these mountains, when several peals of thunder, accompanied with lightning, were heard. From this moment, the snow that fell was red: this continued for some time, after which white snow again fell, so that the red was enclosed in two strata of white. In some places the snow was of the colour of the peach-blossom, but in others of a deep red. Some of it was collected, and the water of it, when melted, retained the same colour.M. Guidotti, a chemist of Paris, has undertaken its analysis. This pheno menon, it is observed, may enable us to account for what was formerly called showers of blood. We have already ascertained the existence of what are called pesinites, or stones fallen from the atmosphere, which the Greeks and Latins have spoken of; and now it is presumed, none will deny showers of a blood-red colour, which are described by the same authors.

M. Antonio Vignozzi, of Florence, has discovered an easy and certain method of pointing a cannon at any particular object, either by sea or land, by means of a small machine. This discovery may increase the effects of artillery, and enable the most unskilful person to point a gun, &c. with precision.


results. He manufactured during last year, 20,000 pounds of sugar, and the quantity this year will be five times as much. The price of this sugar is twenty per cent. lower than that of the sugars from cane, and at the same time is superior to it in quality and sweetness. A pound of sugar from beet root is equal to two pounds and a quarter of sugar from grapes. It is besides much less expensive, because an acre may produce from 300 to 600 quintals of beet root, and each quintal eighty pounds of juice, which will produce three pounds and a half of white sugar, and an equal quantity of syrup. The residue serves for rum or aqua vitæ, and after having extracted all the saccharine and spirituous matter it contains, there still remains a refuse most excellent for feeding COWS. Beet besides has leaves of a very large size, which are in much request for cattle. This manufacture may be carried on during eight months of the year, whereas that of sugar from grapes is limited to a very short period, and that of sugar from the maple tree is scarcely of longer duration.


Klagenfurt, Sept. 4.-According to accounts from Illyrian Karnten, a terrible rain-spout descended on the nights of the 27th and 28th of August, at Hermajor and its vicinity, threatening destruction to the whole village. The water flowed into the marketplace and its neighbourhood so high, as to penetrate the windows of the first Яoors. Many persons saved themselves in the second floors, and others on the roof; such as could reach neither perished in the floods. More than fifty persons were hurried away by the torrent, many of whom were alive, and called piteously for assistance, which no one could afford. All the bridges, and twelve houses, were washed away, and a great quan tity of cattle perished in the fields. Italy. Red Snow, during last winter, a phenomenon, which would appear incredible, were it not attested by a number of persons of known veracity, occurred near Placentia. On the 17th of January, red snow fell upon the to become its subjects. It is but mountains in this department, and lately that they have found the means especially upon Cento Croci. A coat of recovering the mysterious book, of white snow had covered the tops of the Sans Hur; for their efforts for upUNIVERSAL Mag. Vol. XIV.

Some very interesting particulars of one of the uncivilized tribes of this vast empire, are contained in a letter dated from the fortress of Trois Rozzawast, in Siberia, December 25, 1809. On the 28th of November, the Chorinzian Burætes held a solemu festival here, on occasion of the Suns Hur, or mysterious book of their religion, which they have received from Thibet. These people, the Russians call Bratsky, came about the middle of the 17th century, with their chiefs, to the number of several thousands, from the frontiers of China, and settled to the south of the great Lake, Baika!, along the rivers Ona, Uda, and Aga. Till 1689, they lived unknown, and without fixing themselves in a permanent manner. At length, their intercourse with Russia led them

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wards of a century were ineffectual, botanists of the age. because they had quitted their native pointed principal physician to the country for a foreign land. At length, Count of Casa Flores, he began, at Calsan Marduitsen, the great chief of his own expense, to have drawings the eleven tibes, set out with the made by native painters, formed by chief priests and persons of his nation, himself, for the Flora of Bagota. This and begged permission to receive the grand work he continued and greatly Sans Hur with due solemnity; and it extended. He had collected in his accordingly arrived the next day, in house considerable herbaries, more six carriages, because it consists of than 1500 coloured drawings of new one hundred and twelve volumes. plants, philosophical and astronomiIn the seventh carriage was their cal instruments, and a collection of Burchan, or idol, made of clay, and botanical works, only inferior to that gilt all over. The Russian authorities of the president of the Royal Society were invited to the ceremony. The of London. M. Rea, one of Mutis's Chorinzians encamped in the exten- pupils, is the present director of the His sive plain surrounding this fortress, botanical garden of Madrid. and placed their Lamas (priests) on nephew, Don Sanforosa Mutis, has carpets, cushions, and mats, according been commissioned by the govern to their rank and dignity, while others ment, to complete the Flora of Bagota. seated themselves on the bare ground, Messrs. Mutis and Rexa, two distinon each side of a pulpit, covered with guished artists, natives of Santa Fe, a magnificent canopy, adorned with are finishing the numerous drawings two flags. They then began to read that were begun. M. Mutis, who, in and sing the sacred book, to the sound his old age, had embraced the ecclesiof trumpets, cymbals, drums and bells. astical profession, was distinguished After these ceremonies were over, the for the variety and solidity of his atprincipal Lamas began their return, tainments, and for the liberality and which is a journey of fifteen days, elevation of his sentiments. Previbeing $70 wersts from this place. The ously to his decease, he directed that solemnities continued several days, his library, his collections, instruduring which the people met to hear ments, &c. should be applied to the the mysterious book read. The public use of his fellow-citizens.Chorinzians are said to have given a Europe is indebted to him for the imvast quantity of furs and cattle to portant discovery of the Quinquina or procure this book, to which they at- Jesuits Bark, of New Granada. The tach such great value. orange-coloured Quinquina of Santa South America. Fe, Cinchona Condaminea) has be come an important branch of com merce at the ports of Carthagena and Santa Martha.

