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capable of as many changes as there are different emotions in the mind, and of expressing them all by those changes. Nor is this to be done without the freedom of the eyes; therefore Theophrastus called one, who barely rehearsed his speech with his eyes fixed, an "absent actor."
As the countenance admits of so great variety, it requires also great judgment to govern it. Not that the form of the face is to be shifted on every occasion, lest it turn to farce and buffoonery; but it is certain that the eyes have a wonderful power of marking the emotions of the mind; sometimes by a steadfast look, sometimes by a careless one-now by a sudden regard, then by a joyful sparkling, as the sense of the words is diversified: for action is, as it were, the speech of the features and limbs, and must therefore conform itself always to the sentiments of the soul. And it may be observed, that in all which relates to the gesture there is a wonderful force implanted by nature; since the vulgar, the unskilful, and even the most barbarous, are chiefly affected by this. None are moved by the sound of words but those who understand the language; and the sense of many things is lost upon men of a dull apprehension: but action is a kind of universal tongue: all men are subject to the same passions, and consequently know the same marks of them in others, by which they themselves express them.
Perhaps some of my readers may be of opinion that the hints I have here made use of out of Cicero are somewhat too refined for the players on our theatre: in answer to which I venture to lay it down as a maxim, that without good sense no one can be a good player, and that he is very unfit to personate the dignity of a Roman hero who cannot enter into the rules for pronunciation and gesture delivered by a Roman orator,
There is another thing which my author does not think too minute to insist on, though it is purely mechanical: and that is the right pitching of the voice. On this occasion he tells the story of Gracchus, who employed a servant with a little ivory pipe to stand behind him, and give him the right pitch, as often as he wandered too far from the proper modulation. "Every voice," says Tully, "has its particular medium and compass, and the sweetness of speech consists in leading it through all the variety of tones naturally, and without touching any extreme. Therefore," says he, "leave the pipe at home, but carry the sense of this custom with you."
No. 542.] FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 21, 1712.
OVID, Met. ii. 430.
love nothing more than to mortify the ill-natured, that I may do it effectually, I must acquaint them they have very often praised me when they did not design it, and that they have approved my writings when they thought they had derogated from them. I have heard several of these unhappy gentlemen proving, by undeniable arguments, that I was not able to pen a letter which I had written the day before. Nay, I have heard some of them throwing out ambiguous expressions, and giving the company reason to suspect that they themselves did me the honour to send me such and such a particular epistle, which happened to be talked of with the esteem or approbation of those who were present. These rigid crities are so afraid of allowing me any thing which does not belong to me, that they will not be positive whether the lion, the wild boar, and the flower-pots in the play-house, did not actually write those letters which came to me in their names. I must therefore inform these gentlemen, that I often choose this way of casting my thoughts into a letter, for the following reasons:-First, out of the policy of those who try their jest upon another, before they own it themselves. Secondly, because I would extort a little praise from such who will never applaud any thing whose author is known and certain. Thirdly, because it gave me an opportunity of introducing a great variety of characters into my work, which could not have been done had I always written in the person of the Spectator. Fourthly, because the dignity spectatorial would have suffered had I published as from myself those several ludicrous compositions which I have ascribed to fictitious names and characters. And lastly, because they often serve to bring in more naturally such additional reflections as have been placed at the end of them.
There are others who have likwise done me a very particular honour, though undesignedly. These are such who will needs have it that I have translated or borrowed many of my thoughts out of books which are written in other languages. I have heard of a person, who is more famous for his library than his learning, that has asserted this more than once in his private conversation.* Were it true, I am sure he could not speak it from his own knowledge; but, had he read the books which he has collected, he would find this accusation to be wholly groundless. Those who are truly learned will acquit me in this point, in which I have been so far from offending, that I have been scrupulous, perhaps to a fault, in quoting the authors of several passages which I might have made my own. But, as this assertion is in reality an encomium on what I have published, I ought rather to glory in it than endeavour to confute it.
