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that in all it bears the same Hebrew name which has come down along with it from the remotest antiquity. The word potsherd, which occurs occasionally in the Old Testament, chayrass, (Isaiah, xxx. 14; Job, xi. 8; Ps. xxii. 16), although popularly accepted as a broken piece of any earthen vessel, appears to mean properly a fragment of one of those sagars. Another accomplished Hebrew scholar tells me that although the Hebrew word for potsherd is, chay-rass, he is by no means sure that it is not derived from some Semitic word like sa-char, or sa-gar; for if the letters of chay-rass (Heb.) were transposed they would make say-char.
I am not, as I have said, sufficiently acquainted with Hebrew to form an opinion for myself, but the antiquity of the name for this peculiar article in the manufacture of earthenware is corroborative of that absence of change which is so remarkable in the potter's art during the revolution of ages, the principal contrivance employed, the potter's wheel, being essentially the same to-day, in Staffordshire and Sevres, as it is described in ancient writings and depicted on the monuments of Egypt.
J. EMERSON TENNENT.
TAMALA AND TAMRAKUTTAKA, SANSKRIT WORDS FOR TOBACCO (4th S. i. 517.)-The word Tamâla is undoubtedly good Sanskrit for tobacco, of orthodox usage, or it would not have been introduced by a learned Brahmin, of respectable character, into an Achloka, purporting, to the best of my recollection and belief, to have been extracted from one of the Purânas. Will any of your readers to whom I may have communicated the supposed discovery when in India kindly return any memoranda they may have of mine upon the subject. Jaya Deva, the author of the Mystical Poetry, quoted by SATJAM JAYATI, was an inhabitant of Bardwân, adjoining the Tamluk District, and Tamâla, as applied by him, may have meant tobacco fields, which would tend to confirm the derivation Tamâla Mulk, given for the name of the fort and city Tamluk, on the coast near Calcutta. Will SATJAM JAYATI, who tells us that tobacco is called Támrakuttaka, after its foreign name, in Wilson's Dictionary, be good enough to explain what is meant by saying there is no word in Sanskrit for tobacco, and that the word tamala cannot possibly occur in any Sanskrit work? R. R. W. ELLIS.
Starcross, near Exeter.
DOUGLAS RINGS: THE DOUGLAS HEART.
(4th S. i. 462, 562.)
It was with extreme pain and regret that I read the article by ANGLO-SCOTUs on this subject. There is no doubt that Mr. Cuming made a mis
take, but after the courteous and convincing communication of MR. MORGAN, the matter might well be allowed to drop; while Mr. Cuming's services to archæology, in exposing the long series of London forgeries, ought to have dictated a very
different tone of comment.
This is the more remarkable, as the communication of ANGLO-SCOTUS contains some of the strangest errors I ever saw,
1. He objects to Mr. Cuming calling the nobleman who was slain at Dumfries his great ancestor, and quotes the perfectly accurate statement of Mr. Riddell, that the descendants of that nobleman failed in the direct line. Was, however, the word ancestor ever confined to the direct line alone?
Shakespeare is an authority to the contrary. Take the speech of the Archbishop of Canterbury in Henry V. Act I. Sc. 2.:
"Gracious Lord, Stand for your own, unwind your bloody flag, Look back unto your mighty ancestors.
Go, my dread Lord, to your great grandsire's tomb,
2. A reference to plate 2, of the arms of the encouragers of his work, in vol. i. of Nisbet's Heraldry, will show that the crowned and winged heart was the crest of the Dukes of Queensberry.
As wings are also attached to the spur of the Johnstones, I suspect they were originally what Nisbet calls the border, charged with roses of the old Earls of March, viz. a badge of comital office, although they were subsequently adopted, or rather retained, by the families of younger sons.
I have sometimes conjectured that they were allied to the dragon wing of the eastern counties, both being derived from a Danish ensign. Certainly that nation had strong settlements in the eastern counties, while a great number of the local names in Annandale are derived from their language. I, however, throw out this idea merely as a vague guess, which may be true or may not.
Having heard Mr. Cuming read his paper, can testify that he gave the Douglases of Cavers their proper title. The introduction of the is simply an overlooked error of the press.
GEORGE VERE IRVING.