Died.] At Santa Fe, in New Granada, the celebrated Mutis, the friend of Linnæus, and one of the greatest


Country Life.

ELATIVE to the supposed hap- perfection. How happy then is the

Let us take a detail of his happiness. He rises with, or before, the sun; calls his ser vants; looks to his swine and cows, then to his stables and barns. He ees to the ploughing and sowing of his ground in winter or in spring In summer and autumn, he hurries and sweats among his mowers and reapers.

O Fortunati nimium, bona si sua novint, Agricola. But, after all, what a flat contradiction And where is his happiness in the is this to universal experience! See mean time? Which of these employ the little house under the wood, by ments do we envy? Or do we envy the river side; there is rural life in the delicate repast that succeeds:

Rev. J. Wesley once observed,—“ I have thought much on the huge encomiums bestowed, for many ages, on a country life. How have all the learned world cried out,

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Anecdote of Dr. Mead.

This humorous, as well as highly celebrated physician, being consulted by a nobleman on an inflammation in his eyes (to which the Doctor himself was occasionally subject), directed his patient by all means to avoid drinking wine, which, he said, was generally destructive of the constitution. His Lordship implicitly complied with the restriction; but in the course of it, calling upon his physician, he found him carousing alone over a Scotch pint of old Port-" fley day!" ex claimed his noble patient, "How is this, Doctor, that you prescribe one remedy for me and another for your self?"- -"Why, I'll frankly tell you," replied the humourist; "Your Lordship, I perceived, preferred your eyes to wine; now, for my own part, I al, ways loved wine better than my eyes,"

Merited and Mercantile Nobility.

used sometimes to admit a merchant One of the former Kings of France to his presence, in consequence of his ability in his profession. At length the latter thought it convenient to solicit a patent of nobility, which was granted him. This new nobleman soon after presented himself at court; but his majesty did not deign to pay him the least attention. Upon his enquiring into the cause of it, he was told that the king had observed that whilst he was a merchant, he was the first of his profession; but that, since he had been made a nobleman, he was of course the last, and no longer worthy of that preference he had formerly enjoyed.

Premium Hunters disappointed. A certain governor of South Carolina, out of a mistaken zeal for the church of England, left in his will a thousand pounds sterling to be given

his late Servant.

to ten dissenting clergymen, who Epitaph, written by Peter Pindar, on should take orders and accept livings in that province. There were soon claimants for such a sum. The ten went to England, were ordained, and returned to receive the premium. But the misfortune of it was, the governor did not mention in his will where this thousand pound was to be found, and the executors did not choose to look for it; so that, for a reward, these conformists were forced to extend their views to the other world.

Here lies the body of old Nell,

Who had no sins to be forgiv'n;
And if her soul is doom'd to hell,

There surely cannot be a heav'n.

Upon two Persons named Day & Knight, of very different talents, and who re sided in one house..

Though this is odd, 'tis true, you'll say
That Knight is brighter far than Day.

A person, being employed to effect cifully upon the poor animal, which a reconciliation between a young man at once-opened his mouth, and thus and his father, repeatedly assured the addressed his master:-" Has not God latter, as a proof of his son's contrition, Almighty created us all equal? It is that he had certainly seen his folly. time for us at length to change our But being induced to think the old parts. Descend, then, and let me gentleman doubted his veracity, he mount thy back." The peasant, who again put the question in plain terms, in the whole course of his life had when the latter replied, I have not never heard any but two-legged asses the least doubt that my son has seen speak, was excessively terrified, sprung his folly; indeed, he has seen it so from his seat, and ran away, firmly often that he has fallen in love with it. convinced that his poor donkey was possessed with a devil.

The Church Book, as it is called, of a Baptist congregation in Essex, contains the following minute, bearing date about sixty years ago: "Mr. E. our pastor, cut off for running away." The fact was, the poor man was so teased and puzzled about idle controversial questions, that he was not metaphysician enough to answer, or philosopher enough to smile at, and accordingly he stole away by night!

An Open Countenance.
An open countenance I love,

It marks th' ingenuous honest heart:
A freedom too which all approve,
Devoid of guile and worldly art.

