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fhop founded a Univerfity here. In 1622, Duke Christian of Brunswick, Bishop of Halberstadt, posfefs'd himself of the beft Part of this Bishopric, and made a confiderable Booty in this City, efpecially of the Gold and Silver Images of Saints, among which, that in Gold of St. Liborius, weigh'd eighty Pounds, all which he had the Grace to put into a new Form, by recommending them to the Care of the Mafter of his Mint. In 1635, it was taken by Landgrave William of Heffe, but deliver'd up to the Emperor, in 1636. In 1646, it furrender'd,on Difcretion, to the Swedes and Heffians, under the Command of the General Field-Marfhal, Charles Gustavus Wrangel; but towards the Conclufion of the fame Year, when the Heffians began to fortify it, they were drove out of it by Francis William, Bishop of Ofnabrug; after which enfued the treaty of Weftphalia. The prefent Bifhop is Prince Clement Auguftus of Bavaria, who, as I have faid above, was elected in 1719, and is a Prince of the Empire, as Bishop of Paderborn. The Chapter confifts of twenty-four Canons, whofe Qualifications confift in being paft the Age of twenty-one, having studied in fome Univerfity of France or Italy, and proving their Nobility for fixteen Generations The Bishops have their Refidence at an ancient Palace, call'd Neubaufz, two German Miles from thence, built in 1590, by Theodoric, of Furftenburg; which I was to fee, but found nothing there worthy of Remark.
THE City of Paderborn is now handsomely built, and fome of the Churches magnificent. As you
(*) In this Bishopric, is the famous Field of Battle, where Quintilius Varus, with the Roman Army under his Command, was outed by the ancient Germans, under the Command of Arminius, and the latter thereby freed from the Roman Yoke. See my Tranflation of Dr. Mafcon's Hiftory of the Ancient Germans. Vol. 1. p. 94.
have yourself travell'd in Roman Catholic Countries, and are acquainted with the Manner of adorning their Churches, as well as their ridiculous Ceremonies, I fhall not detain you with a Relation of them; but, instead thereof, give you an Account of a diverting, or rather fhocking Sight, I met with in one of the Churches of this Place. It being, as I have faid before, Lent, and my travelling Companion being oblig'd to stay here fome Days, my first Thought, after I came to our Lodgings, was how to get a License to eat meat. My Landlord carried me, for that End, to the Curate of his Parifh, who, after fome Expoftulation with me, on the Neceffity of it, on Account of my pretended ill State of Health, told me, he would gratify me in it for a Week; but that he was obliged to enjoin me a fmall Pennance for it, which, however, he would likewife remit me, upon my buying, of a Print-feller who had his Stall in the Porch of his Church, fix Impreffions or Prints of the Virgin Mary's Foot, the exact Dimensions of which he had obtain'd by a very great Miracle, and had caufed it to be engrav'd at his own Charge. As the whole Expence was but a Guilder, I readily complied, and had a Permiffion accordingly. But while I was purchasing those Prints, I obferv'd upon the Stall, among other facred Trumpery, a Box containing a large Number of Heads, Legs, Arms, and, in fhort, of every Member of a human Body (not excepting the Pudenda of both Sexes) handfomely reprefented in, yellow and white Wax, the largest not above the Length of a little Finger. As I was mightily pleas'd with the Beauty of thefe religious Nicknacks, I was as curious to know the Virtue or Ule of them. My Landlord, who, I found, was out of Danger of dying a Martyr to his Religion, told me, if I would ftep into the Church he would fhew
me. He thereupon led me to a hand fom Altar, on which was an Image of the Virgin Mary, adorn'd with thefe pretty Trinkets from Head to Foot; and told me this Image had the Virtue of healing all Manner of Ailments in thofe who, with "a fteady Faith, addrefs'd themfelves to it for "nine fucceffive Mornings; and that, if at any "Time it failed, the Fault was in the Patient's "Unbelief, but by no Means in the Phyfician. "Now (continued he) it is cuftomary for those "who receive any Favours from this miraculous is Image, to buy the Reprefentation of the Limb, "in which the Complaint lay, and having N.B. "firft caufed it to be blefs'd and fprinkled with
