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In spite, however, of the resistance accumulating at every step, the four columns which had advanced arrived at their respective destinations. General St. Chamans marched up the Boulevards as far as the Bastille, and driven from the Rue St. Antoine, returned by the bridge of Austerlitz, and the Esplanade of the Invalides, to the Place Louis XV. General Talon crossed the Pont Neuf, advanced to the Place de Grêve, and placing himself at the head of his men, carried the Hôtel de Ville, which was then in the possession of the people, but which, having no ammunition, he evacuated during the night. General Quinsonnas arrived without much loss at the Marché des Innocens, where he found himself blockaded in all directions. Rescued by the almost incredible valour of a Swiss battalion from this situation, he took up his position, according to the orders he had received, along the Quai de l'Ecole. General Wall went to and from the Place de Victoire and the Place de Vendôme without difficulty. This was the result of the military operations of the 28th. For a moment the people believed that that result was almost entirely hostile to the popular cause; and many of those most active in commencing the resistance, now retired from Paris; but while some in the city believed in the success of the troops, the troops themselves felt that they were discomfited. This was the opinion of the Duc de Raguse. "Je ne dois cacher," said he, in a letter to the king, que la situa tion des choses devient de plus en plus grave." This was the opinion of General Vincent, who, forcing the king's apartment, declared to him, "Que tout était perdu, et qu'il n'y avait plus qu'à rapporter les ordonnances."
M. de Polignac, however, still persisted, and the struggle was referred to a third day for its ultimate decision.
Pursuant to an order which the Duc de Raguse had received from St. Cloud, the royal forces were now concentrated at the Tuileries, the Louvre, and the Palais Royal.
The whole of Paris, with the exception of these
places, was in the undisputed possession of the Parisians. The posts which had been forced in the morning, they found vacated in the evening, and the first impression which the taking of the Hôtel de Ville had occasioned, was more than effaced by its subsequent abandonment. The night came: if it be true as was deemed by Tacitus, that the warrior's mind is overshadowed by the aspect of a disastrous sky; that stars, dim and pale, infuse into the soul their uncertain hue, and that the midnight enterprise languishes under the omen of a clouded moon; the citizen soldier was happy in his auspices; pure, and bright, and glorious as his own cause, was the heaven above his head, on the night which intervened between the 28th and 29th of July; and now a wide watch is kept throughout the city; every eye is awake, every hand is in action. Here the pavement is upturned-here the torch is planted-here the weapon is prepared-everywhere you may see the women mingling with the men-now sharing their labours--now binding up their wounds.
No distant and unruly noise mars the mystery of the hour; but there circulates a confused and immense murmur-the cannon, the tocsin is still; the busy gun has ceased to be heard, not a carriage moves; but the chopping of wood, the rolling of stones, the hammering at arms, the exchange of signals, the march of sentinels, the groans of sufferers, mingling together, form a mass of stifled and solemn sound, more awful, more terrible, perhaps, in this pause of action, than the loud thunder of artillery, or the crash of careering squadrons.
By the morning there were six thousand barricades in Paris. The great force of the royal troops was at the Louvre, on the Place de Carousel, on the Place Louis XV., on the Boulevard de la Madeleine, and on the Place Vendôme, while cannon was so placed as to sweep the Rue de Richelieu, and the Place du Palais Royal. The day commenced with a proclamation, which declared that hostilities would be suspended by the royal troops: it produced no effect. The people's courage was animated by the previous day's struggle—
by the last night's labours-by the sight of the national uniform now mixed up in all their groups, and of the tricoloured flag now flying from all their houses.
The bands that had hitherto been scattered and spread throughout the town assembled more regularly, and combined their plans of resistance and attack. On, in the front of the Parisians, marched the ardent youth of the Polytechnic school, the students of law and of medicine--and on behind them poured the determined populace,-on they poured along one side down the Faubourg St. Honoré, down the Boulevards -on they poured along the other-down the Faubourg St. Germain, along the bridges-on they poured to the Place Louis XV. ;--where the soldiers, fatigued, famished, disgusted with their cause, disgusted with the cowardice of those for whom they fought, still looked with a gallant face on the dark and angry masses which menaced them in all directions.
At one time there were hopes of an armistice: the Duc de Raguse entered into a parley with the citizens, advancing by the Rue de Richelieu-but at this moment, in a new and unexpected quarter, recommenced the firing. The Louvre, evacuated by mistake, had been entered by the people; the troops in the Place de Carousel were seized with a sudden panic: the commandant had only time to throw himself on his horse, and charging at the head of his men he cleared for a moment the court before the Tuileries. But the Tuileries themselves were soon entered by the gate of the Pont Royal. Their defenders jumped from the windows into the gardens: all discipline was gone; the terror was universal, and the utmost efforts of the marshal could only infuse some degree of order into the retreat. A Swiss battalion in the gardens covered the rear; the force in the Place Louis XV. checked the multitudes of the Faubourg St. Honoré, and allowed the troops still on the Boulevard de la Madeleine an opportunity to retire retire they did by the Champs Elysées; and at the Barrière de l'Etoile, the marshal received the letter which announced the appointment
of the Duc d'Angoulême to the office of commander-inchief, and ordered the royal forces to be directed to St. Cloud.
Paris was now triumphant: the contest of the three days was over. The people had fought bravely, desperately, and doubtful as the struggle had been, they had not from the commencement wanted, among the legal and civil authorities of France, determined and courageous defenders.
REVOLUTION OF 1830.
26th, Civil resistance of the Journalists-Meeting of Deputies View taken by M. Laborde-View by M. Périer-How far M. Périer was right-27th, Meeting of Deputies at M. Périer's-First meeting of Deputies at M. Puyraveau's-Second meeting at M. Bérard's-Proclamation agreed to, and message sent to the Duc de Ragusa by the first-The names of all the liberal Deputies at Paris affixed to the proclamation by the second-29th, Meeting of Deputies; different feelings among them from those of preceding days -Fictitious Government of M. Bérard-Real provisional Government appointed-Civil transactions at Paris in favour of the people now arrived at the same period as that to which military affairs have been conducted-What took place at St. Cloud and the Court and among the Ministry during this time-27th, M. de Polignac gives the command of Paris to the Duc de Ragusa-Want of preparation at Paris--The Council assembles at night and declares the city" en état de siège"--Charles X. in the mean time perfectly tranquil-28th, the King might have made favourable terms-Did not think himself in danger-Mass; whist; ceremonies as usualIn vain a Deputation waited on M. Polignac--Confusion among the troops-Camps of Lunéville and St. Omer ordered to march-Ministers ignorant even on the 29th of the real state of things-The Duc de Raguse's advice to the Council; M. Polignac's opinionMission of M. Argout and M. Sémonville to St. Cloud—The dis position in which they found the King-The Ordonnances recalled by the advice of the Ministry-New Administration formed with General Gérard, and M. de Mortemart, and M. Périer-Charles X. would not sign any order but that which named M. Mortemart "Président du Conseil"-Fatal effects of delay-The fortunes of Charles X. and General Lafayette once more in opposition.
On the 26th the journals had agreed to the protes tation I have spoken of, and many electors, assembled at the bureau of the “ National,” had determined to refuse the payment of taxes. A meeting of liberal deputies had also taken place at M. Laborde's. At this meeting opinions were divided. Monsieur de Laborde himself, M. Villemain, M. Daunon, contended that a violation of the charter had released the people from their obligations, that such an opinion should be loudly