I possess a silver piece, said to have been engraved by Simon Passe, similar to that described as having been recently found at Grantham. The figure on the reverse, which MR. J. A. BOASE states is Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales, is, I believe, intended for King James's son Charles. The person represented wears a pointed beard of considerable size, and large curled mustachio, and is altogether very unlike a youth of eighteen (Henry was born in 1594, and died in 1612). The medal, if it may be so termed, was, I imagine, engraved at the latter end of the reign of James I., when Charles, Prince of Wales, was twenty-four or twenty-five years of age. The "king's son' the medal above referred to bears a strong resemblance to King Charles I. as represented on another piece engraved by Passe which I have before me, and is certainly the same person that is depicted in an old oil portrait belonging to me, which I take to be Charles, Prince of Wales. I do not remember any bearded portrait of Prince Henry, and I think all those exhibited at Kensington in 1866 were beardless. If my supposition is unfounded, I shall be glad to be corrected by MR. BOASE or by any other gentleman who may be able to furnish any information as to the time at which the piece was engraved. E. D. E.
This medalet, which I also possess, I thought until now represented on the reverse the effigy, not of Henry, the eldest son of James I., as stated by MR. JOHN J. A. BOASE, but of the still more hapless Prince Charles (the ill-fated Charles I.) with his peculiarly shaped nose (thick at the end, like his father's), and the well-known turned-up mustachio and pointed beard. May I be allowed to give my reasons for so thinking? I have lying before me a portraiture of that promising young man Henry, Prince of Wales, a mezzotinto engraving by Dunkarton. The prince is in armour; his head uncovered, in profile, without any beard; the legs outstretched, and making the lance exercise. Underneath is written:
"Henry Prince of Wales, Eldest Son of King James It, Obit Nov 6th 1612, Et. 18, from an extreme rare print by S. Pass."
At that age, in fact, he must have been a "beardless Apollo," whereas on the medal the
beard does not "demonstrate thinly," as Iago phrases it. The legends read thus:
"GIVE THY IUDGEMENTS O GOD UNTO THE (sic) KING AND THY RIGHTEOUSNESSE UNTO THE KING'S SON (sic).
I have besides this the impression of two other heads engraved on silver, somewhat larger and oval-shaped, of James I. and his queen Anne, evidently of the same workmanship. Here the king's head is uncovered, and the collar of the Order of the Garter is of a different pattern. Over the heads is a crown with the initials I. R. and A: R. Underneath, "Jacobus D. G. Mag. Britt. Fra. & Hyb. Rex," and "Anna, D. G. Mag. Britt. Fra. & Hyb. Regina."
On the sides "fe." (Simon Pass). The whole written backwards, which leads one to suppose that the medal thus engraven was not intended for reproduction on paper. It is very finely executed.
I have several other curious engravings of James I. Amongst others, a small one where he is represented with "Geo. Villiers, Mar. Buckingham, drawn from the window, and engraved by W. P. Sherlock. Upper compartment of a window in the Chicken House, Hampstead." Under the king's head is written in French: "Icy dans cette chambre coucha nostre Roy Jaques premier de nom le 25 Aoust 1619." Does this window still exist? P. A. L.
ST. THOMAS A BECKET (4th S. i. 604.)-I reply to F. S. A. that a chasuble of St. Thomas is preserved at Courtrai, another at Dixmude, and a set of his vestments at Sens. (See The Life of St. Thomas Becket by Canon Morris, p. 389.) In a former No. of "N. & Q." (2nd S. v. 242) he will find a communication by the undersigned, minutely describing one of the saint's mitres, then in the possession of the late Cardinal Wiseman, and now preserved by his successor Archbishop Manning, and mentioning another of his mitres as still remaining in the cathedral of Sens.
The very interesting old cope formerly belonging to Syon House I carefully examined about twenty years ago, at Alton Towers. It was then in the possession of John, Earl of Shrewsbury. He bequeathed all his magnificent collection of church vestments to the Very Rev. Dr. Rock.
F. C. H.
A-Becket's chasuble is probably at present in the treasury of the Cathedral of Sens, France, where many of his objects are, and where his mitre may likewise be. The "Syon cope" is exhibited at, and is the property of, the South Kensington Museum. A. S. C.
