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essentially a disease of the female nervous organization, many instances are found of men suffering from more or less modified forms of hystero-epilepsy. The less striking symptoms of it, such as various forms of paralysis, loss of sensation, loss of speech (aphasia) are often sufficiently developed in male subjects as to justify us in classing them in the hysterical category of nerve sufferers.
In order to illustrate further the intimate connection between certain morbid forms of sleep and the hysterical state, I shall briefly allude to the so-called "hysterogenic" and "hypnogenic" pressure points discovered by Professors Charcot and Pitres. A very remarkable phenomenon connected with grave hysteria is the artificial production and arrest of attacks by pressure on certain points on the surface of the body. The number and distribution of these points is very variable, and they differ in every case. They usually can only be found out by careful search, the patients then selves ignoring the existence of them.
On pressure being exerted upon one of these "hysterogenic" spots the patient falls into a convulsive or tetanic spasm, and the various phases of the attack succeed one another much in the same order as in a spontaneous fit. Now it is a curious fact that a repetition of the pressure on the same spot, or on some other spot experimentally discovered, will often abruptly modify or arrest the attack. The great theoretical and practical importance of this singular property of certain circumscribed cutaneous areas, has directed the investigations of several careful ob
servers, and led to the discovery of similar spots, called "hypnogenic,' pressure upon which determines, not a muscular spasm or convulsion, but an attack of hypnotic sleep.' These hypogenic areas are likewise irregular in their number and distribution; and along with them are usually found other spots, usually on the opposite side of the body, pressure upon which awakes the patient. We have here an undoubted argument in favor of the view according to which attacks of sleep in certain hystero-epileptics are mere modifications of the typical convulsive and delirious seizure.
The subject of prolonged sleep and trance is intimately connected with that of apparent death. Though there is no doubt that most of the dreadful tales concerning the premature burial of persons supposed to be dead have no foundation, save in the imagination of the public, we have ample proof of the possibility. of such mistakes occurring in the absence of a careful examination of the body. It is difficult to imagine. how in the case of patients subject to cataleptic seizures, and known by their friends to be so, periods of suspended animation, however pro-, tiacted, could ever lead to premature burial. Catalepsy, though inti-, mately allied to hysterical neurosis, often occurs in patients who offer no other symptoms of nervous derangement. Emotions are often the exciting cause of an attack in a cataleptic subject. Many curious instances are related by authors. is certain that many of the saintly women in the Roman Catholic hagiology were victims of this disease: St. Catherine of Siena, St. Elizabeth of Hungary, St. Theresa; not
to speak of Joan of Arc, Madame Guyon, Marie Alacoque, and many others. Cataleptic seizures were also a common feature among the victims of the great hystero-epileptic manifestations so common in the Middle Ages, which we find described as "possessions" in the curious and abundant literature of the subject. I will, in conclusion, venture upon a few suggestions as to the explanation of the phenomena of hypnotism and its allied states.
Our cerebral life depends upon the associated activity of innumerable nerve-cells grouped into clusters or centers, each center being more directly related with some sensory or some motor function. Thus there are visual centers, auditory centers, tactile centers, which form the terminal stations of the nerve fibers leading from the organs of sight, hearing, and touch. There are also so-called motor centers, the nervous discharges from which, traveling down to the spinal cord, determine movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. A network of the finest nerve fibrils of astounding complexity brings the individual cells of each center into relationship with one another, and with the cells of the other centers. This physical association of our brain elements is the material substratum of the psychical process of association of ideas which form the groundwork of our intellectual life. All the higher manifestations of mind are correlatives of the harmonious cooperation of numerous brain elements. Even what appear to be simple states of consciousness are often the result of association. Hence any disturbance in the mutual equilibrium of the cerebral centers
speedily leads to alterations of those resultants of forces of which perception, thought, will, emotion, are the subjective manifestations.