He heard, Well pleas'd, himself before himself preferr'd.-ADDISON. Some are so very willing to alienate from me WHEN I have been present in assemblies, where that small reputation which might accrue to me from my paper has been talked of, I have been very well any of these my speculations, that they attribute pleased to hear those who would detract from the some of the best of them to those imaginary manuauthor of it observe, that the letters which are sent scripts with which I have introduced them. There to the Spectator are as good, if not better, than any are others, I must confess, whose objections have of his works. Upon this occasion many letters of given me a greater concern, as they seem to reflect, mirth are usually mentioned, which some think the under this head, rather on my morality than on my Spectator writ to himself, and which others com- invention. These are they who say an author is mend because they fancy he received them from his guilty of falsehood, when he talks to the public of correspondents. Such are those from the valetudi-manuscripts which he never saw, or describes scenes narian: the inspector of the sign-posts; the master of action or discourse in which he was never enof the fan exercise; with that of the hooped petti- gaged. But these gentlemen would do well to concoat; that of Nicholas Hart the annual sleeper; that from Sir John Envil; that upon the London Cries; with multitudes of the same nature. As I
* The person here alluded to was most probably Mr. ThoFolio, in the Tatler, No. 158. mas Rawlinson, ridiculed by Addison under the name of Tom
sider, there is not a fable or parable, which ever human body. Galen was converted by his disser was made use of, that is not liable to this exception; tions, and could not but own a Supreme Being upon since nothing, according to this notion, can be re-a survey of this his handy-work. There were, inlated innocently, which was not once matter of fact. Besides, I think the most ordinary reader may be able to discover, by my way of writing, what I deliver in these occurrences as truth, and what as fiction.
Since I am unawares engaged in answering the several objections which have been made against these my works, I must take notice that there are some who affirm a paper of this nature should always turn upon diverting subjects, and others who find fault with every one of them that hath not an immediate tendency to the advancement of religion or learning. I shall leave these gentlemen to dispute it among themselves; since I see one half of my conduct patronized by each side. Were I serious on an improper subject, or trifling in a serious one, I should deservedly draw upon me the censure of my readers; or, were I conscious of any thing in my writings that is not innocent at least, or that the greatest part of them were not sincerely designed to discountenance vice and ignorance, and support the interest of truth, wisdom, and virtue, I should be more severe upon myself than the public is disposed to be. In the meanwhile I desire my reader to consider every particular paper or discourse as a distinct tract by itself, and independent of every thing that goes before or after it.
I shall end this paper with the following letter, which was really sent me, as some others have been which I have published, and for which I must own myself indebted to their respective writers :
deed, many parts, of which the old anatomists did not know the certain use; but, as they saw that most of those which they examined were adapted with admirable art to their several functions, they did not question but those, whose uses they could not determine, were contrived with the same wisdom for respective ends and purposes. Since the circu lation of the blood has been found out, and many other great discoveries have been made by our mo dern anatomists, we see new wonders in the human frame, and discern several important uses for those parts, which uses the ancients knew nothing of. In short, the body of man is such a subject as stands the utmost test of examination. Though it appears formed with the nicest wisdom, upon the most superficial survey of it, it still mends upon the search, and produces our surprise and amazement in proportion as we pry into it. What I have here said of a human body may be applied to the body of every animal which has been the subject of anatomical observations.
The body of an animal is an object adequate to our senses. It is a particular system of Providence that lies in a narrow compass. The eye is able to command it, and by successive inquiries can search into all its parts. Could the body of the whole earth, or indeed the whole universe, be thus submitted to the examination of our senses, were it not too big and disproportioned for our inquiries, too unwieldy for the management of the eye and hand, there is no question but it would appear to us as curious and well contrived a frame as that of a human body. We should see the same concatenation and subserviency, the same necessity and usefulness, the same beauty and harmony, in all and every of its parts, as what we discover in the body of every single animal.
"I was this morning in a company of your wellwishers, when we read over, with great satisfaction, Tully's observation on action adapted to the British theatre: though, by the way, we were very sorry to find that you have disposed of another member of your The more extended our reason is, and the more club. Poor Sir Roger is dead, and the worthy able to grapple with immense objects, the greater clergyman dying: Captain Sentry has taken pos- still are those discoveries which it makes of wisdom session of a good estate: Will Honeycomb has mar- and providence in the works of the creation. A Sir ried a farmer's daughter and the Templar with- Isaac Newton, who stands up as the miracle of the draws himself into the business of his own profes- present age, can look through a whole planetary 'sion. What will all this end in? We are afraid it system; consider it in its weight, number, and mes portends no good to the public. Unless you very sure; and draw from it as many demonstrations of speedily fix the day for the election of new mem- infinite power and wisdom, as a more confined unbers, we are under apprehensions of losing the Bri-derstanding is able to deduce from the system of a tish Spectator. I hear of a party of ladies who human body. intend to address you on this subject; and question not, if you do not give us the slip very suddenly, that you will receive addresses from all parts of the kingdom to continue so useful a work. Pray deliver us out of this perplexity; and, among the multitude of your readers, your will particularly oblige
"Your most sincere Friend and Servant, PHILO-SPEC."
