did not possess while their bodily organs were in a more active state, while their senses clogged their souls.

P. 126, 1. 7. inflamed, roused to greater warmth.

1. 17. as consequentially, in as regular an order of circumstances.

1. 24. arise in her, come into her thoughts.

11. 28, 9. after the same manner... awake, in the same degree that it is sensible of being distinct from the body in her waking hours.

P. 127, 1. 1. by the way, incidentally, as a passing remark.

11. 2, 3. of producing... company, of calling into existence companions to herself.

1. 5. of her own raising, called up by herself.

1. 8. Plutarch, the Greek biographer and philosopher who flourished in the first century of the present era. Heraclitus, of Ephesus, a Greek philosopher who flourished about B. C. 510.

1. 11. is conversant ... nature, holds converse with, is concerned with, the natural world around him, a world in which all other human beings have their share.

1. 15. admired, wondered at.

1. 17. Tertullian, Q. Septimius Florens, the earliest of the Latin 'fathers,' or writers on Christianity, a native of Carthage, about A.D. 160-240.

1. 18. divining, foreseeing the future.

11. 26, 7. subordinate spirits, ministers of the Supreme Being. 11. 27, 8. the matter of fact, the actual fact.

1. 35. actuates, stirs to action, animates, gives impulse to: machine, the body; literally something contrived.

1. 36. The corporeal union, the union with the body.

P. 128, 1. 1. more play, greater freedom of action.

1. 2. spring, activity, liveliness.

1. 6. independence on the body, not being dependent on the body.

1. 18. pure, mere, without any foundation in truth.


1. 14. took, was welcomed, made a favourable impression upon he readers of The Spectator.

11. 15, 6. dear confounded creatures, loveable but perplexing creatures; confounded in this use is a colloquial euphemism for

'accursed,'' doomed to perdition,' formerly applied in a much stronger sense than at present.

1. 21. called Herodotus, i.e. a translation of the Greek historian, supposed by Will. Honeycomb to be an English work.

P. 129, 1. 3. culled out, chose out, picked out.

1. 4. the fair, the market held for their sale: picked, culled or stripped of the more beautiful specimens.

11. 6, 7. could not go ... beauty, could not afford to bid a sum that would purchase one of the more beautiful of the women. the agreeables, the more pleasant-natured of the women as opposed to those whose charms consisted in their beauty only.

1. 14. put off, got rid of by auction.

11. 18, 9. to take up with a fortune, to unite himself with one who had a large sum of money as her dowry.

1. 22. her portion, the money with which she had been endowed. 1. 27. carmen, drivers of cars or cabs. titles and garters, men of title and Knights of the Garter, the highest order of knighthood in England, and only conferred on the greatest and most distinguished men.

11. 29, 30. confoundedly afraid, terribly afraid; here again 'confounded' is used in much the same way as in the earlier part of the essay.


1. 34. the toasts and belles, a hendiadys for 'the beauties who are so often the subjects of toasts.' The story of the origin of the present use of the word toasts is given in the Tatler, No. 24, June 4, 1709. Many wits of the last age will assert that the word, in its present sense, was known among them in their youth, and had its rise from an accident at the town of Bath, in the reign of King Charles the Second. It happened that, on a public day, a celebrated beauty of those times was in the Cross Bath, and one of the crowd of her admirers took a glass of the water in which the fair one stood, and drank her health to the company. There was in the place a gay fellow half fuddled who offered to jump in, and swore that though he liked not the liquor he would have the toast. He was opposed in his resolution; yet his whim gave foundation to the present honour which is done to the lady we mention in our liquors, who has ever since been called a toast.' Whether the story be true or not, it may be seen that a toast, i.e. a health, easily took its name from being the usual accompaniment to liquor, especially in loving-cups, etc." (Skeat, Ety. Dict.). P. 130, 1. 1. politics, politicians.

1. 2. the upper ... species, the higher ranks of society.

1. 12. chapmen, traders, bargainers; from O. E. céap, barter, business, and mann, man.


1. 14. unsight unseen, neither purchase nor purchaser seeing the other; cp. Massinger, The Old Law, iii. 1, "Unsight, unseen, I take three to one,' i.e. at a hazard, without any certainty in

the matter.

1. 23. mandarin, a governor of a Chinese province.

P. 131, 1. 7. had made those abatements, had lowered the price at which she was to be marked for sale.

1. 8. a scold, an ill-tempered, shrewish woman.

1. 9. the top of the market, the most highly priced of those for sale.

1. 10. romps, girls fond of noisy, boisterous play.

1. 13. should go off... two, should find more eager bidders.

1. 18. railleries, pungent jests, scoffs.

1. 20. well with them, high in their favour.


1. 27. sensibly, keenly, feelingly.