One of the most striking properties of the nervous system is that by which the activity of one portion may be arrested or prevented—“inhibited"-by the activity of another. To give a familiar instance, the action of the respiratory centers is suddenly inhibited by certain excitations of the sensory nerves, as we have all experienced on receiving the first splash of a cold showerbath. In the cerebral sphere, inhibition of one tract by another is the mechanism which lies at the root of the higher exercise of our faculties. When we choose, for instance, or exercise will-power, the corresponding state of our nervous organism is one involving more or less complex inhibitions. The sense of moral effort is the subjective equivalent of powerful inhibitions of brain tracts in a state of high tension. The power of mental concentration rests likewise upon similar inhibitions. When we attend closely to a sensory impression, or to a train of thought, the excitability of every part of the brain except that actually engaged in the act is diminished by an inhibitory action of the working portion. Thus, when we say that anger or fear paralyzes, we allude in very accurate language to the inhibitory influence which powerful emotion exercises upon the other cerebral functions.
I have said that physiological sleep can be induced by certain monotonous impressions from without. The same may be said of an order of stimuli that has hitherto not received its due share of atten
tion. I mean the afflux of those confused, mostly unfelt, impressions from the viscera and tissues generally. Under certain conditionsafter a meal for instance these may set up in the cerebral centers to which they converge, an excitation that leads to an inhibition of the higher brain regions, and so to a state of sleep. Similar considerations will assist us in explaining the effect of the usual methods of hypnotization. The stimulation of one of the cerebral sensory centers by repeated gentle and monotonous sounds or touches, or, in the case of the visual organs, by the convergence of the eyes and persistent gazing at a small object, so interferes with the activity of the higher centers, as to lead to various perverted motor and mental manifestations. Certain "nervous" individuals, but above all hysterical subjects, are more amenable to these effects than are others. Repetition in all cases increases the liability to hypnotization, and in extreme cases the recollection of the processes previously used becomes sufficient to induce sleep. Finally there are subjects, such as "the Soho sleeper," in whom, owing to the extreme instability of their cerebral equilibrium, a kind of spontaneous hypnotization may be observed.
It would be premature, in the actual state of our knowledge, to speculate upon the nature of the changes in the nervous system upon which the phenomenon of inhibition depends. It has been ingeniously compared to that of the mutual interference of two rays of light or two waves of sound. But this analogy does not account for all the facts; and in connection with this topic we may mention the views re
cently propounded by Professor Brown-Sequard upon what he calls nervous dynamogeny." It is a well-known fact that under the influence of various sensorial or emotional stimuli, of moderate intensity or pleasurable quality, our nervous energy, as measured by the muscular effort we are enabled to put forth, is increased to a considerable extent. Recent researches by Dr. Féré have thrown additional light upon these "dynamogenic" or "force-producing" processes, of which the reviving effect of smelling salts is a familiar illustration. In this instance a diffusive wave invades the whole brain from the olfactory centers, and produces such a change in its constituents as to restore its functions. It has likewise been shown that every form of mental activity is accompanied with increased nerve power as directly measured by the squeeze of the hand on the dynamometer. It would thus seem that nervous cell-matter is liable to undergo certain modifications under the influence of various impressions derived from other nerve regions, in virtue of which it becomes more powerful. But without even attempting to define more closely the "dynamogenic" change, we may perhaps assume it to be the counterpart of what takes place in inhibition, and describe the latter as a nervous process in which a group of nerve cells so acts upon another group as to lower its capacity for work.