But to return to our speculations on anatomy, shall here consider the fabric and texture of the bodies of animals in one particular view: which, in my opinion, shows the hand of a thinking and allwise Being in their formation, with the evidence of a thousand demonstrations. I think we may lay this down as an incontested principle, that chance never acts in a perpetual uniformity and consistence with itself. If one should always fling the same number with ten thousand dice, or see every throw
No. 513.] SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 22, 1712. just five times less, or five times more in number,
Facies non omnibus una,
Nec diversa tamen -- OVID, Met. ii. 12.
than the throw which immediately preceded it, who would not imagine there is some invisible power which directs the cast? This is the proceeding THOSE who were skilful in anatomy, among the which we find in the operations of nature. Every ancients, concluded, from the outward and inward kind of animal is diversified by different magnimake of a human body, that it was the work of a tudes, each of which give rise to a different species. Being transcendently wise and powerful. As the Let a man trace the dog or lion kind, and he will world grew more enlightened in this art, their dis-observe how many of the works of nature are pubcoveries gave them fresh opportunities of admiring lished, if I may use the expression, in a variety of the conduct of Providence in the formation of a editions. If we look into the reptile world, or into
those different kinds of animals that fill the element of water, we meet with the same repetitions among several species, that differ very little from one another, but in size and bulk. You find the same creature that is drawn at large copied out in several proportions and ending in miniature. It would be tedious to produce instances of this regular conduct in Providence, as it would be superfluous to those who are versed in the natural history of animals. The magnificent harmony of the universe is such, that we may observe innumerable divisions running upon the same ground. I might also extend this speculation to the dead parts of nature, in which we may find matter disposed into many similar systems, as well in our survey of stars and planets, as of stones, vegetables, and other sublunary parts of the creation. In a word, Providence has shown the richness of its goodness and wisdom, not only in the production of many original species, but in the multiplicity of descants which it has made on every original species in particular.
carry this consideration yet further, if we reflect on the two sexes in every living species, with their resemblances to each other, and those particular distinctions that were necessary for the keeping up of this great world of life.
There are many more demonstrations of a Supreme Being, and of his transcendent wisdom, power, and goodness, in the formation of the body of a living creature, for which I refer my reader to other writings, particularly to the sixth book of the poem entitled Creation. where the anatomy of the human body is described with great perspicuity and elegance. I have been particular on the thought which runs through this speculation, because I have not seen it enlarged upon by others.-O.
No. 544.1 MONDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 1712.
But to pursue this thought still further. Every living creature considered in itself has many very No man was ever so completely skilled in the conduct of life,
as not to receive new information from age and experience; insomuch that we find ourselves really ignorant of what we thought we understood, and see cause to reject what we fancied our truest interest.
THERE are, I think, sentiments in the following letter from my friend Captain Sentry, which discover a rational and equal frame of mind, as well prepared for an advantageous as an unfortunate change of condition :
"Coverley-hall, Nov. 15, Worcestershire
complicated parts that are exact copies of some other parts which it possesses, and which are complicated in the same manner. One eve would have been sufficient for the subsistence and preservation of an animal; but, in order to better his condition we see another placed with a mathematical exactness in the same most advantageous situation, and in every particular of the same size and texture. Is it possible for chance to be thus delicate and uniform in her operations? Should a million of dice "SIR, turn up twice together the same number, the wonder would be nothing in comparison with this. But honoured kinsman, Sir Roger de Coverley; and I "I am come to the succession of the estate of my when we see this similitude and resemblance in the arm, the hand, the fingers; when we see one half assure you I find it no easy task to keep up the of the body entirely correspond with the other in figure of master of the fortune which was so handall those minute strokes, without which a man might not (with respect to the great obligations I have, somely enjoyed by that honest plain man. have very well subsisted; nay, when we often see a be it spoken) reflect upon his character, but I am single part repeated a hundred times in the same confirmed in the truth which I have, I think, heard body notwithstanding it consists of the most intri-spoken at the club; to wit, that a man of a warm eate weaving of numberless fibres, and these parts and well-disposed heart, with a very small capacity, differing still in magnitude, as the convenience of is highly superior in human society to him who with their particular situation requires; sure a man must the greatest talents, is cold and languid in his affechave a strange cast of understanding, who does not tions. But alas! why do I make a difficulty in discover the finger of God in so wonderful a work. These duplicates in those parts of the body, without which a man might have very well subsisted, though not so well as with them, are a plain demonstration