P. 132, ll. 5, 6. very warmly... penning, eagerly advocating the adoption of an address which he had himself composed.

1. 20. country, neighbourhood.

11. 27, 8. had lost... stomach, had no appetite for roast beef; a dish of which he was always so fond.

1. 31. kept a good heart, retained his usual good spirits.

11. 32, 3. upon a kind message, on his receiving a kind message. 1. 35. a lightning before... death, a last bright flicker of the flame of death before it went out for ever. From Romeo and Juliet, v. 3. 90.

P. 133, 1. 2. my good old lady, the good old mistress whom I served.

1. 6. tenement, a holding, a dwelling inhabited by a tenant. 1. S. frieze coat, a coat made of a coarse woollen cloth; literally cloth of Friesland.

1. 9. riding-hood, such as were worn by women riding to market.

1. 17. peremptorily, confidently, as being a matter of certainty. 1. 21. made. end, died peacefully and with resignation to God's will; cp. H. V. ii. 3. 11, "A' made a finer end and went away an it had been any christian child," said of the dying Falstaff.

1. 25. the quorum, see note, p. 6, 1. 28.

1. 34. quit-rents, rents reserved in grants of land by payment of which the tenant is quit from other service, but in this case charges upon the estate; quit is here used in its adjectival sense, and no hyphen is necessary.

1. 36. makes much of, treats with great kindness.

P. 134, 1. 4. joyed himself, been cheerful.

11. 17, 8. Act of Uniformity, see note, p. 11, 11. 29, 30.


P. 135, 1. 16. Mr. Congreve's Old Bachelor, Congreve's earliest comedy, produced in 1693.

1. 20. amends, reparation; a plural noun. An amende honorable is a common French phrase for a full reparation of an injury, insult, etc.

1. 21. yoke-fellow, see note, p. 15, 1. 30. Hymen, the Greek god of marriage.

1. 28. The Templar, the barrister; see Essay No. 2.

11. 30, 1. sets... can, speaks of his marriage as cheerfully as he


P. 136, 1. 8. every great fortune, every rich heiress.

1. 13. dashed, mingled, spiced.

1. 14. cant-phrases, bits of slang, fashionable jargon. To 'cant' was originally to sing in a whining way.

1. 15. pretty, pleasant.

1. 21. dog of a steward, rascally steward.

1. 23. in sin and sea-coal, in the dissipations and comforts of a town life; sea-coal, coal brought from the pits by sea.

1. 25. abroad, in the open air.

1. 27. purling, flowing with a murmuring sound.

1. 32. honest, respectable.

1. 33. portion, dowry.

1. 35. unaffected turn, it not being distorted by artificial restraints of dress, such as stays, etc.

1. 36. shot... through, fatally wounded my heart.


P. 137, 1. 1. grogram, a stuff made of silk and mohair ..... so called because made of a coarse grain or texture .F. gros, great, coarse; and grain, grain" (Skeat, Ety. Dict.).

1. 2. brocade, see note, p. 37, 1. 13.
1. 6. alliances, sc. with noble families.

1. 8. fine, showy.
1. 9. graces, favour.


11. 15, 6. I saw. up, I saw that such a tribe, etc., had shot up, or, I had seen such a tribe, etc., shoot up.

1. 16. fluttering, making a great show in their smart costumes. 1. 17. homme de ruelle, man about town, man of fashion; from F. ruelle, a little street, diminutive of rue, a street.

1. 19. jauntiness of air, vivacity; jauntiness from the verb to 'jaunt,' to ramble idly about.

11. 20, 1. I have been... years, i.e. has for the last twelve years given himself out as being but forty-eight years of age.

1. 24. fire, vivacity, spirit.

1. 25. knows the town, is well acquainted with London life.

1. 26. suitable, in a manner suitable.


P. 138, 11. 8, 9. when she was... age, in days when life was prolonged to nearly a thousand years, a girl of seventy would be in her early youth.

1. 26. made so quick... courtship, got through the period of his love-making so quickly.

1. 29. pretended to, sought to win the love of.

P. 139, l. 19. renewed his court, began again to make love.

P. 140, l. 11. gloomy scenes, shady retreats.

1. 26. covering... forests, seeking to hide myself in woods and forests from the light of the sun, of which I have grown so weary.

P. 141, ll. 2, 3. is the admiration...centuries, is a thing which does not last long, a thing which after a time ceases to cause admiration; a century being in those days regarded as a short period.

1. 6. unless... roots, i.e. unless it is reproduced in the descendants of its original possessor.

1. 10. billet-doux, see note, p. 95, l. 17.

HILPA AND SHALUM-Continued. No. 585.

11. 25, 6. art thou not...meadows? do you not in reality care more for my possessions than for myself?

P. 142, 1. 18. a treat, a diversion got up for her sake.

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