Inhibition in one nervous sphere is often accompanied with dynamogeny in another: the removal of cerebral influence, for instance, exalts the autonomy of the spinal cord. A good instance of the coexistence of the two processes is
and a proposal was made to him to become attached to it by the purchase of an office; but such a Court as that of Charles II. was little to
found in " expectant attention," which depends upon the high tension of the centers involved in anticipating the phenomena, with a corresponding inertia of the others. The his taste, and he made the wise reader will readily perceive how choice of turning his back on its similar considerations may be em-gilded profligacies. His principal ployed in the elucidation of such cross was found in his marriage; phenomena as ecstasy, suggestion, for having wedded abroad a widow muscular hyper-excitability, and in- considerably older than himself, tensified perception.-A. DE WATTE- Lady Theophila Lucy, he discovered VILLE, M.D., in The Fortnightly too late that she had previously beReview. come a Papist. In spite, however, of the gross deceit put upon him, and of the embarrassing fact that the married couple found themselves
THE ENGLISH NONJURORS. writing at the same time on opposite
IN TWO PARTS.-PART II. Having briefly traced the secession to its inglorious close, we turn back to particularize its more prominent members, whose ability, learning, or piety gave it somewhat of luster in its earlier period. Next after Ken, the one most affectionately remembered by English churchmen is the layman, Robert Nelson, the gentle and devout complexion of whose character was well indicated by the epithet commonly attached to his name by his friends, who familiarly spoke of him as "the pious Mr. Nelson." Born in 1656, he received an Anglican education under Dr. Bull, the future Bishop of St. Davids, and was admitted to the intimate friendship of Tillotson, who actually expired in his arms after a brief tenure of the primacy. The fortune and figure of the "handsome Englishman," as Nelson was called by the Queen of France when in the prime of his youth he was presented at her Court, pointing him out as fitted to grace the royal circle at Whitehall,
sides of the controversy with Rome, his amiable temperament enabled him to live in more than harmony with her, and for several years to watch tenderly, over her declining health. At the time of the Revolution he was on the Continent, but returning in 1691 he found it necessary to make his choice between the old Church and the Nonjuring secession. To a man of his reverent and submissive spirit the dilemma was a cruel one. To desert the national communion was a sore wrench to his feelings; to remain in it, and listen to the prayers for William and Mary, was an offence to his conscience. He consulted Tillotson, and the primate had no other advice to give than to impress upon him the impropriety of being present at prayers in which he could not sincerely join. Upon this Nelson reluctantly united himself to a small Nonjuring congregation, and lived quietly in close friendship with Kettlewell, one of the most esteemed members of the party, whose gentle temper was akin to his own. Happily for the Church, after Kettle
well's death in 1795 this inaction | sober judgment and practical good failed to satisfy Nelson, and, with- sense. His faculties seemed to be out formally withdrawing from the overburdened by the weight of his Nonjurors, he gradually renewed accumulated knowledge; the fuel his intercourse with many of the choked the fire rather than fed it. leading churchmen, in concert with It was of him that King William is whom he took a prominent part in reported to have said, "He has set founding the Christian Knowledge his heart on being a martyr, and I and Propagation Societies, and pro- have set mine on disappointing moting church-building, the refor- him." Irish by birth, he was edumation of manners, and other char- cated at Trinity College, Dublin, itable enterprises. In 1710 he felt and was elected to a fellowship; but himself able to return to the public being disinclined to take holy orders, worship of the old communion, and he vacated it in 1666, disinterestedly had the satisfaction of spending the declining on the ground of public remaining five years of his life in policy, to avail himself of the offer the beloved Church of his fathers. made by Bishop Jeremy Taylor, to He was ready with his pen, and obtain a dispensation for him. published several works of a relig- Transferring himself to England he ious character, which, if not brill- became a literary ally of Bishop iant or striking, are invariably Lloyd, who occupied successively thoughtful and devout. To sum the sees of St. Asaph and Worceshim up in a phrase, he was an ad- ter, and busied himself in historical mirable type of the old orthodox or researches as well as controversial moderately high-church school of divinity. The reputation which he Anglican religion, as far removed gradually acquired led to his election to the Camdenian Professorship of History at Oxford, at the beginning of the revolution year; but his tenure of it was short, for toward the close of 1691 he was deprived for refusing to swear allegiance to William and Mary, and retired to Cookham in Berkshire, where he spent the remaining twenty years of his life. From a Cautionary Discourse which he published at the time of his deprivation, we learn that he would have had no objection to undertake to live peaceably under the new sovereigns; his difficulty was that the oath, by requiring a positive fealty and allegiance, implicitly pledged those who took it to "maintain the life, limbs, and terrene honor of their liege lord, to keep his secrets, and discover plots against
from Romanism on one hand as from Puritanism on the other. The most popular book which he published, the Companion for the Festivals and Fasts, is almost a transcript of himself, and to this day has scarcely ceased to hold the rank which it quickly attained, as a classic and almost indispensable handbook of Church of England devotion.
Next to Nelson may be placed Henry Dodwell, also a layman, who for many years was the chief adviser of the moderate section of the Nonjurors, and adorned their little communion by the vast extent of his erudition. He had the reputation of being one of the most learned men in Europe, but a portion of his learning might have been profitably bargained away for a modicum of