speaking of my worthy ancestor's failings? His of the politest men are dead with him, and his little absurdities and incapacity for the conversation greater qualities are even now useful to him. I of an all-wise Contriver, as those more numerous copyings which are found among the vessels of the not enhance his merit, since he has left behind him know not whether by naming those disabilities I do same body, are evident demonstrations that they could not be the work of chance. This argument the pains of the wisest man's whole life to arrive at. a reputation in his country, which would be worth receives additional strength, if we apply it to every By the way, I must observe to you, that many of animal and insect within our knowledge, as well as to those numberless living creatures that are objects writings, wherein Sir Roger is reported to have inyour readers have mistook that passage in your too minute for a human eye: and if we consider how the several species in this whole world of life quired into the private character of the young woresemble one another in very many particulars, so circumstance as an instance of the simplicity and man at the tavern. I know you mentioned that far as is convenient for their respective states of ex-innocence of his mind, which made him imagine it istence, it is much more probable that a hundred a very easy thing to reclaim one of those criminals, millions of dice should be casually thrown a hun- and not as an inclination in him to be guilty with dred millions of times in the same number, than her. The less discerning of your readers cannot that the body of any single animal should be pro- enter into that delicacy of description in the characduced by the fortuitous concourse of matter. And ter: but indeed my chief business at this time is to that the like chance should arise in innumerable in-represent to you my present state of mind, and the stances, requires a degree of credulity that is not satisfaction I promise to myself in the possession
under the direction of common sense. We may of my new fortune. I have continued all Sir Ro
Meant perhaps for " descents," i e. progress downwards. -JOHNSON.
ger's servants, except such as it was a relief to dis
Creation. A poem by Sir Richard Blackmore.
miss into little beings within my manor. Those who are in a list of the good knight's own hand to be taken care of by me, I have quartered upon such as have taken new leases of me, and added so many advantages during the lives of the persons so quartered, that it is the interest of those whom they are joined with to cherish and befriend them upon all occasions. I find a considerable sum of ready money, which I am laying out among my dependants at the common interest, but with a design to lend it according to their merit, rather than according to their ability. I shall lay a tax upon such as I have highly obliged, to become security to me for such of their own poor youth, whether male or female, as want help towards getting into some being in the world. I hope I shall be able to manage my affairs so as to improve my fortune every year by doing acts of kindness. I will lend my money to the use of none but indigent men, secured by such as have ceased to be indigent by the favour of my family or myself. What makes this the more practicable is, that if they will do any one good with my money, they are welcome to it upon their own security: and I make no exception against it, because the persons who enter into the obligations do it for their own family. I have laid out four thousand pounds this way, and it is not to be imagined what a crowd of people are obliged by it. In cases where Sir Roger has recommended, I have lent money to put out children, with a clause which makes void the obligation in case the infant dies before he is out of his apprenticeship; by which means the kindred and masters are extremely careful of breeding him to industry, that he may repay it himself by his labour, in three years' journey-work after his time is out, for the use of his securities. Opportunities of this kind are all that have occurred since I came to my estate but I assure you I will preserve a constant disposition to catch at all the occasions I can to promote the good and happiness of my neighbourhood.
"But give me leave to lay before you a little establishment which has grown out of my past life, that I doubt not will administer great satisfaction to me in that part of it, whatever that is, which is
and will please from time to time to sojourn all, er any part of the year, at Coverley. Such of them as will do me that honour shall find horses, servants, and all things necessary for their accommodation and enjoyment of all the conveniences of life in a pleasant various country. If Colonel Camperfelt be in town, and his abilities are not employed an other way in the service, there is no man would be more welcome here. That gentleman's thorough knowledge in his profession, together with the simplicity of his manners and goodness of his heart, would induce others like him to honour my abode; and I should be glad my acquaintance would take themselves to be invited or not, as their characters have an affinity to his.
"I would have all my friends know, that they need not fear (though I am become a country gen tleman) I will trespass against their temperance and sobriety. No, Sir, I shall retain so much of the good sentiments for the conduct of life, which we cultivated in each other at our club, as to contemn all inordinate pleasures; but particularly remember, with our beloved Tully, that the delight in food consists in desire, not satiety. They who most pas. sionately pursue pleasure seldomest arrive at it. Now I am writing to a philosopher I cannot forbear mentioning the satisfaction I took in the pas sage I read yesterday in the same Tully. A nobleman of Athens made a compliment to Plate the morning after he had supped at his house: 'Your entertainments do not only please when you give them, but also the day after.'