The chusable of St. Thomas of Canterbury is preserved at Sens Cathedral. In 1164 that prelate was obliged to fly from England and take
refuge in France, where he remained till 1170. Though much injured, enough remains to show the beauty and magnificence of the vestment. A mitre and apparel of the amice belonging to the same set are also preserved. The chusable is annually worn during mass on his festival. Beautiful drawings of these vestments are given by Mr. Shaw in his valuable work, Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages.
The cope of the earlier part of the thirteenth century, formerly belonging to the nuns of Syon House, is in the collection of the Earl of Shrewsbury. The hood is lost, but the orphrey is composed of armorial bearings, and on the body the crucifixion of our Lord, SS. Peter and Paul, St. Michael the Archangel, St. Stephen, and other saints are beautifully wrought in large intersecting quatrefoils. Papers by Mr. C. H. Hartshorne, giving much curious information on English mediæval embroidery will be found in the Archaological Journal, i. 334 and iv. 285.
At Aix-la-Chapelle a cope is preserved in the sacristy of the cathedral, with small silver bells attached to the lower edge. This is said to have been worn by Leo III. at the consecration of the church, in the presence of the Emperor Charlemagne, assisted by three hundred and sixty-five bishops. Mr. Walcott (Sacred Archæology, 183), says one at Canterbury had a little chime of one hundred and forty in 1108, and others sent by William I. to Clugny, or presented by Lanfranc, Ernulph, and Conrad to their minister, were so ornamented. I shall be glad to hear of other examples.
JOHN PIGGOT, JUN., F.S.A.
CURIOUS ORTHOGRAPHIC FACT (4th S. i. 571.)Will you allow me to answer, as a Frenchman, to the above? The monosyllabic sound which in French may be written. in sixteen or seventeen different ways, is an, or en. I send you twentyeight ways of writing it, and I am pretty sure I have not given all:
give the eighteen forms which it assumes. They are: sain s, suint s, sainte s (in Sainte Thérèse, les saintes vierges), sein 8, scigne s, je ceins, ceint s, ceinte s, (de) cinq. The doubt with me is, if the French have cinqs as they have uns, and as we have fives at cards, for instance. I only regarded complete words, but I think P. A. L. was right in including syllables. So, to his cin in " capucin I add sin in "sincère," and sim in "simplicité," thus bringing the whole number up to nineteen or twenty. Perhaps P. A. L. is aware that the seven forms I mentioned are those of verbs in er, as aimer, aimez, aimai, aimé s, aimée s. THOS. KEIGHTLEY.
DIDO AND ENEAS (4th S. i. 579.)—The lines are by James Smith of Rejected Addresses fame, and are to be found in his Memoirs, Letters, and Comic Miscellanies, edited by his brother Horace, 1840, vol. ii. p. 193. They are given with slight variations in The Life and Remains of Theodore Hook, by Barham, 1849, vol. i. p. 229, where they are characterised as " Mr. Smith's happiest effort," and are stated to have been sent by the author to Count D'Orsay with the following note:
"MY DEAR COUNT,-Will you give me Gallic immortality by translating the subjoined into French ?"
H. P. D.
CHARLES II.'S FLIGHT FROM WORCESTER (4th S. i. 593.)-I had not time to complete a short list of some passages in the Wolverhampton "Boscobel" when I sent my reply, printed on p. 593. I send them now.
At pages 18 and 24 the Lord Wilmot who attended the king, and was afterwards Earl of "This Rochester, is confounded with his son. nobleman was the famous and dissolute Earl of
Rochester." (P. 24.) He was father of that noted person.
paon paons banc
bancs champ champs rang
In the word itself we have em, as in emporium, and many other; I believe there are altogether thirty-four ways of writing en. J. C.
As P. A. L. seems to wish to know it, I will state that the French sound I had in mind was that of sain; and as I presume it will gratify him, I here
At p. 24 the vale of Evesham is described as the vale of Esham. At p. 39 the two well-known lines out of Drunken Barnaby's Itinerary are misquoted thus:
"He hung his cat on Monday
For killing a mouse on Sunday."
The writer makes no mention of Drunken Bar
naby's Itinerary. At p. 28 we read:-"Trent House is situated in Somersetshire, though bordering on the skirts of Devonshire." It is really situated on the other side of the county, on the skirts of Dorsetshire."
