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should be much obliged if any correspondent within the closet, administered the powder
of 'N. & Q.' could inform me if any traditions
of this well still exist in the neighbourhood.

RAINSFORD HALL.-I should be ever obliged if you could kindly tell me what number of The Illustrated London News contained a picture of Rainsford Hall, co. Lancaster. I think that it was about the year 1870, but it may have been at a much earlier date. The Hall was built by Sir John Rainsford, Knt., circa 1550, and is represented in The Illustrated London News as having been "lately destroyed by fire." I hunted in our National Library here; but I had to draw it blank. FREDK. RAINSFORD.

86, Haddington Road, Dublin.

PRISONS IN PARIS DURING THE REVOLUTION.-Will any of your readers kindly tell me where I can get information about the above? I wish to know what rules and regulations were in force during the Reign of Terror, particularly with regard to the treatment, feeding, and general supervision of the aristocrat prisoners. Any facts relating to their prison life and routine would be especially valued. Also, were the sexes segregated, or confined in separate quarters (or prisons)? or were they allowed to mix together? E. W.-L.


HAIR POWDERING CLOSETS.-On the second floor of the old palace at Kew (known as 'the Dutch House" from its having been built, in 1631, by Samuel Forterie or Fortrey, & Dutch gentleman and merchant of London) are the bedrooms once used by the princesses, daughters of George III. The rooms-not open to general visitors - are now quite vacant, retaining only as relics of the past the old wainscoting and some primitive wall-paper on canvas; nor are the fireplaces notable except in the case of one, which from its character appears to have belonged to the old Tudor mansion that preceded the Dutch House on the same site. There is, however, a small room or closet which provokes a question. It is said to have served the princesses for their hair-powdering, and is therefore extremely interesting. The closet is partitioned off one of the rooms, is scarcely ten feet square, and is lighted by a small casement which borrows its light from a window opposite to it. The casement or sash-three feet wide-works up and down in the usual manner, the sill being thirtytwo inches above the floor, and one is told that the lady, outside the closet, placed her neck on the sill while the operator,

to the fair head, the object being that the hair only should be thus dusted, and the dress of the lady saved from the pounce-box.

The process, however, seeming neither practical nor comfortable (the possible would ask for information guillotine action of the sash considered), I as to hairpowdering closets from any kind reader who may have a larger acquaintance with W. L. RUTTON.


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LORD BATHURST AND THE HIGHWAYMAN. In T. P.'s Weekly, 29 September, there is an anecdote which relates that Lord Bathurst said to a highwayman, "I would never hand these over were it not for your friend just behind your shoulder." Taken off his guard, the gentleman of the road instinctively turned his head to discover who was so near him, and was instantly shot by the peer. Whence is this story derived? how old is it? and how many versions are current? I am informed that in Lincolnshire its hero is a country squire. J. E.

MARTIN MALAPERT.-The following passage occurs in 'A Treatise concerning the Right Use and Ordering of Bees.' by Edmund Southerne, Gent., London, 1593:

"Yet I remember once there was a Gentleman, a very friend of mine, which had good store of Bees, unto whom the Parson (who yet liveth, and I feare is one of Martin Malapert's house) came and demanded tythe Bees."

What is the meaning of the clause within parentheses, and why Martin?


Leeford, Budleigh Salterton. of your any

readers name

HERALDRY.-Can the following coats?— 1. Quarterly, gules and or, on a bend or two falcons azure, a label of three points argent.

2. Sable, an escallop and three pales in chief or. Motto, EN FYN SOIT.

The glass is seventeenth century, and the arms are not given in Papworth.


West Haddon, Northamptonshire.


"FOUNTAIN-HEADS AND PATHLESS GROVES." -Can any reader give the origin of these verses, quoted in Emerson's essay on 'Love'? Fountain-heads and pathless groves, Places which pale passion loves, Moonlight walks, when all the fowls Are safely housed, save bats and owls, A midnight bell, a passing groanThese are the sounds we feed upon.

I thought they belonged to Keats, but cannot find them, and should not have suspected him of the inaccuracy of describing a bat as a fowl.



