conceal a blotch, pimple, blemish, on the face, or to an imitation of the mole which Venus was said to have had on her face. Fletcher, The Elder Brother, iii. 5. 194, speaks of "Some cut like stars, some in half-moons, some lozenges"; but they also took more extravagant shapes, being sometimes cut to resemble even a carriage and horses. Addison's satire is no exaggeration, for after the Peace of Utrecht party feeling ran so high that ladies appeared at the theatre wearing the badges of the political sect to which they adhered.

1. 11. on one hand, in the boxes on the one side.

1. 17. indifferently, without making any distinction.

11. 18, 9. and seemed... opera, a piece of Addison's playful satire upon so many of the audience who came to see and be seen, to admire and be admired, rather than for the legitimate purpose of listening to the music.

1. 19. Amazons, here so called from the party warfare they carried on; the Amazons were a mythical race of warlike females, said to have come from the Caucasus and to have settled in the country about the river Thermodon, in the neighbourhood of the modern Trebizond. The Greeks believed in their existence as a real historical race down to a late period, and the mention of them is frequent in classical literature.

11. 22, 3. whose faces... themselves, the owners of which had not yet made up their minds as to which party they would


1. 24. took their party with, allied themselves, took sides, with. 1. 27. The censorious, people fond of finding fault.

1. 28. whose... at, whose hearts these ladies aim at winning by means of their personal attractions.

1. 29. dishonoured, sc. by the absence of their ornament. P. 43, 1. 3. coquettes, vain flirts, women who are always

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