At page 48 we read:-"The next year, 1663,
witnessed the rupture with Holland. The Dutch fleet triumphantly sailed up the Thames and burnt the ships of war which lay at Chatham."
This seems to give 1663 as the date of the first Dutch triumph. It occurred in June, 1667. The retaining such matter as this in the second edition, from which I quote, is not in favour of the book.
I wish to add to what I said of Mr. Hughes's careful editing, that I hold several of his opinions, expressed in his Introduction, in the utmost disbelief and aversion.
Some readers of "N. & Q." may not know that the late Bishop Copleston suggested to Mr. Hughes that he should make the collection of Boscobel Tracts. Bishop Copleston's letter, laying down, with the finest criticism, the rules which should guide a person who investigates a history such as this, is printed in Mr. Hughes's Introduction.
Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells.
PARISH REGISTERS (4th S. i. 477, 582.)-I consider that the public are deeply indebted to the correspondents of "N. & Q." who have so emphatically referred to the subject of preserving our parochial and other public registers. I am not in a condition to add to what your correspondents have written respecting the parish records of England, but I have had occasion, while prosecuting some important inquiries, to search many public records throughout Scotland and Ireland. The Scottish Parish Registers of Births, Marriages, and Deaths are now deposited in the General Register House, Edinburgh, where they have been well bound and conveniently arranged; but they exhibit numerous blanks consequent on the imperfect custodiership of the past. The Kirk Session and Presbytery records are still retained in the houses of the several clerks, and are generally kept without the least regard to their national importance. To my knowledge they are frequently offered for sale with the private libraries of their custodiers, when ignorant survivors proceed to realise their effects. Synod records are kept as indifferently. The earlier records of the General Assembly were lost; they were afterwards found and deposited in the library of Sion College, and being temporarily removed to St. Stephens', Westminster, perished in the conflagration of the Houses of Parliament.
These belong to the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts. But there other public records in Scotland which are kept as badly or worse. Will it be credited that the Sheriff Court records, which contain so many entries bearing on the rights of property, are in many counties degraded into dingy and filthy cellars, where they are suffering rapid and sure decay? Even where they have been arranged in presses they have been permitted to suffer from the damp of unfired chambers. The
Town Council and Guildry records are generally better kept, but hundreds of these volumes are also in a state of decay.
In Ireland most of the parish registers have been lost. The Cathedral records are kept in the buildings, and have generally contracted mildew. The records of the Presbyterian churches, I believe, are better kept, yet most imperfectly. Of the records of the Irish Roman Catholic Church I know nothing. The records of the Prerogative or Probate Courts are, I admit, in a more satisfactory state, though all the original wills are not forthcoming.
A remedy is simple. Let a competent judicious individual be appointed, with a staff of assistants, to negotiate the proper preservation of the different records in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and under his direction let indices, &c. be prepared. I will return to this subject again. CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D.
Snowdoun Villa, Lewisham, S.E.
TOMBSTONE INSCRIPTIONS (4th S. i. 581.) - In reply to the query of T. P. F. I beg to state that stone to the surface of a tombstone will remove the application by friction of a piece of sandevery incrustation, and render any inscription perstill unfinished work on the churchyards of Scotfectly legible. In the course of preparing my land I adopted the method now suggested on several hundred tombstones, and always with a satisfactory result. The sandstone should be soft and friable. The surface should then be carefully brushed. A very little rubbing is required. CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D. Snowdoun Villa, Lewisham, S.E.
CAVE OF ADULLAM (3rd S. x. 341.)-I do not know whether the following use of this expression has been before noted; but it will be seen that it dates prior to Mr. Bright's use of it:
"The determined band who did this daring deed [murdered Cardinal Beatoun] kept possession of the castle. They were joined by many friends. The Castle of St. Andrews became a Cave of Adullum, in which numbers who feared the tyranny of the government sought shelter. John Knox, whose life the priests eagerly sought, took refuge there among the rest.”—Mackenzie's History of Scotland. Nelson, 1863. T. T. W.