[They are by Beaumont, are the second part of Melancholy, beginning Hence, all you vain delights," and are imitated by Milton in Il Penseroso.']

EARLY LIFT.-In the 'Greville Memoirs' (Genoa, 18 March, 1830, evening) there is a reference to the king and queen, who "for the comfort of their bodies had a machine made like a car, which is drawn up by a chain from the bottom to the top of the house; it holds about six people, who can be at pleasure elevated to any story, and at each landing-place there is a contri

vance to let them in and out.'

Is this the first mention of anything approaching our modern "lift"?


15, Grosvenor Road, Westminster, S. W. [See 7th S. x. 85; 8th S. x. 412, 465; xi. 154; 9th S. vi. 313.]




(10th S. iv. 289.)

EIGHTEEN years ago (see 7th S. vii. 301) I showed that the Anglo-Saxon names of the months were given on much the same principle as we now employ the phrases "Harvest Moon" and the like. I also showed that the familiar statements about these months, which have been cited over and over again from Verstegan, are nearly all baseless, and due to Verstegan's extreme boldness of invention and bluster. Perhaps it may be interesting to give the modern equivalents of the A.-S. names once more, beginning with January. They are: 1. The latter Yule; 2. Mud month; 3. Hretha's month (Hretha was a goddess worshipped by the English in their heathen days); 4. Easter month (Easter was also a goddess); 5. Three milkings month; 6. The former Lithe (i.e., warm month); 7. The latter Lithe; 8. Weed month; 9. Holy month; 10. Stormdown leaves and broken boughs); 11. Sacrifelling month (the month when storms bring fice month; 12. The former Yule.

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For a fuller account see the article referred to. I regret to say that "Mud month" is as WALTER W. SKEAT. appropriate as ever. In South Lincolnshire forty years ago the CUSTOM OF THRAVES.-I shall be glad to following were in use: August, Haymakers'; learn the origin of this church custom.

Royal Institution, Hull.


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September, Harvest or Harvesters'; October, Shooters'; November, Hunters'. The lateness of the first two is accounted for by their having been interchanged in old days; before the inclosures (see General View of the Agriculture of the County of Lincoln,' 1799, drawn up for the Board of Agriculture by its Secretary, p. 195) hay was cut, left in swarth, unturned, until it became yellow, and gathered in September after the corn makers' month, and August the harvesters'. harvest; thus September was then the hayALFRED WELBY.

Your correspondent VALTYNE asks for names of different moons. I find in Longfellow's "the Moon of Snow. Song of Hiawatha' shoes," "the Moon of Leaves," and "the Moon of Strawberries." The references will be found in canto ii. :

In the night when nights are brightest,
In the dreary Moon of Snow Shoes.

LYRICAL BALLADS': MOTTO.-Can any of your readers help me as to the source of the motto which Wordsworth put on the title- In canto v.:— page of the 1800 edition of 'Lyrical Ballads'?


Quam nihil ad genium, Papiniane, tuum.


First he built a lodge for fasting,
In the Moon of Leaves he built it.
In canto vii. :-

When the birds were singing gaily,
In the Moon of Leaves were singing.

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There is "running in my head" the opening verse of an old glee, given below, which may be of interest to your correspondent, although it does not support his provisional arrangement of " moon names":

Come out, 'tis now September,
The Hunters' Moon's begun,
And through the wheaten stubble
Is heard the frequent gun.


[The glee in question was sung forty odd years ago at Evans's.]

"SACRE PAGINE PROFESSOR" (10th S. iv. 188, 273).—Anent the notes on this subject that have already appeared, perhaps the subjoined remarks may not be out of place.