Holy Water, by a Prieft, to offer it, in Grati"tude, or as a Memorial of the Benefit, at the "Altar from whence it came; for which, as well "as for confecrating of it, certain Fees or Dues "are demanded: And fo infatiable are thefe ho"ly Men of Gain, that they even appropriate to "themfelves the Profits arifing from the Sale of "this facred Frippery, allowing their Factors only "a certain Proportion of it *". I had the Curiofity to buy as much of this Commodity as, be
* I have myself feen fomething of this Nature in the Cathedral of Mentz; But whether there were any of those Parts which our Author hints at in his Parenthefis, I camot fo pofitively affirm: But this I have been affured, by Perfons of Conbted Credit; that at a certain Nunnery within the Circle of Wetphalia, there is a Well, of which it is affirm'd, that it has the Power, on only one Day in the Year, of curing all manner of Ailments, but more particularly a certain fashionable Disease, by Sympathy; if the Reprefentatives of the Parts affected be immerged, that Day, into this holy Well, by the Hands of one of the Nuns. However, as this is a Point too tender to be handled, with any Safety, by the junior Nuns; I prefume, this facred Mystery is only manag'd by the Lady Abbefs, or fome of the
ing fet together, would have made me a pretty naked Figure of each Sex: But when I came to review them at Home, I found I was bit of my Mony, and that they were fit for nothing but the Ufe they were defigned for, being neither pair'd nor match'd, and withal as hollow as the Heartsof thofe by whom they were created for this holy Ufe. I am, with great Truth, &c.
ROM Paderborn, my Companion fent a way his Book-keeper, the nearest Road to Leipzick, by the Way of Caffel; which he told me, he could ride Poft in a Night or a Day; I refolv'd, therefore, to accompany him thither, and return before the Time fix'd for our Departure. Accordingly, it being Moonlight, we departed in the Evening, that I might have the whole next Day to fpend in Caffel, and came back, the fame Way, the Night following. We arrived at Caffel about Eight the next Morning, and, having refresh'd ourselves, at an Inn, fpent the Remainder of the Day in viewing the Place.
CASSEL is the Refidence of the Landgraves of Heffe-Caffel, which is not only the eldeft Line, but by far the most confiderable and powerful, of the Houfe of Heffe, and is diftinguish'd by the Name of this City. Some pretend to derive the Name of this Place from an ancient German People, cali'd
Cafuarii; Others will have it, that it was the Stereontium of Ptolemy; but Cluverius and Bertius plainly fhew it was, among the ancient Germans, call'd Caftellum Cattorum. About the Year 1008, there were yet, in this Place, the Remains of an ancient Castle, with only a Farm adjoining to it: And about the Year 1152, Henry Rafpo renewed the ancient Castle, and began to build a Town near it; on which Occafion, Wolffs-Anger, then a Town near this Place, began by Degrees to decay, and being afterwards almoft wholly deftroy'd by Fire, is now become a Village: But Caffel, by the particular Favour of its Landgraves, yearly encreas'd in Houses and Riches. Philip the Magnanimous, firft encompafs'd the Caftle, in 1523, and the City in 1526, with Walls, and tho', upon his being made a Prifoner by the Emperor, they were demolish'd by the Spaniards, and the Cannon carried away, they were rebuilt by him, after his Releafe, and ftrengthened with Bulwarks, and other Fortifications, by his Son William, which were greatly encreas'd and compleated by the prefent Landgrave Charles. The River Fulda divides this City into two Parts, the old and new Town, of which the former is not only the largeft, and by far the best built, but contains the Palace of the Landgraves, a magnificent Building, fituate on the River, and fortified. The prefent Landgrave has likewife built another new Town, at his own Expence, all modern brick Houfes, which, being chiefly inhabited by French Refugees, who have likewife their Church here, is call'd the French Town. This City, and the Neighbourhood of it, afford more Curiofities than I had Time to vifit; I therefore confin'd my
He is fince dead, and is fucceeded by his eldest Son, the prefent King of Sweden.