CEREMONIAL AT INDUCTION (4th S. i. 484, 565.) It may be interesting in connection with this topic to make a note of the ceremonial observed in the Episcopal Church of North America at the "induction or institution of ministers into parishes or churches." For this a special office is provided in the American Prayer-book. A clergyman, standing within the altar-rails, acts institutor, in whose presence the senior warden, or some other member of the vestry, presents the keys of the church to the new incumbent with appropriate words. After sundry prayers, the
incumbent is received within the altar-rails, and has presented to him the Bible, Book of Common Prayer, and Books of Canons of the General Convention. Suitable prayers and a sermon follow, the service concluding with the administration of the Lord's Supper by the new incumbent.
mountains, known as "the Skalp." This singular chasm is an abrupt, narrow, and precipitous rift in the otherwise unbroken chain of hills, and its local designation is probably as old as the Danish occupation of that part of Ireland now referable to some of those terms of the Norsemen of which MR. SKEAT has given illustrations in the Icelandic skelfa and the Danish skiælve.
There is a second locality in Ireland which bears the name of "Scalp," between Gort and Loughrea, in the county of Galway; but whether there is any similar geological peculiarity to identify the name, I am not able to say.
J. EMERSON TENNENT.
"The great fish was not a whale, because this is extremely rare in the Mediterranean, and has too small a
THE LIVING SKELETON, CLAUDE AMBROISE SEURAT (4th S. i. 484.)—Your correspondent will find a short notice of Seurat in Debay's Histoire Naturelle, p. 174. This refers to an examination of him in France at the end of the year 1832, when he was thirty-four years old. His weight is given as forty-three pounds (French), and his height five feet three inches. Hone's account of MARVELLOUS STORIES OF SHARKS (3rd S. xii. him is far more complete than Debay's. The two 348, 470.)-See further, Keil & Delitzsh, -Comauthors do not agree as to the date of his birth.mentary on the Twelve Minor Prophets, Jonah," Debay has it April 4, 1798. In the third series translated by Martin (Edinburgh, 1867):— of Dr. Buckland's Curiosities of Natural History (vol. ii. p. 91), an article from The Field newspaper, signed "H. G., Paris," is reproduced. It contains an account of Seurat, who was then, in 1833, performing at Dinan in Brittany. The nature of his entertainment seems to have been the rope trick, lately made so notorious by the Davenport Brothers: only that, in lieu of ropes, he made use of chains. How such a lean creature as Seurat-who, according to Hone, was almost entirely devoid of muscles-managed to perform this trick with success, will appear to those who are acquainted with the mode of operation a puzzle. Perhaps, however, he too was in league with the spirits! It is further mentioned that Seurat had promised his body after death to the Hôtel Dieu at Paris. He must have changed his mind, therefore, after he left England. I have not yet been able to ascertain the date of his death. Who knows whether the poor fellow may not still be going the round of the French
GILBERT R. REDGRAVE.
throat to swallow a man; but a large shark or sea-dog, Canis carcharias, or Squalus carcharias, L., which is very common in the Mediterranean, and has so large a throat that it can swallow a living man whole. Oken mentions that in the year 1758 a sailor fell overboard and was immediately taken into the jaws of a sea-dog and disappeared. The captain, however, ordered a gun, which was standing on deck, to be discharged at the shark, and the ball struck it, so that it vomited up the sailor that it had swallowed, who was then taken up alive, and very little hurt, into the boat that had been lowered for his
THE PRIOR'S PASTORAL STAFF (4th S. i. 592.)— If the objects inquired for by P. are really "mallets," I can offer no explanation. But I am inclined to think that they are heraldic representations of the staff used by the "rectores chori," or directors of the choir. I have an impression of the seal of a cantor of the diocese of Ferns, with this
legend-"S. GALFRIDI CANTORIS FERNENSIS"-
RUDEE: DEFAME: BIRRE (4th S. i. 14, 84.)— 1. A. H. has apparently forgotten that Wiclif translated from the Vulgate. This, in St. Matt. ix. 16, has commissuram panni rudis, and rudee looks like one of Wiclif's Latinate words, unless the Sussex rudy=rude (Halliw. Dict.) represent a word older than Wiclif's age, and the first form of our rude. In St. Mark ii. 21 (the only other place where we find rudis in the Vulgate N. T.)— panni rudis assumentum is translated a pacche of
newe clothe." But there must be a variation in Wiclif's versions. In that given in Bagster's Engl. Hexapla the words of St. Matt. ix. 16 are a cloute of boistous clooth," as to which word the Prompt. Parv. gives boystows (or clubbyd= rudis); and in a note elsewhere it is said to mean