1. That the expression "Sacra Pagina" does signify Holy Writ may be, I think, established by a reference to the third anti phon of the Office of Lauds for the feast of Pope St. Gregory the Great, 12 March, which is as follows: "Dum paginæ sacræ mysteria panderet, columba nive candidior apparuit," the allusion being, of course, to St. Gregory's study of the Scriptures. And à propos of the same idea, the seventh verse of the hymn Anglorum jam Apostolus,' by St. Peter Damien, which is said at Vespers and Lauds on that day, runs thus:


Scripturæ sacræ mystica
Mire solvis ænigmata:
Theorica mysteria

Te docet ipsa Veritas.

division between the two sciences as we know them now; so that we find that even the greatest of the commentators was styled, not "S. Pag. Doctor," but "Theologus." Thus, for example, the famous Cornelius à Lapide, in his great work on Scripture, is referred to, by the Censor Deputatus, by the General of the Order, and by the Provincial of the Society in Flanders, merely as "Societatis nostræ Theologus." And there also, in the "Summa Privilegii Regii Philippi-Dei gratia licus," he is somewhat further particularized Hispaniarum, Indiarum, &c.......Rex Cathoas a theologian and as "Sacrarum Litterarum olim in collegio Romano Professor." Here, naturally, as in the modern acceptation of the word, the term Professor" simply implied that the person indicated occupied the the University of Louvain was specially reChair of Scripture at the said college. Further, markable for the prominence given there to the study of the Sacred Scriptures in the theological course; but is there any evidence of a "degree" being given? Lamy himself, in his 'Introductio in Sacram Scripturam,' is designated in the prefatory notes as merely "S. Theologiæ Doctor; Hermeneuticæ Sacræ et Lingg. Orient. in universitate Catholica Lovaniensi Professor."

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like to know whether a "degree" for Scrip-
Being interested in the subject, I should
ture did exist in earlier times. If so, where
and when was it conferred ?
B. W.

Fort Augustus.

EPHIS AND HIS LION (10th S. ii. 448).— The story referred to by Charles Reade in ch. lxxiv. of 'The Cloister and the Hearth' is to be found in Pliny's 'Nat. Hist.,' viii. 16 (21), §§ 57, 58. The man's name is Elpis. EDWARD BENSLY.

COPENHAGEN HOUSE (10th S. iv. 205, 295). Not one of the authorities quoted by MR. J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL provides sufficient evidence to suggest that Francis Place's impression of the decay of this pleasure resort in 1824 was erroneous.

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2. Was there ever a formal "degree" known "Sacræ Pagina Doctor"? I ask this question in all simplicity. There may have been, and the evidence produced by W. B. (p. 273) seems to suggest that there was-i.e., if the "S.P.D." quoted by him does there stand for "Sacræ Pagina Doctor"; but I would venture to hazard the opinion (and I may be wrong) that no such degree was ever given. Until comparatively modern times the study of Holy Writ was considered, ecclesiastically, as forming part of the theological curriculum. In olden times a "theologian" taught the Scripture course, in accordance with this reflection: "Theologia omnium scientiarum est regina......veræ Supplementing the information_contained theologiæ anima est Scripturarum scientia." in My Lifetime,' the late Mr. John HolIn those days there was no hard-and-fast lingshead sent me several letters on the

The Picture of London' of almost every year between 1816 and 1830 simply records its existence under 'Tea Gardens,' giving no information as to its relative importance or prosperity. Admitting that the dead dog and the duck weed are insufficient evidences, we are justified in believing that a good democrat like Place would have taken pleasure in recording the success and popular patronage of the tavern if it existed.

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tea gardens and resorts of Islington as he remembered them. "Copenhagen House," he writes, was very celebrated for walking matches, but 'Deerfoot,' whom you mention, walked or ran at Lillie Bridge." This is not quite correct. Deerfoot frequently took part in matches at Copenhagen House. The Rosemary Branch, at Hoxton, was used for a walking track round the pond. Most of these places had ponds or small lakes." In another letter he records that the cricket matches were very unimportant, and the house was mostly frequented by the lower classes, who occasionally arranged a "milling" contest in the less frequented parts of the field.

I have been the recipient of other recollections of the "old Cope," and all agree that while its disappearance was to be regretted, its last years were very disreputable.

39, Hillmarton Road.

