Pagina-afbeeldingen
PDF
ePub

or less obtuse according to the degree of oblateness of the primitive spheroid.

It is at least possible that carbonate of lime and other substances, of which the forms are derived from regular rhomboids as their primitive form, may, in fact, consist of oblate spheroids as elementary particles.

It deserves to be remarked, that the conjecture to which we are thus led by a natural transition, from consideration of the most simple form of crystals, was long since entertained by Huyghens,* when treating of the oblique refraction of Iceland HUYGHENS spar, which he so skilfully analysed. The peculiar law observable in the refraction of light by that crystal, he found might be explained on the supposition of spheroidical undulations propagated through the substance of the spar, and these he thought might perhaps be owing to a spheroidical form of its particles, to which the disposition to split into the rhomboidal form might also be ascribed.

By some oversight, however, the proportion of the axes of such an elementary spheroid is erroneously stated to be i to 8; but this is probably an error of the press, instead of i to 2,8, for I find the proportion to be nearly 1 to 2,87. In fig. 15, F is the apex of a tetrahedron cut from an acute rhomboid similar to fluor spar, and the sections of two spheres are represented round the centres F and C. I is the apex of a corresponding portion cut from the summit of a rhomboid of Iceland spar, as composed of spheroids having the same diameter as the spheres. In the former, the inclination FCT of the edge of the tetrahedron to its base is 54° 44'; in the latter, he inclination ICT is 26° 15'; and the altitudes FT, IT are as

* HUYGHENII Op. Relig. Tom. I. Tract. de Lumine, p. 70.

a

the tangents of these angles 1414 to 493 :: 2,87 : 1, which also expresses the ratio of the axis of the sphere to that of the spheroid, or the proportional diameters of the generating ellipse.

Hexagonal Prisms. If our elementary spheroid be on the contrary oblong, instead of oblate, it is evident that by mutual attraction, their centres will approach nearest to each other when their axes are parallel, and their shortest diameters in the same plane (fig. 13.) The manifest consequence of this structure would be, that a solid so formed would be liable to split into plates at right angles to the axes, and the plates would divide into prisms of three or six sides with all their angles equal, as occurs in phosphate of lime, beryl, &c.

It may further be observed, that the proportion of the height to the base of such a prism must depend on the ratio between the axes of the elementary spheroid.

a

The Cube.

Although I could not expect that the sole supposition of spherical or spheroidical particles would explain the origin of all the forms observable among the more complicated crystals, still the hypothesis would have appeared defective, if it did not include some view of the mode in which so simple a form as the cube may originate.

A cube may evidently be put together of spherical particles arranged four and four above each other, but we have already seen that this is not the form which simple spheres are natu-. rally disposed to assume, and consequently this hypothesis alone is not adequate to its explanation, as Dr. Hooke had conceived.

Another obvious supposition is that the cube might be considered as a right angled rhomboid, resulting from the union of eight spheroids having a certain degree of oblateness (2 to 1) from which a rectangular form might be derived. But the cube so formed would not have the properties of the crystallographical cube. It is obvious, that, though all its diagonals would thus be equal, yet one axis parallel to that of the elementary spheroid would probably have properties different from the rest. The modifications of its crystalline form would probably not be alike in all directions as in the usual modifications of the cube, but would be liable to elongation in the direction of its original axis. And if such a crystal were electric, it would have but one pair of poles instead of having four pair, as in the crystals of boracite.

There is, however, an hypothesis which at least has simplicity to recommend it, and if it be not a just representation of the fact, it must be allowed to bear a happy resemblance to truth.

Let a mass of matter be supposed to consist of spherical particles all of the same size, but of two different kinds in equal numbers, represented by black and white balls; and let it be required that in their perfect intermixture every black ball shall be equally distant from all surrounding white balls, and that all adjacent balls of the same denomination shall also be equidistant from each other. I say then, that these conditions will be fulfilled, if the arrangement be cubical, and that the particles will be in equilibrio. Fig. 14 represents a cube so constituted of balls, alternately black and

white throughout. The four black balls are all in view. The distances of their centres being every way a superficial diagonal of the cube, they are equidistant, and their configuration represents a regular tetrahedron; and the same is the relative situation of the four white balls. The distances of dissimilar adjacent balls are likewise evidently equal; so that the conditions of their union are complete, as far as appears in the small

group: and this is a' correct representative of the entire mass, that would be composed of equal and similar cubes.

Since the crystalline form and electric qualities of boracite are perhaps unique, any. explanation of properties so peculiar can hardly be expected. It may, however, be remarked, that a possible origin of its four pair of poles may be traced in the structure here represented; for it will be seen that a white ball and a black one are regularly opposed to each other at the extremities of each axis of the cube.

An hypothesis of uniform intermixture of particle with particle, accords so well with the most recent views of binary combination in chemistry, that there can be no necessity, on the present occasion, to enter into any defence of that doctrine, as applied to this subject. And though the existence of ultimate physical atoms absolutely indivisible may require demonstration, their existence is by no means necessary to any hypothesis here advanced, which requires merely mathematical points endued with powers of attraction and repulsion equally on all sides, so that their extent is virtually spherical, for from the union of such particles the same solids will result as from the combination of spheres impenetrably hard.

There remains one observation with regard to the spherical form of elementary particles, whether a ctual or virtual, that must be regarded as favourable to the foregoing hypothesis, namely, that many of those substances, which we have most reason to think simple bodies, as among the class of metals, exhibit this further evidence of their simple nature, that they crystallize in the octohedral form, as they would do if their particles were spherical.

But it must, on the contrary, be acknowledged, that we can at present assign no reason why the same appearance of simplicity should take place in fluor spar, which is presumed to contain at least two elements; and it is evident that any attempts to trace a general correspondence between the crystallographical and supposed chemical elements of bodies must, in the present state of these sciences, be premature.

Note. A theory has lately been advanced * by M.Prechtl, which attempts to account for various crystalline forms from the different degrees of compression that soft spheres may be supposed to undergo in assuming the solid state. It is supposed, that with a certain degree of softness and of relative attraction, the particles will be surrounded each by four others, and will all be tetrahedral, although in fact it be demonstrably impossible that tetrahedrons alone should fill any space.

It is next supposed, that soft spheres less compressed will be surrounded by five others, and will be formed into triangular prisms, comprised under five similar and equal planes. That they should be similar is impossible, and it is further demonstrable, that when the triangular termination of such a

* Journal des Mines, No. 166.

« VorigeDoorgaan »