An open countenance, quoth Pat,

Is that the thing you prize so dear,➡ There's Peg Mullony fair and fat,

And with a mouth from ear to ear.


An old author informs us, that, during the visit paid by the King of An extraordinary person has lately Denmark to James I. of England, a sprung up at Paris, in the person of masque was performed one evening M. Comte, a ventriloquist, whose life, by several ladies of the court, repreaccording to his own account, has senting many ideal virtues, when often been endangered by his per- Patience got out of humour, and befor:nances. In Spain, he narrowly gan to scold; Temperance was dead escaped being burned; in Germany, drunk, and vomited in the royal prethe peasants would have beaten him sence; while Justice reeled about, to death (a circumstance totally un- and Fortitude fell and broke her nose. known in that country), especially at This representation might possibly be Freyburg, where he teazed them ra- intended as a lesson to the Danish ther too much. In another place, be monarch, whose deep potations, we renewed the miracle of Balaam's ass. are informed, astonished and infected A peasant, being unable to get forward the English courtiers, and even the with his sluggish donkey, fell unmer- ladies.



HE victory, if it was one, over involving in it the entire annihilation the French on the heights of of his army. Day, however, followed Busaco, had filled the country with day, and no tidings arrived. Reports expectation of a decisive triumph were circulated of skirmishes, in over the conquerors of Europe, and which the French were always worsted. an entire deliverance of the peninsula Deserters came in with the accounts of Spain and Portugal. It was heard of the miserable plight of their army, with indifference, that illuminations which was daily thinned of its nam had taken place in France, where they bers, and incapable of keeping long claimed the victory; and the pursuit together from want of provisions. of Lord Wellington was considered Still the prudence of LordWellington

only as giving us a better opportunity kept him on the defensive; but firtified in impregnable heights, defends

of entrapping the French general, and

ed by a thousand pieces of cannon, he defied any attack, and waited only for the surrender of the French army, or its attempt to make a retreat into Spain, in which it must infallibly be cut off by the pressure of our arms on its rear, and the incessant harassings of myriads of Portuguese, burning to take revenge for the innumerable insults offered to their country.

and, in that time, the disorder might take a more favourable turn, and relieve the country from the pain of witnessing debates similar to those that had occurred on a former occasion.

With these views, the two houses adjourned to the 15th, and then a very great number of members was. assembled; when it was announced to both houses that hopes of recovery were entertained, and that it would be more decorous, as well as more agreeable to the royal feelings, when his Majesty was recovered, that they should adjourn. The foundation of the hopes thus entertained rested eutirely, as before, with the two Chancellors: they declared it, and both Lords and Commons took them on

In this state of suspense a domestic calamity of a most serious nature suddenly occupied the minds of all, and drew off the general attention to a more painful subject. The parliament was not expected to meet till the 29th of November, the day to which it had been announced that it was to be prorogued. But, to the great surprise of every one, the houses met agreeably

to their last adjournment, on the 1st; their words. The physicians were not and, instead of consisting of a few examined, nor did it appear that persons, as is usual, for a farther pro- either Chancellor had seen his Malongation of time, the speakers of both jesty. Both houses acquiesced in the houses took their seats, and in both declaration made to them; and, after were several speeches. It was declared a debate in the upper, and a division by the authority of the Chancellor in in the lower, they separated for a the upper house, and of the Chancellor fortnight. of the Exchequer in the lower house, that both houses were now met in an extraordinary manner, without the usual speech from the throne, for an event of a melancholy nature had not only deprived them of the customary address, but, from the want of the King's signature to the farther prorogation, they were now assembled, and were to take the steps which the case required.


The afflicting disorder under which his Majesty labours, is not like those where, from the appearances of a few days, the length of the attack may be prognosticated. A bulletin that should exactly represent the case, would only inform the public of painful circumstances, which ought always to be suppressed; and the alternation of paroxysms is not a fit subject of public discussion. But etiquette rendered it necessary that bulletins should be divulged; and proper officers were appointed to superintend the delivery of them at St. James's. In consequence it became the fashion for multitudes to go to the palace to hear the report, to set down their names, and to carry with them, from house to house, a daily topic of conversation. The bulletins were printed in the daily papers, and thus circulated throughout the country. From them little could be gathered; nor would any one, acquainted with the disorder, expect any information from them: he would wait with patient resignation for the time when Dr. Willis should give encouragement, which he must know would not be founded on the events of a day, but on the course of the disorda, examined with the ut

His Majesty was attacked by one of those fits to which he had been occasionally subject, that rendered him entirely incapable of fulfilling the offices of his high station. It might be temporary, as experience had shewn; and, in that case, delay was obviously necessary, to give to the royal mind an opportunity of being restored to its former composure. The physicians of stafe attended him, and their bulletins were daily given to the public. After a time, Dr.Willis was called in, his signature was given to the bulletins, and the nature of the disorder was ascertained. The two houses agreed to an adjournment for a fortnight; by which time the members of the houses might be collected to determine, with greater propriety, on the course to be pursued;


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