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WHITCOMBE FAMILY (10th S. iv. 208).-The following stray notes may be of some assistance to MR. REGINALD STEWART BODDINGTON. There was a lawsuit, temp. Queen Elizabeth, in connexion with Lyme Regis, Dorset, to which a William Whetcombe was a party. From a schedule of deeds penes me relating to the Lamb and Lark" Inn at Keynsham, Somersetshire, I gather that a former lessee of this inn with a curious sign was one Elizabeth Little, of Bristol, widow, whose daughter Margaretta, or Margaret, was aged about seven years on 10 August, 1762, the date of the indenture of lease. The mother made her will 5 August, 1772, and a further deed of 4 June, 1780, recites that the settlement upon the marriage of the daughter with Samuel Whitcombe was dated 2 June, 1779. GEORGE F. T. SHERWOOD.

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50, Beecroft Road, Brockley, S.E. CORISANDE (10th S. iv. 247). La belle Corisande " was the name given to Diane d'Andouins, the mistress of Henri IV. (Henry of Navarre). She held despotic sway over Henry's fickle affections for many years, but had to yield at length to the more attractive and more famous Gabrielle d'Estrées. Diane, when thirteen years old, married Philibert de Grammont, Comte de Guiche, and was left a widow in 1580 at the age of twenty-six. The correspondence between the king and "la comtesse de Guiche" has been preserved, and been published in a book called 'Lettres intimes de Henri IV.,' edited by Dussieux, 1876. The letters are very business-like, mostly on affairs of State and about preparations for war. The name of "Corisande" was given to Diane before her marriage. Her

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name sometimes appears as "Corisandre." It is so written in Larousse, and by M. Capefigue in his book on Gabrielle d'Estrées.' I wonder from what romantic tale or poem Diane's flattering title was taken. A. L. MAYHEW.

Corisande is one of the characters in 'Amadis of Gaul.' I may mention that I found the name of Esmeralda in 'Palmerin of England.' It is the Spanish for emerald, and may be commonly used as a female name. But it is certain that Victor Hugo was not the first to use it in fiction. E. YARDLEY.

THE GREYFRIARS BURIAL-GROUND (10th S.iv. 205, 253).-In reply to MR. ALECK ABRAHAMS I venture to state that, from evidence I have received as to the discovery of so skeletons upon the site of this burial-ground, just outside the City wall, they are the remains mostly, if not entirely, of the friars Black Death in 1348-9, which carried off who had died during the visitation of the such a large number of the population of the City of London. F. G. HILTON PRICE. 17, Collingham Gardens, S. W.

SWEDISH ROYAL FAMILY (10th S. iii. 409, 456; iv. 91, 196, 293).-The MARQUIS DE RUVIGNY is surely wrong in stating that the wife of Frederick IV., Duke of Holstein Gottorp, was the eldest daughter of Charles X., and sister to Charles XI. Should this not read-daughter of Charles XI., and sister to Charles XII.? It is strange how inevitable inaccuracies seem to be in accounts of the Swedish succession. A writer in the current number of The Royalist not merely (following 'The Legitimist Kalendar') makes the Grand Duchess of Baden, Sophia, born in 1801, a daughter of Gustavus III., who died in 1792, but makes King Adolphus Frederick's mother a sister of Charles XII., instead of his second cousin, confusing her, Frederick of Holstein Gottorp, ancestor of apparently, with the mother of Charles the Russian house, and thus finding the representative of Gustavus Vasa in the Queen Dowager of Saxony, instead of the P. J. ANDERSON. present Czar.

'BYWAYS IN THE CLASSICS' (10th S. iv. 261).-As I noticed that the version of James Smith's lines on Eneas given by MR. D. C. TovEY differed from that quoted by myself from Barham's 'Life of Theodore Hook," and as both differed from the version given by Mr. Hugh Platt (see p. 52 of his book), I have thought it worth while to endeavour to trace the original. I have accordingly referred to "Memoirs, Letters, and Comic Miscellanies,



in Prose and Verse, of the late James Smith, Esq. Edited by his brother Horace Smith" (London, Colburn, 1840). Among the epigrams, &c., collected there, under the heading Martial in London,' I find (vol. ii. p. 193) the verses given exactly as quoted by MR. TOVEY. I presume, therefore, that this must be accepted as the authoritative version, although, in my opinion, the reading given by Barham seems the better of the two.