"I am, my worthy Friend, "Your most obedient humble Servant, "WILLIAM Sentry,"
No. 545.] TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 25, 1712.
I CANNOT but think the following letter from the Emperor of China to the Pope of Rome, proposing a coalition of the Chinese and Roman churches, will "There is a prejudice in favour of the way of life be acceptable to the curious. I must confess, I wy to which a man has been educated, which I know self being of opinion that the Emperor has as much not whether it would not be faulty to overcome. It authority to be interpreter to him he pretends to is like a partiality to the interest of one's own coun- expound, as the Pope has to be vicar of the sacred try before that of any other nation. It is from a person he takes upon him to represent, I was not a habit of thinking, grown upon me from my youth little pleased with their treaty of alliance. What spent in arms, that I have ever held gentlemen, progress the negotiation between his majesty of who have preserved modesty, good-nature, justice, Rome and his holiness of China makes (as we daily and humanity, in a soldier's life, to be the most writers say upon subjects where we are at a loss), valuable and worthy persons of the human race. time will let us know. In the mean time, ace To pass through imminent dangers, suffer painful they agree in the fundamentals of power and autho watchings, frightful alarms, and laborious marches,rity, and differ only in matters of faith, we may exfor the greater part of a man's time, and pass the pect the matter will go on without difficulty. rest in sobriety conformable to the rules of the most virtuous civil life, is a merit too great to deserve the treatment it usually meets with among the other part of the world. But I assure you, Sir, were there not very many who have this worth, we could never have seen the glorious events which we have in our days. I need not say more to illustrate the character of a soldier than to tell you he is the very contrary to him you observe loud, saucy, and overbearing, in a red coat about town. But I was going to tell you that, in honour of the profession of arms, I have set apart a certain sum of money for a table for such gentlemen as have served their country in the army,
Copia di lettera del re della China al Papa, inter pretata dal padre segretario dell' India della compagna di Giesu.
"A voi benedetto sopra i benedetti P. P. et imperadore grande de pontifici e pastore Xmo, dispensatore del' oglio de ire d' Europa, Clemente XI
"Il favorito amico di Dio Gionata 7°, potentissimo sopra tutti i potentissimi della terra, altissimo
to the father of the late worthy Admiral Kempenfelt, who a Colonel Camperfelt. Spect. in folio. A fine compliment drowned in the Royal George at Spithead, Aug. 29, 1762.
bishops and pastor of Christians, dispenser of the oil of the kings of Europe, Clement XI.
VIIth, the most powerful above the most powerful The favourite friend of God, Gionetta the of the carth, highest above the highest under the sun and moon, who sits on a throne of emerald of
China, above 100 steps of gold, to interpret the language of God to the faithful, and who gives life and death to 115 kingdoms, and 170 islands; he writes with the quill of a virgin ostrich, and sends health and increase of old age.
sopra tutti gl' altissimi sotto il sole e la luna, che séde nella sede di smeraldo della China sópra cento scalini d'oro, ad interpretare la lingua di Dio a tutti i descendenti fedeli d' Abramo, chi da la vita e la morte a cento quindici regni, ed a cento settante isole, scrive con la penna dello struzzo vergine, e manda salute ed accresimento di vecchiezza. "Essendo arrivato il tempo in cui il fiore della reale nostra gioventu deve maturare i frutti della nostra vecchiezza, e confortare con quell' i desiderii dei populi nostri divoti, e propagare il seme di quella pianta che deve proteggerli, habbiamo stabillito d'accompagnarci con una vergine eccelsa ed the flower of our royal youth ought to ripen into Being arrived at the time of our age, in which amorosa allattata alla mamella della leonessa forte e fruit towards old age, to comfort therewith the desire dell' agnella mansueta. Percio essendoci stato figu- of our devoted people, and to propagate the seed of rato sempre il vostro populo Europeo Romano per that plant which must protect them: we have deterpaese di donne invitte, e forte, e caste; allongiamo la mined to accompany ourselves with a high amorous nostra mano potente, a stringere una di loro, e questa virgin, suckled at the breast of a wild lioness, and sarà una vostra nipote, o nipote di qualche altro grana meek lamb; and, imagining with ourselves that sacerdote Latino, che sia guardata dall' occhio dritto di Dio, sarà seminata in lei l'autorita di Sarra, la fedelta d' Esther, e la sapienza di Abba; la vogliamo con l'occhio della colomba che guarda il cielo, e la terra, e con la bocca della conchiglia che si pasce della ruggiada del matino. La sua eta non passi ducento corsi della luna, la sua statura sia alta quanto la spicca dritta del grano verde, e la sua grossezza quanto un manipolo di grano secco. daremmo a vestire per li nostri mandatici ambasNoi la manciadori, e chi la conduranno a noi, e noi incontraremmo alla riva del fiume grande facendola salire su nostro cocchio. Ella potra adorare appresso di noi il suo Dio, con venti quattro altre vergini a sua ellezzione e potra cantare con loro, come la tottora alla primavera.
"Sodisfando O padre e amico nostro questa nostra brama, sarete caggione di unire in perpetua amicitia cotesti vostri regni d'Europa al nostro dominante imperio, e si abbracciranno le vostri leggi come l'edera abbraccia la pianta; e noi medesemi spargeremo del nostro seme reale in coteste provinci, riscaldando i letti di vostri principi con il fuoco amoroso delle nostre amazoni, d' alcune delle quali i nostri mandatici ambasciadori vi porteranno le somiglianze dipinte.
"Vi confirmiamo di tenere in pace le due buone religiose famiglie delli missionarii gli' figlioli d' Ig. nazio, e li bianchi e neri figlioli di Dominico, il cui consiglio degl' uni e degl' altri ci serve di scorta nel nostro regimento e di lume ad interpretare le divine legge, come appuncto fa lume l' oglio che si getta
"In tanto alzandoci dal nostro trono per abbracciarvi, vi dichiariamo nostro congiunto e confederato, ed ordiniamo che questo foglio sia segnato col nostro segno imperial della nostra citta, capo del mondo, il quinto giorno della terza lunatione l' anno quarto del nostro imperio.
"Sigillo è un sole nella cui faccia è anche quella Jella luna ed intorno tra i raggi vi sono traposte alcune spade.
"Dico il traduttore che secondo il ceremonial di questo lettere e recedentissimo specialmente fessere scritto con la penna della struzzo-vergine con la quella non soglionsi scrivere quei re che le pregiere a Dio e scrivendo a qualche altro principe del mondo, la maggior finezza che usino, e scrivergli con la penna del pavone."
A letter from the Emperor of China to the Pope, in-
your European Roman people is the father of many powerful arm to embrace one of them, and she shall unconquerable and chaste ladies, we stretch out our be one of your nieces, or the niece of some other great Latin priest, the darling of God's right eye. fidelity of Esther, and the wisdom of Abba. We Let the authority of Sarah be sown in her, the would have her eye like that of a dove, which may shell-fish to feed upon the dew of the morning; her look upon heaven and earth, with the mouth of a her stature be equal to that of an ear of green corn, age must not exceed 200 courses of the moon: let and her girth a handful.
clothe her,, and to conduct her to us, and we will to leap up into our chariot. She may with us wormeet her on the bank of the great river, making her ship her own God, together with twenty-four virgins of her own choosing; and she may sing with them as the turtle in the spring.
"We will send our mandarines ambassadors to
our desire, may be an occasion of uniting in perpe"You, O father and friend, complying with this tual friendship our high empire with your European kingdoms, and we may embrace your laws as the ivy embraces the tree; and we ourselves may scatter chief of your princes with the amorous fire of our our royal blood into your provinces, warming the amazons, the resembling pictures of some of which our said mandarines ambassadors shall convey to you.
"We exhort you to keep in peace two good reliIgnatius, and the white and black sons of Dominicus; gious families of missionaries, the black sons of that the counsel, both of the one and the other, may serve as a guide to us in our government, and a light to interpret the divine law, as the oil cast into the sea produces light.
brace you, we declare you our ally and confederate;, "To conclude, we rising up in our throne to emperial signet, in our royal city the head of the world, and have ordered this leaf to be sealed with our imthe eighth day of the third lunation, and the fourth year of our reign."
Letters from Rome say, the whole conversation both among gentlemen and ladies has turned upon the subject of this epistle, ever since it arrived. The Jesuit who translated it says, it loses much of the majesty of the original in the Italian. It seems there was an offer of the same nature made by a
predecessor of the present Emperor to Lewis XIII. of France; but no lady of that court would take the voyage, that sex not being at that time so much used,