Byron ignorantly writes:

T. F. D.

In short, the maxim for the amorous tribe is Horatian, "Medio tu tutissimus ibis."


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'Don Juan,' canto vi. stanza 17. "Medio tutissimus ibis" does not belong to Horace. It is in Ovid's Metamorphoses,' book ii. 1. 137. The tu" certainly is not there. It would spoil the Latin metre ; and it is not necessary in the English verse. I do not know whether it has been noticed that Ovid's "Fas est et ab hoste doceri " may have arisen from a line of Aristophanes :ἀλλ' ἀπ' ἐχθρῶν δῆτα πολλὰ μανθάνουσιν οἱ σopol. Birds,' l. 376.

Dryden has some lines which may have been suggested by Ovid :—

Eternal Deities!

Who rule the world with absolute decrees,
And write whatever time shall bring to pass,
With pens of adamant on plates of brass.
• Palamon and Arcite.'

Dryden's original, Chaucer, seems also to have had Ovid in mind. What is fated is engraved on adamant in the poems of Ovid and Chaucer. The following are Ovid's lines: Sola insuperabile fatum

Nata, movere paras? intres licet ipsa sororum
Tecta trium: cernes illic molimine vasto
Ex aere et solido rerum tabularia ferro;
Quæ neque concursum cœli neque fulminis iram,
Nec metuunt ullas, tuta atque æterna, ruinas.
Invenies illic, incisa adamante perenni,
Fata tui generis.

Metamorphoses,' book xv. 11. 807-14.

Returning to the question of sibilation in poetry, I may point out that the line which Dr. Johnson praised above all others for euphony has much of the sound of s in it:

Formosam resonare doces Amaryllida silvas.

The way in which the s is distributed and

the suitableness of the other letters in the verse make the difference between euphony and cacophony. But this subject has been discussed before in 'N. & Q.'


PRISONER SUCKLED BY HIS DAUGHTER (10th S. iv. 307). A picture on this subject hangs over the fireplace in the Prince of Wales's bedroom at Hampton Court, and is numbered

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There is a mural painting from Pompeii in the Naples Museum representing Perone saving the life of her father Cimon by this method; it is generally known by the title of 'Greek Charity,' and has been a favourite subject among painters of different countries and ages. MATTHEW H. PEACOCK. Wakefield.

This painting will be found in one of the in Holland, I think in public galleries Haarlem. P. W. A. [A. W. H. C. also thanked for reply.] AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED (10th S. iv. 10, 158, 273).—In my edition of the South Place Hymns and Anthems' (1873), Harriet Martineau's fine hymn-poem is No. 59, and on the first page it is stated that the collection was "selected and arranged by W. J. Fox, 1841." My memories of South Place Chapel during Mr. Moncure D. Conway's ministrations there are among the happiest of my life. JAMES HOOPER.


TESTOUT (10th S. iv. 69, 131, 297).—The surname Tait is not connected in any way with the French teste. It should be compared rather with the name Gay than with Head, as it appears to be from the old Norse personal name Teit, which means cheerful. As to the pronunciation of Grosseteste, all its consonants should be sounded, i.e., the last syllable like our word "test." It is so marked by all the orthoepists-Thomas (1870), Worcester (1887), Smith (1895), &c.


At the last reference W. R. H. notes: "The English names Tait and Tate are probably derived from teste or tête." But I would recall a very early example of the personal Northumbria took to wife the daughter of name Tate, where, in A.D. 625, Edwin of Ethelbert, King of Kent, whose name was Ethelberga, and who was also called by another name, Tate. The authority for this is the Venerable Bede, whose text reads: "Edilbergæ filia Edilbercti regis, quæ alio nomine Tatæ uocabatur" ('Hist. Eccl.,' ii. 9, Plummer's ed. i. p. 97). Tat is defined soft,

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